Abstract

A statistical approach is taken toward the ray optics of optical media with complicated nonspherical and nonplanar surface shapes. As a general rule, the light in such a medium will tend to be randomized in direction and of 2<i>n</i><sup>2</sup>(<i>x</i>) times greater intensity than the externally incident light, where <i>n</i>(<i>x</i>) is the local index of refraction. A specific method for doing optical calculations in statistical ray optics will be outlined. These optical enhancement effects can result in a new type of antireflection coating. In addition, these effects can improve the efficiency as well as reduce the cost of solar cells.

© 1982 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. E. St. John, "Multiple internal reflection structure in a silicon detector which is obtained by sandblasting," U.S. Patent No. 3,487,223 (1969).
  2. O. Krumpholz and S. Maslowski, "Schnelle Photodioden mit wellenlangenunabhangigen Demodulatonseigenschaften," Z. Angew. Phys. 25, 156 (1968).
  3. D. Redfield, "Multiple-pass thin-film silicon solar cell," Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 647 (1974).
  4. M. Spitzer, J. Shewchun, E. S. Vera, and J. J. Loferski, "Ultra-high efficiency thin silicon p-n junction solar cells using reflective surfaces," in Proceedings of the Fourteenth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1980), p. 375.
  5. L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Electrodynamics of Continuous Media (Pergamon, New York, 1969).
  6. Another situation in which Eq. (4) is not valid is an optically thick turbid sheet illuminated from only one side. In this case, angular averaging is no problem, but spatial averaging will be incomplete. The side of the sheet away from the source of illumination will be dark.
  7. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Macmillan, New York, 1964).
  8. M. Neuberger and S. J. Welles, Silicon (National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va., 1969), p. 113.
  9. J. S. Kilby, J. W. Lathrop and W. A. Porter, "Light energy conversion," U.S. Patent No. 4,136,436 (1979); T. S. T. Velde "Electrical monogram layers and method for making same," U.S. Patent No. 3,625,688 (1971).

1974

D. Redfield, "Multiple-pass thin-film silicon solar cell," Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 647 (1974).

1968

O. Krumpholz and S. Maslowski, "Schnelle Photodioden mit wellenlangenunabhangigen Demodulatonseigenschaften," Z. Angew. Phys. 25, 156 (1968).

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Macmillan, New York, 1964).

John, A. E. St.

A. E. St. John, "Multiple internal reflection structure in a silicon detector which is obtained by sandblasting," U.S. Patent No. 3,487,223 (1969).

Kilby, J. S.

J. S. Kilby, J. W. Lathrop and W. A. Porter, "Light energy conversion," U.S. Patent No. 4,136,436 (1979); T. S. T. Velde "Electrical monogram layers and method for making same," U.S. Patent No. 3,625,688 (1971).

Krumpholz, O.

O. Krumpholz and S. Maslowski, "Schnelle Photodioden mit wellenlangenunabhangigen Demodulatonseigenschaften," Z. Angew. Phys. 25, 156 (1968).

Landau, L. D.

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Electrodynamics of Continuous Media (Pergamon, New York, 1969).

Lathrop, J. W.

J. S. Kilby, J. W. Lathrop and W. A. Porter, "Light energy conversion," U.S. Patent No. 4,136,436 (1979); T. S. T. Velde "Electrical monogram layers and method for making same," U.S. Patent No. 3,625,688 (1971).

Lifshitz, E. M.

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Electrodynamics of Continuous Media (Pergamon, New York, 1969).

Loferski, J. J.

M. Spitzer, J. Shewchun, E. S. Vera, and J. J. Loferski, "Ultra-high efficiency thin silicon p-n junction solar cells using reflective surfaces," in Proceedings of the Fourteenth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1980), p. 375.

Maslowski, S.

O. Krumpholz and S. Maslowski, "Schnelle Photodioden mit wellenlangenunabhangigen Demodulatonseigenschaften," Z. Angew. Phys. 25, 156 (1968).

Neuberger, M.

M. Neuberger and S. J. Welles, Silicon (National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va., 1969), p. 113.

Porter, W. A.

J. S. Kilby, J. W. Lathrop and W. A. Porter, "Light energy conversion," U.S. Patent No. 4,136,436 (1979); T. S. T. Velde "Electrical monogram layers and method for making same," U.S. Patent No. 3,625,688 (1971).

Redfield, D.

D. Redfield, "Multiple-pass thin-film silicon solar cell," Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 647 (1974).

Shewchun, J.

M. Spitzer, J. Shewchun, E. S. Vera, and J. J. Loferski, "Ultra-high efficiency thin silicon p-n junction solar cells using reflective surfaces," in Proceedings of the Fourteenth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1980), p. 375.

Spitzer, M.

M. Spitzer, J. Shewchun, E. S. Vera, and J. J. Loferski, "Ultra-high efficiency thin silicon p-n junction solar cells using reflective surfaces," in Proceedings of the Fourteenth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1980), p. 375.

Vera, E. S.

M. Spitzer, J. Shewchun, E. S. Vera, and J. J. Loferski, "Ultra-high efficiency thin silicon p-n junction solar cells using reflective surfaces," in Proceedings of the Fourteenth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1980), p. 375.

Welles, S. J.

M. Neuberger and S. J. Welles, Silicon (National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va., 1969), p. 113.

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Macmillan, New York, 1964).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. Redfield, "Multiple-pass thin-film silicon solar cell," Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 647 (1974).

Z. Angew. Phys.

O. Krumpholz and S. Maslowski, "Schnelle Photodioden mit wellenlangenunabhangigen Demodulatonseigenschaften," Z. Angew. Phys. 25, 156 (1968).

Other

A. E. St. John, "Multiple internal reflection structure in a silicon detector which is obtained by sandblasting," U.S. Patent No. 3,487,223 (1969).

M. Spitzer, J. Shewchun, E. S. Vera, and J. J. Loferski, "Ultra-high efficiency thin silicon p-n junction solar cells using reflective surfaces," in Proceedings of the Fourteenth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1980), p. 375.

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Electrodynamics of Continuous Media (Pergamon, New York, 1969).

Another situation in which Eq. (4) is not valid is an optically thick turbid sheet illuminated from only one side. In this case, angular averaging is no problem, but spatial averaging will be incomplete. The side of the sheet away from the source of illumination will be dark.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Macmillan, New York, 1964).

M. Neuberger and S. J. Welles, Silicon (National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va., 1969), p. 113.

J. S. Kilby, J. W. Lathrop and W. A. Porter, "Light energy conversion," U.S. Patent No. 4,136,436 (1979); T. S. T. Velde "Electrical monogram layers and method for making same," U.S. Patent No. 3,625,688 (1971).

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