Abstract

The isotope shifts in the 283.3-nm resonance line of natural lead were measured by atomic-beam absorption spectroscopy with a 9.1-m focal-length spectrometer. The spectrum was calibrated internally by the measured 6<i>p</i>7<i>s</i><sup>3</sup><i>P</i>°<sub>1</sub> hfs separation of <sup>207</sup>Pb [J.-L. Cojan and H. R. Saussereau, C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. B 277, 415 (1973)] and by the value calculated from the level-crossing results of Saloman and Happer [Phys. Rev. 144, 7 (1966)] and <i>gj</i> of Rudi-Saussereau <i>et al.</i> [Opt. Commun. 9, 186 (1973)]. The isotope shifts relative to <sup>208</sup>Pb are -46.6(6), <sup>207</sup>Pb center of gravity; -74.5(6), <sup>206</sup>Pb; -142(3), <sup>204</sup>Pb. The values are in units of 0.001 cm<sup>-1</sup>, the negative sign indicating a shift to lower wave numbers. The precision is nearly 1 order of magnitude greater than that of previous measurements.

© 1982 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Jacquinot and R. Klapisch, "Hyperfine spectroscopy of radioactive atoms," Rep. Prog. Phys. 42, 773–832 (1979).
  2. O. Redi, "Atomic spectra for nuclear studies. New techniques of hyperfine spectroscopy," Phys. Today 34(25), 26–33 (1981).
  3. H. H. Stroke, D. Proetel, and H.-J. Kluge, "Odd-even staggering in mercury isotope shifts: evidence for Coriolis effects in particle-core coupling," Phys. Lett. 82B, 204–207 (1979).
  4. H. Kopfermann, Über die Kernmomente der drei Bleiisotope," Z. Phys. 75, 363–379 (1932).
  5. J. L. Rose and L. P. Granath, "The hyperfine structure of lead," Phys. Rev. 40, 760–778 (1932).
  6. T. E. Manning, C. E. Anderson, and W. W. Watson, "Isotope shift in the spectrum of natural lead," Phys. Rev. 78, 417–419 (1950).
  7. K. Murakawa, "On some regularities in the isotope effect in the spectrum of lead. Part II," J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 8, 383–387 (1953).
  8. G. F. Fülöp, C.-S. O, and H. H. Stroke, "Method for accumulating high-resolution optical spectra by repetitive photoelectric scanning," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 48, 1550–1554 (1977).
  9. R. Minkowski and H. Bruck, "Die Intenstitätsverteilung der im Molekularstrahl erzeugten Spektrallinien," Z. Phys. 95, 274–283 (1935); H. Kopfermann, Nuclear Moments (Academic, New York, 1958), pp. 89–91.
  10. G. W. Stroke, "Diffraction gratings" in Handbuch der Physik, S. Flügge, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1967), Vol. XXIX, pp. 426–754.
  11. D. W. Marquardt, "An algorithm for least-squares estimation of nonlinear parameters," J. Soc. Ind. Appl. Math. 11, 431–441 (1963).
  12. P. R. Bevington, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969), pp. 237–240.
  13. F. Moscatelli, R. L. Wiggins, O. Redi, and H. H. Stroke, "Nuclear charge distribution systematics from isotope shifts in the lead region," presented at Seventh International Conference on Atomic Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., August 4–8, 1980.
  14. J.-L. Cojan and H. R. Saussereau, "Measure de la structure hyperfine des niveaux (6s26p7s) 3P1 et (6s26p2)3P2 de l'isotope 207 du plomb," C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. B 277, 415 (1973).
  15. E. B. Saloman and W. Happer, "Lifetime, coherence narrowing, and hyperfine structure of the (6s26p7s) 31state in lead," Phys. Rev. 144, 7 (1966).
  16. H. Rudi-Saussereau, J.-L. Cojan, and J.-P. Barrat, "Facteur de Landé du niveau (6s26p7s) 3P1 du plomb et constante de structure hyperfine de l'isotope 207Pb dans ce niveau, "Opt. Commun. 9, 186 (1973).
  17. G. Schatz, Institut für Angewandte Kernphysik II, Kernforschungszentrum, Postfach 3640, D7500 Karlsruhe 1, Federal Republic of Germany (personal communication, November 1981). We are grateful to Professor Schatz for making available his results before publication.
  18. E. C. Seltzer, "K x-ray isotope shifts," Phys. Rev. 188, 1916–1919 (1969).
  19. H. Heilig and A. Steudel, "Changes in mean-square nuclear charge radii from optical isotope shifts," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 14, 613–638 (1974).
  20. A. Timmerman, "High resolution two-photon spectroscopy of the 6p2 3P0–7p 3P0 transition in stable lead isotopes," Z. Phys. A 296, 93–94 (1980).
  21. J. Blaise, "Recherches sur le déplacement isotopique dans les spectres atomiques des eléments lourds," Ann. Phys. (Paris) 3, 1019–1076 (1958).
  22. P. L. Lee and F. Boehm, "X-ray isotope shifts and variations of nuclear charge radii in isotopes of Nd, Sm, Dy, Yb, and Pb," Phys. Rev. C 8, 819–828 (1973).
  23. G. L. Borchert, O. W. B. Schult, J. Speth, P. G. Hansen, B. Jonson, H. Ravn, and J. B. McGrory, "Study of the charge radii of the stable lead isotopes," presented at Fourth International Conference on Nuclei Far from Stability (Helsingør, Denmark, June 7–13, 1981).
  24. F. Boehm and P. L. Lee, "Changes of mean-square nuclear charge radii from isotope shifts of electronic Kα x-rays," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 14, 605–611 (1974).
  25. I. Lindgren, A. Timmermann, and E. Matthias, "Isotope shift of the 6p23P0‐6p7p 3P0 two-quantum transition in lead," presented at European Conference on Atomic Physics, Physikalisches Institut der Universität, Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany, 1981.

1981 (1)

O. Redi, "Atomic spectra for nuclear studies. New techniques of hyperfine spectroscopy," Phys. Today 34(25), 26–33 (1981).

1980 (1)

A. Timmerman, "High resolution two-photon spectroscopy of the 6p2 3P0–7p 3P0 transition in stable lead isotopes," Z. Phys. A 296, 93–94 (1980).

1979 (2)

H. H. Stroke, D. Proetel, and H.-J. Kluge, "Odd-even staggering in mercury isotope shifts: evidence for Coriolis effects in particle-core coupling," Phys. Lett. 82B, 204–207 (1979).

P. Jacquinot and R. Klapisch, "Hyperfine spectroscopy of radioactive atoms," Rep. Prog. Phys. 42, 773–832 (1979).

1977 (1)

G. F. Fülöp, C.-S. O, and H. H. Stroke, "Method for accumulating high-resolution optical spectra by repetitive photoelectric scanning," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 48, 1550–1554 (1977).

1974 (2)

H. Heilig and A. Steudel, "Changes in mean-square nuclear charge radii from optical isotope shifts," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 14, 613–638 (1974).

F. Boehm and P. L. Lee, "Changes of mean-square nuclear charge radii from isotope shifts of electronic Kα x-rays," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 14, 605–611 (1974).

1973 (3)

P. L. Lee and F. Boehm, "X-ray isotope shifts and variations of nuclear charge radii in isotopes of Nd, Sm, Dy, Yb, and Pb," Phys. Rev. C 8, 819–828 (1973).

J.-L. Cojan and H. R. Saussereau, "Measure de la structure hyperfine des niveaux (6s26p7s) 3P1 et (6s26p2)3P2 de l'isotope 207 du plomb," C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. B 277, 415 (1973).

H. Rudi-Saussereau, J.-L. Cojan, and J.-P. Barrat, "Facteur de Landé du niveau (6s26p7s) 3P1 du plomb et constante de structure hyperfine de l'isotope 207Pb dans ce niveau, "Opt. Commun. 9, 186 (1973).

1969 (1)

E. C. Seltzer, "K x-ray isotope shifts," Phys. Rev. 188, 1916–1919 (1969).

1966 (1)

E. B. Saloman and W. Happer, "Lifetime, coherence narrowing, and hyperfine structure of the (6s26p7s) 31state in lead," Phys. Rev. 144, 7 (1966).

1963 (1)

D. W. Marquardt, "An algorithm for least-squares estimation of nonlinear parameters," J. Soc. Ind. Appl. Math. 11, 431–441 (1963).

1958 (1)

J. Blaise, "Recherches sur le déplacement isotopique dans les spectres atomiques des eléments lourds," Ann. Phys. (Paris) 3, 1019–1076 (1958).

1953 (1)

K. Murakawa, "On some regularities in the isotope effect in the spectrum of lead. Part II," J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 8, 383–387 (1953).

1950 (1)

T. E. Manning, C. E. Anderson, and W. W. Watson, "Isotope shift in the spectrum of natural lead," Phys. Rev. 78, 417–419 (1950).

1932 (2)

H. Kopfermann, Über die Kernmomente der drei Bleiisotope," Z. Phys. 75, 363–379 (1932).

J. L. Rose and L. P. Granath, "The hyperfine structure of lead," Phys. Rev. 40, 760–778 (1932).

Anderson, C. E.

T. E. Manning, C. E. Anderson, and W. W. Watson, "Isotope shift in the spectrum of natural lead," Phys. Rev. 78, 417–419 (1950).

Barrat, J.-P.

H. Rudi-Saussereau, J.-L. Cojan, and J.-P. Barrat, "Facteur de Landé du niveau (6s26p7s) 3P1 du plomb et constante de structure hyperfine de l'isotope 207Pb dans ce niveau, "Opt. Commun. 9, 186 (1973).

Bevington, P. R.

P. R. Bevington, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969), pp. 237–240.

Blaise, J.

J. Blaise, "Recherches sur le déplacement isotopique dans les spectres atomiques des eléments lourds," Ann. Phys. (Paris) 3, 1019–1076 (1958).

Boehm, F.

F. Boehm and P. L. Lee, "Changes of mean-square nuclear charge radii from isotope shifts of electronic Kα x-rays," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 14, 605–611 (1974).

P. L. Lee and F. Boehm, "X-ray isotope shifts and variations of nuclear charge radii in isotopes of Nd, Sm, Dy, Yb, and Pb," Phys. Rev. C 8, 819–828 (1973).

Borchert, G. L.

G. L. Borchert, O. W. B. Schult, J. Speth, P. G. Hansen, B. Jonson, H. Ravn, and J. B. McGrory, "Study of the charge radii of the stable lead isotopes," presented at Fourth International Conference on Nuclei Far from Stability (Helsingør, Denmark, June 7–13, 1981).

Bruck, H.

R. Minkowski and H. Bruck, "Die Intenstitätsverteilung der im Molekularstrahl erzeugten Spektrallinien," Z. Phys. 95, 274–283 (1935); H. Kopfermann, Nuclear Moments (Academic, New York, 1958), pp. 89–91.

Cojan, J.-L.

J.-L. Cojan and H. R. Saussereau, "Measure de la structure hyperfine des niveaux (6s26p7s) 3P1 et (6s26p2)3P2 de l'isotope 207 du plomb," C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. B 277, 415 (1973).

H. Rudi-Saussereau, J.-L. Cojan, and J.-P. Barrat, "Facteur de Landé du niveau (6s26p7s) 3P1 du plomb et constante de structure hyperfine de l'isotope 207Pb dans ce niveau, "Opt. Commun. 9, 186 (1973).

Fülöp, G. F.

G. F. Fülöp, C.-S. O, and H. H. Stroke, "Method for accumulating high-resolution optical spectra by repetitive photoelectric scanning," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 48, 1550–1554 (1977).

Granath, L. P.

J. L. Rose and L. P. Granath, "The hyperfine structure of lead," Phys. Rev. 40, 760–778 (1932).

Hansen, P. G.

G. L. Borchert, O. W. B. Schult, J. Speth, P. G. Hansen, B. Jonson, H. Ravn, and J. B. McGrory, "Study of the charge radii of the stable lead isotopes," presented at Fourth International Conference on Nuclei Far from Stability (Helsingør, Denmark, June 7–13, 1981).

Happer, W.

E. B. Saloman and W. Happer, "Lifetime, coherence narrowing, and hyperfine structure of the (6s26p7s) 31state in lead," Phys. Rev. 144, 7 (1966).

Heilig, H.

H. Heilig and A. Steudel, "Changes in mean-square nuclear charge radii from optical isotope shifts," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 14, 613–638 (1974).

Jacquinot, P.

P. Jacquinot and R. Klapisch, "Hyperfine spectroscopy of radioactive atoms," Rep. Prog. Phys. 42, 773–832 (1979).

Jonson, B.

G. L. Borchert, O. W. B. Schult, J. Speth, P. G. Hansen, B. Jonson, H. Ravn, and J. B. McGrory, "Study of the charge radii of the stable lead isotopes," presented at Fourth International Conference on Nuclei Far from Stability (Helsingør, Denmark, June 7–13, 1981).

Klapisch, R.

P. Jacquinot and R. Klapisch, "Hyperfine spectroscopy of radioactive atoms," Rep. Prog. Phys. 42, 773–832 (1979).

Kluge, H.-J.

H. H. Stroke, D. Proetel, and H.-J. Kluge, "Odd-even staggering in mercury isotope shifts: evidence for Coriolis effects in particle-core coupling," Phys. Lett. 82B, 204–207 (1979).

Kopfermann, H.

H. Kopfermann, Über die Kernmomente der drei Bleiisotope," Z. Phys. 75, 363–379 (1932).

Lee, P. L.

F. Boehm and P. L. Lee, "Changes of mean-square nuclear charge radii from isotope shifts of electronic Kα x-rays," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 14, 605–611 (1974).

P. L. Lee and F. Boehm, "X-ray isotope shifts and variations of nuclear charge radii in isotopes of Nd, Sm, Dy, Yb, and Pb," Phys. Rev. C 8, 819–828 (1973).

Lindgren, I.

I. Lindgren, A. Timmermann, and E. Matthias, "Isotope shift of the 6p23P0‐6p7p 3P0 two-quantum transition in lead," presented at European Conference on Atomic Physics, Physikalisches Institut der Universität, Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany, 1981.

Manning, T. E.

T. E. Manning, C. E. Anderson, and W. W. Watson, "Isotope shift in the spectrum of natural lead," Phys. Rev. 78, 417–419 (1950).

Marquardt, D. W.

D. W. Marquardt, "An algorithm for least-squares estimation of nonlinear parameters," J. Soc. Ind. Appl. Math. 11, 431–441 (1963).

Matthias, E.

I. Lindgren, A. Timmermann, and E. Matthias, "Isotope shift of the 6p23P0‐6p7p 3P0 two-quantum transition in lead," presented at European Conference on Atomic Physics, Physikalisches Institut der Universität, Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany, 1981.

McGrory, J. B.

G. L. Borchert, O. W. B. Schult, J. Speth, P. G. Hansen, B. Jonson, H. Ravn, and J. B. McGrory, "Study of the charge radii of the stable lead isotopes," presented at Fourth International Conference on Nuclei Far from Stability (Helsingør, Denmark, June 7–13, 1981).

Minkowski, R.

R. Minkowski and H. Bruck, "Die Intenstitätsverteilung der im Molekularstrahl erzeugten Spektrallinien," Z. Phys. 95, 274–283 (1935); H. Kopfermann, Nuclear Moments (Academic, New York, 1958), pp. 89–91.

Moscatelli, F.

F. Moscatelli, R. L. Wiggins, O. Redi, and H. H. Stroke, "Nuclear charge distribution systematics from isotope shifts in the lead region," presented at Seventh International Conference on Atomic Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., August 4–8, 1980.

Murakawa, K.

K. Murakawa, "On some regularities in the isotope effect in the spectrum of lead. Part II," J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 8, 383–387 (1953).

O, C.-S.

G. F. Fülöp, C.-S. O, and H. H. Stroke, "Method for accumulating high-resolution optical spectra by repetitive photoelectric scanning," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 48, 1550–1554 (1977).

Proetel, D.

H. H. Stroke, D. Proetel, and H.-J. Kluge, "Odd-even staggering in mercury isotope shifts: evidence for Coriolis effects in particle-core coupling," Phys. Lett. 82B, 204–207 (1979).

Ravn, H.

G. L. Borchert, O. W. B. Schult, J. Speth, P. G. Hansen, B. Jonson, H. Ravn, and J. B. McGrory, "Study of the charge radii of the stable lead isotopes," presented at Fourth International Conference on Nuclei Far from Stability (Helsingør, Denmark, June 7–13, 1981).

Redi, O.

O. Redi, "Atomic spectra for nuclear studies. New techniques of hyperfine spectroscopy," Phys. Today 34(25), 26–33 (1981).

F. Moscatelli, R. L. Wiggins, O. Redi, and H. H. Stroke, "Nuclear charge distribution systematics from isotope shifts in the lead region," presented at Seventh International Conference on Atomic Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., August 4–8, 1980.

Rose, J. L.

J. L. Rose and L. P. Granath, "The hyperfine structure of lead," Phys. Rev. 40, 760–778 (1932).

Rudi-Saussereau, H.

H. Rudi-Saussereau, J.-L. Cojan, and J.-P. Barrat, "Facteur de Landé du niveau (6s26p7s) 3P1 du plomb et constante de structure hyperfine de l'isotope 207Pb dans ce niveau, "Opt. Commun. 9, 186 (1973).

Saloman, E. B.

E. B. Saloman and W. Happer, "Lifetime, coherence narrowing, and hyperfine structure of the (6s26p7s) 31state in lead," Phys. Rev. 144, 7 (1966).

Saussereau, H. R.

J.-L. Cojan and H. R. Saussereau, "Measure de la structure hyperfine des niveaux (6s26p7s) 3P1 et (6s26p2)3P2 de l'isotope 207 du plomb," C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. B 277, 415 (1973).

Schatz, G.

G. Schatz, Institut für Angewandte Kernphysik II, Kernforschungszentrum, Postfach 3640, D7500 Karlsruhe 1, Federal Republic of Germany (personal communication, November 1981). We are grateful to Professor Schatz for making available his results before publication.

Schult, O. W. B.

G. L. Borchert, O. W. B. Schult, J. Speth, P. G. Hansen, B. Jonson, H. Ravn, and J. B. McGrory, "Study of the charge radii of the stable lead isotopes," presented at Fourth International Conference on Nuclei Far from Stability (Helsingør, Denmark, June 7–13, 1981).

Seltzer, E. C.

E. C. Seltzer, "K x-ray isotope shifts," Phys. Rev. 188, 1916–1919 (1969).

Speth, J.

G. L. Borchert, O. W. B. Schult, J. Speth, P. G. Hansen, B. Jonson, H. Ravn, and J. B. McGrory, "Study of the charge radii of the stable lead isotopes," presented at Fourth International Conference on Nuclei Far from Stability (Helsingør, Denmark, June 7–13, 1981).

Steudel, A.

H. Heilig and A. Steudel, "Changes in mean-square nuclear charge radii from optical isotope shifts," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 14, 613–638 (1974).

Stroke, G. W.

G. W. Stroke, "Diffraction gratings" in Handbuch der Physik, S. Flügge, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1967), Vol. XXIX, pp. 426–754.

Stroke, H. H.

H. H. Stroke, D. Proetel, and H.-J. Kluge, "Odd-even staggering in mercury isotope shifts: evidence for Coriolis effects in particle-core coupling," Phys. Lett. 82B, 204–207 (1979).

G. F. Fülöp, C.-S. O, and H. H. Stroke, "Method for accumulating high-resolution optical spectra by repetitive photoelectric scanning," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 48, 1550–1554 (1977).

F. Moscatelli, R. L. Wiggins, O. Redi, and H. H. Stroke, "Nuclear charge distribution systematics from isotope shifts in the lead region," presented at Seventh International Conference on Atomic Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., August 4–8, 1980.

Timmerman, A.

A. Timmerman, "High resolution two-photon spectroscopy of the 6p2 3P0–7p 3P0 transition in stable lead isotopes," Z. Phys. A 296, 93–94 (1980).

Timmermann, A.

I. Lindgren, A. Timmermann, and E. Matthias, "Isotope shift of the 6p23P0‐6p7p 3P0 two-quantum transition in lead," presented at European Conference on Atomic Physics, Physikalisches Institut der Universität, Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany, 1981.

Watson, W. W.

T. E. Manning, C. E. Anderson, and W. W. Watson, "Isotope shift in the spectrum of natural lead," Phys. Rev. 78, 417–419 (1950).

Wiggins, R. L.

F. Moscatelli, R. L. Wiggins, O. Redi, and H. H. Stroke, "Nuclear charge distribution systematics from isotope shifts in the lead region," presented at Seventh International Conference on Atomic Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., August 4–8, 1980.

Ann. Phys. (1)

J. Blaise, "Recherches sur le déplacement isotopique dans les spectres atomiques des eléments lourds," Ann. Phys. (Paris) 3, 1019–1076 (1958).

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (2)

H. Heilig and A. Steudel, "Changes in mean-square nuclear charge radii from optical isotope shifts," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 14, 613–638 (1974).

F. Boehm and P. L. Lee, "Changes of mean-square nuclear charge radii from isotope shifts of electronic Kα x-rays," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 14, 605–611 (1974).

C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. B (1)

J.-L. Cojan and H. R. Saussereau, "Measure de la structure hyperfine des niveaux (6s26p7s) 3P1 et (6s26p2)3P2 de l'isotope 207 du plomb," C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. B 277, 415 (1973).

J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. (1)

K. Murakawa, "On some regularities in the isotope effect in the spectrum of lead. Part II," J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 8, 383–387 (1953).

J. Soc. Ind. Appl. Math. (1)

D. W. Marquardt, "An algorithm for least-squares estimation of nonlinear parameters," J. Soc. Ind. Appl. Math. 11, 431–441 (1963).

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. Rudi-Saussereau, J.-L. Cojan, and J.-P. Barrat, "Facteur de Landé du niveau (6s26p7s) 3P1 du plomb et constante de structure hyperfine de l'isotope 207Pb dans ce niveau, "Opt. Commun. 9, 186 (1973).

Phys. Lett. (1)

H. H. Stroke, D. Proetel, and H.-J. Kluge, "Odd-even staggering in mercury isotope shifts: evidence for Coriolis effects in particle-core coupling," Phys. Lett. 82B, 204–207 (1979).

Phys. Rev. (4)

E. B. Saloman and W. Happer, "Lifetime, coherence narrowing, and hyperfine structure of the (6s26p7s) 31state in lead," Phys. Rev. 144, 7 (1966).

J. L. Rose and L. P. Granath, "The hyperfine structure of lead," Phys. Rev. 40, 760–778 (1932).

T. E. Manning, C. E. Anderson, and W. W. Watson, "Isotope shift in the spectrum of natural lead," Phys. Rev. 78, 417–419 (1950).

E. C. Seltzer, "K x-ray isotope shifts," Phys. Rev. 188, 1916–1919 (1969).

Phys. Rev. C (1)

P. L. Lee and F. Boehm, "X-ray isotope shifts and variations of nuclear charge radii in isotopes of Nd, Sm, Dy, Yb, and Pb," Phys. Rev. C 8, 819–828 (1973).

Phys. Today (1)

O. Redi, "Atomic spectra for nuclear studies. New techniques of hyperfine spectroscopy," Phys. Today 34(25), 26–33 (1981).

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

P. Jacquinot and R. Klapisch, "Hyperfine spectroscopy of radioactive atoms," Rep. Prog. Phys. 42, 773–832 (1979).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

G. F. Fülöp, C.-S. O, and H. H. Stroke, "Method for accumulating high-resolution optical spectra by repetitive photoelectric scanning," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 48, 1550–1554 (1977).

Z. Phys. (1)

H. Kopfermann, Über die Kernmomente der drei Bleiisotope," Z. Phys. 75, 363–379 (1932).

Z. Phys. A (1)

A. Timmerman, "High resolution two-photon spectroscopy of the 6p2 3P0–7p 3P0 transition in stable lead isotopes," Z. Phys. A 296, 93–94 (1980).

Other (7)

G. L. Borchert, O. W. B. Schult, J. Speth, P. G. Hansen, B. Jonson, H. Ravn, and J. B. McGrory, "Study of the charge radii of the stable lead isotopes," presented at Fourth International Conference on Nuclei Far from Stability (Helsingør, Denmark, June 7–13, 1981).

I. Lindgren, A. Timmermann, and E. Matthias, "Isotope shift of the 6p23P0‐6p7p 3P0 two-quantum transition in lead," presented at European Conference on Atomic Physics, Physikalisches Institut der Universität, Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany, 1981.

R. Minkowski and H. Bruck, "Die Intenstitätsverteilung der im Molekularstrahl erzeugten Spektrallinien," Z. Phys. 95, 274–283 (1935); H. Kopfermann, Nuclear Moments (Academic, New York, 1958), pp. 89–91.

G. W. Stroke, "Diffraction gratings" in Handbuch der Physik, S. Flügge, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1967), Vol. XXIX, pp. 426–754.

P. R. Bevington, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969), pp. 237–240.

F. Moscatelli, R. L. Wiggins, O. Redi, and H. H. Stroke, "Nuclear charge distribution systematics from isotope shifts in the lead region," presented at Seventh International Conference on Atomic Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., August 4–8, 1980.

G. Schatz, Institut für Angewandte Kernphysik II, Kernforschungszentrum, Postfach 3640, D7500 Karlsruhe 1, Federal Republic of Germany (personal communication, November 1981). We are grateful to Professor Schatz for making available his results before publication.

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