Abstract

We extend a new visual-error criterion for achromatic images to color images. After the tristimulus planes are transformed to a luminance-compatible color space, the achromatic-error criterion is used for the luminance plane and the squared-error criterion is used for the two chromatic planes taken together. The optimal linear estimator for the resulting color-image-error criterion is compared against a purely squared-error criterion in the task of reconstructing color images degraded by varying amounts of additive noise. The images restored with the new error criterion appeared sharper and truer in fine detail. Except for the least and most noisy cases, in which no clear preference was found, viewers of the cathode-ray-tube display unanimously preferred these restorations over the comparatively fuzzy squared-error ones, despite a grainier appearance. These results are consistent with the previous ones found with the new visual-error criterion for achromatic images only. Through this extension to color images and the good results in restoring noisy images, we have found an error criterion that shows promise for applications in color-image processing.

© 1982 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. A. Pearlman, "A visual system model and a new distortion measure in the context of image processing," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 374–386 (1978).
  2. W. K. Pratt, Digital Image Processing (Wiley, New York, 1978).
  3. S. L. Guth, R. W. Massof, and T. Benzchawel, "Vector model for normal and dichromatic color vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 197–212 (1980).
  4. P. Gouras and E. Zrenner, "The neural organization of primate color vision," Color Res. Appl. 7 (to be published).
  5. W. K. Pratt, "Spatial transform coding of color images," IEEE Trans. Commun. Technol. CT-19, 980–992 (1971).
  6. G. Wyszecki and W. G. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967).
  7. J. J. Vos, "Line elements and physiological models of color vision," Color Res. Appl. 4, 208–216 (1979).
  8. J. O. Limb, "Digital coding of color video signals—a review," IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-25, 1349–1384 (1977).
  9. As the complex coefficients of the DFT have the Hermitian symmetry Y˜(k) = Y˜*(N - k), only one coefficient in each Hermitian pair is nonredundant.
  10. Because of limitations imposed by cost, Figs. 2–9 are reproduced in black and white. The author will provide a full set of color photographs on request.

1980 (1)

1979 (1)

J. J. Vos, "Line elements and physiological models of color vision," Color Res. Appl. 4, 208–216 (1979).

1978 (1)

1977 (1)

J. O. Limb, "Digital coding of color video signals—a review," IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-25, 1349–1384 (1977).

1971 (1)

W. K. Pratt, "Spatial transform coding of color images," IEEE Trans. Commun. Technol. CT-19, 980–992 (1971).

Benzchawel, T.

Gouras, P.

P. Gouras and E. Zrenner, "The neural organization of primate color vision," Color Res. Appl. 7 (to be published).

Guth, S. L.

Limb, J. O.

J. O. Limb, "Digital coding of color video signals—a review," IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-25, 1349–1384 (1977).

Massof, R. W.

Pearlman, W. A.

Pratt, W. K.

W. K. Pratt, "Spatial transform coding of color images," IEEE Trans. Commun. Technol. CT-19, 980–992 (1971).

W. K. Pratt, Digital Image Processing (Wiley, New York, 1978).

Stiles, W. G.

G. Wyszecki and W. G. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967).

Vos, J. J.

J. J. Vos, "Line elements and physiological models of color vision," Color Res. Appl. 4, 208–216 (1979).

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki and W. G. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967).

Zrenner, E.

P. Gouras and E. Zrenner, "The neural organization of primate color vision," Color Res. Appl. 7 (to be published).

Color Res. Appl. (1)

J. J. Vos, "Line elements and physiological models of color vision," Color Res. Appl. 4, 208–216 (1979).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

J. O. Limb, "Digital coding of color video signals—a review," IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-25, 1349–1384 (1977).

IEEE Trans. Commun. Technol. (1)

W. K. Pratt, "Spatial transform coding of color images," IEEE Trans. Commun. Technol. CT-19, 980–992 (1971).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Other (5)

P. Gouras and E. Zrenner, "The neural organization of primate color vision," Color Res. Appl. 7 (to be published).

W. K. Pratt, Digital Image Processing (Wiley, New York, 1978).

As the complex coefficients of the DFT have the Hermitian symmetry Y˜(k) = Y˜*(N - k), only one coefficient in each Hermitian pair is nonredundant.

Because of limitations imposed by cost, Figs. 2–9 are reproduced in black and white. The author will provide a full set of color photographs on request.

G. Wyszecki and W. G. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967).

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