Abstract

The spatially localized threshold-elevation aftereffect of spatial-frequency adaptation was measured by using localized, aperiodic test patterns that have bandpass Fourier transforms. At a given retinal location, the thresholdelevation curves are consistent with the fatigue of size-tuned mechanisms with center-surround sensitivity profile. Only a few different sizes of such mechanisms were required to fit the local results. The local aftereffect was also measured as a function of eccentricity near the fovea. The results indicate that the threshold-elevation aftereffect of spatial-frequency adaptation is not spatially homogeneous

© 1982 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. W. Campbell and J. Robson, "Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings," J. Physiol. 197, 551–566 (1968).
  2. N. Graham and J. Nachmias, "Detection of grating patterns containing two spatial frequencies: a comparison of single-channel and multiple-channel models," Vision Res. 11, 251–259 (1971).
  3. C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, "On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images," J. Physiol. London. 203, 237–260 (1969).
  4. G. E. Legge, "Adaptation to a spatial impulse: implications for Fourier transform models of visual processing," Vision Res. 16, 1407–1418 (1976).
  5. J. Nachmias, R. Sansbury, A. Vassilev, and A. Weber, "Adaptation to square-wave gratings: in search of the elusive third harmonic," Vision Res. 13, 1335–1342 (1973).
  6. O. Bryngdahl, "Perceived contrast variation with eccentricity of spatial sine-wave stimuli," Vision Res. 6, 553–565 (1966).
  7. R. Hilz and C. R. Cavonius, "Functional organization of the peripheral retina: sensitivity to periodic stimuli," Vision Res. 14, 1333–1337 (1974).
  8. H. R. Wilson and S. C. Giese, "Threshold visibility of frequency gradient patterns," Vision Res. 17, 1177–1190 (1977).
  9. J. J. Koenderink, M. A. Bouman, A. E. Bueno de Mesquita, and S. Slappendel, "Perimetry of contrast detection thresholds of moving spatial sine wave patterns. 1. The near peripheral visual field (eccentricity 0°–8°)," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 860–865 (1978).
  10. J. Hoeskstra, D. P. J. van der Groot, G. van den Brink, and F. A. Bilsen, "The influence of the number of cycles upon the visual contrast threshold for spatial sine patterns," Vision Res. 14, 365–368 (1974).
  11. O. Estevs and C. R. Cavonius, "Low frequency attenuation in the detection of gratings: sorting out the artifacts," Vision Res. 16, 497–500 (1976).
  12. R. L. Savoy and J. J. McCann, "Visibility of low spatial frequency sine-wave targets: dependence on number of cycles," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 343–350 (1975).
  13. G. J. Van der Wildt, C. J. Keemink, and G. van den Brink, "Gradient detection and contrast transfer by the number eye," Vision Res. 16, 1047–1054 (1976).
  14. J. Robson and N. Graham, "Probability summation and regional variation in sensitivity across the visual field," Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 17, 221 (1978).
  15. H. R. Wilson, "Quantitative characterization of two types of line spread function near the fovea," Vision Res. 18, 971–982 (1978).
  16. J. O. Limb and C. B. Rubinstein, "A model of threshold vision incorporating inhomogeneity of the visual field," Vision Res. 17, 571–584 (1977).
  17. H. R. Wilson and J. R. Bergen, "A four mechanism model for threshold spatial vision," Vision Res. 19, 19–32 (1979).
  18. J. R. Bergen, H. R. Wilson, and J. D. Cowan, "Further evidence for four mechanisms mediating vision at threshold: Sensitivities to complex gratings and aperiodic stimuli," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1580–1587 (1979).
  19. I. Rentschler and A. Fiorentini, "Meridional anisotropy of psychophysical spatial interactions," Vision Res. 14, 1467–1473 (1974).
  20. G. D. Sullivan, M. A. Georgeson, and K. Oatley, "Channels for spatial frequency selection and the detection of single bars by the human visual system," Vision Res. 12, 383–394 (1972).
  21. T. N. Cornsweet, "The staircase method in psychophysics," Am. J. Psychol. 75, 485–491 (1962).
  22. J. G. Daugman and R. J. W. Mansfield, "Adpatation of spatial channels in human vision," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 18, (1979).
  23. M. Hines, "Line spread function variation near the fovea," Vision Res. 16, 567–572 (1976).
  24. J. Nachmias, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (personal communication).
  25. R. F. Quick, "A vector magnitude model of contrast detection," Kybernetik 16, 65–67 (1974).
  26. G. Legge and J. Foley, "Spatial frequency masking in human vision: dependence on contrast and frequency," Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 18, 59 (1979).
  27. G. C. Phillips and H. R. Wilson, "Orientation selectivity of the human visual system," presented at the Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America, Chicago, 1980.
  28. C. Blakemore and J. Nachmias, "The orientation specificity of two visual after-effects," J. Physiol. 213, 157–174 (1971).
  29. K. I. Beverley and D. Regan, "Evidence for the existence of neural mechanisms selectively sensitive to the direction of movement in space," J. Physiol. 235, 17–29 (1973).
  30. K. K. DeValois, "Spatial frequency adaptation can enhance contrast sensitivity," Vision Res. 17, 1057–1066 (1977).
  31. J. J. Kulikowski and P. E. King-Smith, "Spatial arrangement of line, edge, and grating detectors revealed by subthreshold summation," Vision Res. 13, 1455–1478 (1973).
  32. C. F. Stromeyer III and B. Julesz, "Spatial frequeny masking in vision: critical bands and spread of masking," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1221–1232 (1972).
  33. R. M. Shapley and D. J. Tolhurst, "Edge detectors in human vision," J. Physiol. 229, 165–183 (1973).
  34. D. W. Williams and H. R. Wilson, "Spatial frequency adaptation alters spatial probability summation," (to be published).

1979 (4)

H. R. Wilson and J. R. Bergen, "A four mechanism model for threshold spatial vision," Vision Res. 19, 19–32 (1979).

J. R. Bergen, H. R. Wilson, and J. D. Cowan, "Further evidence for four mechanisms mediating vision at threshold: Sensitivities to complex gratings and aperiodic stimuli," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1580–1587 (1979).

J. G. Daugman and R. J. W. Mansfield, "Adpatation of spatial channels in human vision," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 18, (1979).

G. Legge and J. Foley, "Spatial frequency masking in human vision: dependence on contrast and frequency," Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 18, 59 (1979).

1978 (3)

J. Robson and N. Graham, "Probability summation and regional variation in sensitivity across the visual field," Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 17, 221 (1978).

H. R. Wilson, "Quantitative characterization of two types of line spread function near the fovea," Vision Res. 18, 971–982 (1978).

J. J. Koenderink, M. A. Bouman, A. E. Bueno de Mesquita, and S. Slappendel, "Perimetry of contrast detection thresholds of moving spatial sine wave patterns. 1. The near peripheral visual field (eccentricity 0°–8°)," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 860–865 (1978).

1977 (3)

H. R. Wilson and S. C. Giese, "Threshold visibility of frequency gradient patterns," Vision Res. 17, 1177–1190 (1977).

J. O. Limb and C. B. Rubinstein, "A model of threshold vision incorporating inhomogeneity of the visual field," Vision Res. 17, 571–584 (1977).

K. K. DeValois, "Spatial frequency adaptation can enhance contrast sensitivity," Vision Res. 17, 1057–1066 (1977).

1976 (4)

M. Hines, "Line spread function variation near the fovea," Vision Res. 16, 567–572 (1976).

G. J. Van der Wildt, C. J. Keemink, and G. van den Brink, "Gradient detection and contrast transfer by the number eye," Vision Res. 16, 1047–1054 (1976).

O. Estevs and C. R. Cavonius, "Low frequency attenuation in the detection of gratings: sorting out the artifacts," Vision Res. 16, 497–500 (1976).

G. E. Legge, "Adaptation to a spatial impulse: implications for Fourier transform models of visual processing," Vision Res. 16, 1407–1418 (1976).

1975 (1)

1974 (4)

I. Rentschler and A. Fiorentini, "Meridional anisotropy of psychophysical spatial interactions," Vision Res. 14, 1467–1473 (1974).

J. Hoeskstra, D. P. J. van der Groot, G. van den Brink, and F. A. Bilsen, "The influence of the number of cycles upon the visual contrast threshold for spatial sine patterns," Vision Res. 14, 365–368 (1974).

R. Hilz and C. R. Cavonius, "Functional organization of the peripheral retina: sensitivity to periodic stimuli," Vision Res. 14, 1333–1337 (1974).

R. F. Quick, "A vector magnitude model of contrast detection," Kybernetik 16, 65–67 (1974).

1973 (4)

J. J. Kulikowski and P. E. King-Smith, "Spatial arrangement of line, edge, and grating detectors revealed by subthreshold summation," Vision Res. 13, 1455–1478 (1973).

K. I. Beverley and D. Regan, "Evidence for the existence of neural mechanisms selectively sensitive to the direction of movement in space," J. Physiol. 235, 17–29 (1973).

R. M. Shapley and D. J. Tolhurst, "Edge detectors in human vision," J. Physiol. 229, 165–183 (1973).

J. Nachmias, R. Sansbury, A. Vassilev, and A. Weber, "Adaptation to square-wave gratings: in search of the elusive third harmonic," Vision Res. 13, 1335–1342 (1973).

1972 (2)

G. D. Sullivan, M. A. Georgeson, and K. Oatley, "Channels for spatial frequency selection and the detection of single bars by the human visual system," Vision Res. 12, 383–394 (1972).

C. F. Stromeyer III and B. Julesz, "Spatial frequeny masking in vision: critical bands and spread of masking," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1221–1232 (1972).

1971 (2)

C. Blakemore and J. Nachmias, "The orientation specificity of two visual after-effects," J. Physiol. 213, 157–174 (1971).

N. Graham and J. Nachmias, "Detection of grating patterns containing two spatial frequencies: a comparison of single-channel and multiple-channel models," Vision Res. 11, 251–259 (1971).

1969 (1)

C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, "On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images," J. Physiol. London. 203, 237–260 (1969).

1968 (1)

F. W. Campbell and J. Robson, "Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings," J. Physiol. 197, 551–566 (1968).

1966 (1)

O. Bryngdahl, "Perceived contrast variation with eccentricity of spatial sine-wave stimuli," Vision Res. 6, 553–565 (1966).

1962 (1)

T. N. Cornsweet, "The staircase method in psychophysics," Am. J. Psychol. 75, 485–491 (1962).

Bergen, J. R.

Beverley, K. I.

K. I. Beverley and D. Regan, "Evidence for the existence of neural mechanisms selectively sensitive to the direction of movement in space," J. Physiol. 235, 17–29 (1973).

Bilsen, F. A.

J. Hoeskstra, D. P. J. van der Groot, G. van den Brink, and F. A. Bilsen, "The influence of the number of cycles upon the visual contrast threshold for spatial sine patterns," Vision Res. 14, 365–368 (1974).

Blakemore, C.

C. Blakemore and J. Nachmias, "The orientation specificity of two visual after-effects," J. Physiol. 213, 157–174 (1971).

C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, "On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images," J. Physiol. London. 203, 237–260 (1969).

Bouman, M. A.

Bryngdahl, O.

O. Bryngdahl, "Perceived contrast variation with eccentricity of spatial sine-wave stimuli," Vision Res. 6, 553–565 (1966).

Campbell, F. W.

C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, "On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images," J. Physiol. London. 203, 237–260 (1969).

F. W. Campbell and J. Robson, "Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings," J. Physiol. 197, 551–566 (1968).

Cavonius, C. R.

O. Estevs and C. R. Cavonius, "Low frequency attenuation in the detection of gratings: sorting out the artifacts," Vision Res. 16, 497–500 (1976).

R. Hilz and C. R. Cavonius, "Functional organization of the peripheral retina: sensitivity to periodic stimuli," Vision Res. 14, 1333–1337 (1974).

Cornsweet, T. N.

T. N. Cornsweet, "The staircase method in psychophysics," Am. J. Psychol. 75, 485–491 (1962).

Cowan, J. D.

Daugman, J. G.

J. G. Daugman and R. J. W. Mansfield, "Adpatation of spatial channels in human vision," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 18, (1979).

de Mesquita, A. E. Bueno

DeValois, K. K.

K. K. DeValois, "Spatial frequency adaptation can enhance contrast sensitivity," Vision Res. 17, 1057–1066 (1977).

Estevs, O.

O. Estevs and C. R. Cavonius, "Low frequency attenuation in the detection of gratings: sorting out the artifacts," Vision Res. 16, 497–500 (1976).

Fiorentini, A.

I. Rentschler and A. Fiorentini, "Meridional anisotropy of psychophysical spatial interactions," Vision Res. 14, 1467–1473 (1974).

Foley, J.

G. Legge and J. Foley, "Spatial frequency masking in human vision: dependence on contrast and frequency," Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 18, 59 (1979).

Georgeson, M. A.

G. D. Sullivan, M. A. Georgeson, and K. Oatley, "Channels for spatial frequency selection and the detection of single bars by the human visual system," Vision Res. 12, 383–394 (1972).

Giese, S. C.

H. R. Wilson and S. C. Giese, "Threshold visibility of frequency gradient patterns," Vision Res. 17, 1177–1190 (1977).

Graham, N.

J. Robson and N. Graham, "Probability summation and regional variation in sensitivity across the visual field," Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 17, 221 (1978).

N. Graham and J. Nachmias, "Detection of grating patterns containing two spatial frequencies: a comparison of single-channel and multiple-channel models," Vision Res. 11, 251–259 (1971).

Hilz, R.

R. Hilz and C. R. Cavonius, "Functional organization of the peripheral retina: sensitivity to periodic stimuli," Vision Res. 14, 1333–1337 (1974).

Hines, M.

M. Hines, "Line spread function variation near the fovea," Vision Res. 16, 567–572 (1976).

Hoeskstra, J.

J. Hoeskstra, D. P. J. van der Groot, G. van den Brink, and F. A. Bilsen, "The influence of the number of cycles upon the visual contrast threshold for spatial sine patterns," Vision Res. 14, 365–368 (1974).

Julesz, B.

Keemink, C. J.

G. J. Van der Wildt, C. J. Keemink, and G. van den Brink, "Gradient detection and contrast transfer by the number eye," Vision Res. 16, 1047–1054 (1976).

King-Smith, P. E.

J. J. Kulikowski and P. E. King-Smith, "Spatial arrangement of line, edge, and grating detectors revealed by subthreshold summation," Vision Res. 13, 1455–1478 (1973).

Koenderink, J. J.

Kulikowski, J. J.

J. J. Kulikowski and P. E. King-Smith, "Spatial arrangement of line, edge, and grating detectors revealed by subthreshold summation," Vision Res. 13, 1455–1478 (1973).

Legge, G.

G. Legge and J. Foley, "Spatial frequency masking in human vision: dependence on contrast and frequency," Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 18, 59 (1979).

Legge, G. E.

G. E. Legge, "Adaptation to a spatial impulse: implications for Fourier transform models of visual processing," Vision Res. 16, 1407–1418 (1976).

Limb, J. O.

J. O. Limb and C. B. Rubinstein, "A model of threshold vision incorporating inhomogeneity of the visual field," Vision Res. 17, 571–584 (1977).

Mansfield, R. J. W.

J. G. Daugman and R. J. W. Mansfield, "Adpatation of spatial channels in human vision," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 18, (1979).

McCann, J. J.

Nachmias, J.

J. Nachmias, R. Sansbury, A. Vassilev, and A. Weber, "Adaptation to square-wave gratings: in search of the elusive third harmonic," Vision Res. 13, 1335–1342 (1973).

N. Graham and J. Nachmias, "Detection of grating patterns containing two spatial frequencies: a comparison of single-channel and multiple-channel models," Vision Res. 11, 251–259 (1971).

C. Blakemore and J. Nachmias, "The orientation specificity of two visual after-effects," J. Physiol. 213, 157–174 (1971).

J. Nachmias, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (personal communication).

Oatley, K.

G. D. Sullivan, M. A. Georgeson, and K. Oatley, "Channels for spatial frequency selection and the detection of single bars by the human visual system," Vision Res. 12, 383–394 (1972).

Phillips, G. C.

G. C. Phillips and H. R. Wilson, "Orientation selectivity of the human visual system," presented at the Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America, Chicago, 1980.

Quick, R. F.

R. F. Quick, "A vector magnitude model of contrast detection," Kybernetik 16, 65–67 (1974).

Regan, D.

K. I. Beverley and D. Regan, "Evidence for the existence of neural mechanisms selectively sensitive to the direction of movement in space," J. Physiol. 235, 17–29 (1973).

Rentschler, I.

I. Rentschler and A. Fiorentini, "Meridional anisotropy of psychophysical spatial interactions," Vision Res. 14, 1467–1473 (1974).

Robson, J.

J. Robson and N. Graham, "Probability summation and regional variation in sensitivity across the visual field," Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 17, 221 (1978).

F. W. Campbell and J. Robson, "Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings," J. Physiol. 197, 551–566 (1968).

Rubinstein, C. B.

J. O. Limb and C. B. Rubinstein, "A model of threshold vision incorporating inhomogeneity of the visual field," Vision Res. 17, 571–584 (1977).

Sansbury, R.

J. Nachmias, R. Sansbury, A. Vassilev, and A. Weber, "Adaptation to square-wave gratings: in search of the elusive third harmonic," Vision Res. 13, 1335–1342 (1973).

Savoy, R. L.

Shapley, R. M.

R. M. Shapley and D. J. Tolhurst, "Edge detectors in human vision," J. Physiol. 229, 165–183 (1973).

Slappendel, S.

Stromeyer III, C. F.

Sullivan, G. D.

G. D. Sullivan, M. A. Georgeson, and K. Oatley, "Channels for spatial frequency selection and the detection of single bars by the human visual system," Vision Res. 12, 383–394 (1972).

Tolhurst, D. J.

R. M. Shapley and D. J. Tolhurst, "Edge detectors in human vision," J. Physiol. 229, 165–183 (1973).

van den Brink, G.

G. J. Van der Wildt, C. J. Keemink, and G. van den Brink, "Gradient detection and contrast transfer by the number eye," Vision Res. 16, 1047–1054 (1976).

J. Hoeskstra, D. P. J. van der Groot, G. van den Brink, and F. A. Bilsen, "The influence of the number of cycles upon the visual contrast threshold for spatial sine patterns," Vision Res. 14, 365–368 (1974).

van der Groot, D. P. J.

J. Hoeskstra, D. P. J. van der Groot, G. van den Brink, and F. A. Bilsen, "The influence of the number of cycles upon the visual contrast threshold for spatial sine patterns," Vision Res. 14, 365–368 (1974).

Van der Wildt, G. J.

G. J. Van der Wildt, C. J. Keemink, and G. van den Brink, "Gradient detection and contrast transfer by the number eye," Vision Res. 16, 1047–1054 (1976).

Vassilev, A.

J. Nachmias, R. Sansbury, A. Vassilev, and A. Weber, "Adaptation to square-wave gratings: in search of the elusive third harmonic," Vision Res. 13, 1335–1342 (1973).

Weber, A.

J. Nachmias, R. Sansbury, A. Vassilev, and A. Weber, "Adaptation to square-wave gratings: in search of the elusive third harmonic," Vision Res. 13, 1335–1342 (1973).

Williams, D. W.

D. W. Williams and H. R. Wilson, "Spatial frequency adaptation alters spatial probability summation," (to be published).

Wilson, H. R.

J. R. Bergen, H. R. Wilson, and J. D. Cowan, "Further evidence for four mechanisms mediating vision at threshold: Sensitivities to complex gratings and aperiodic stimuli," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1580–1587 (1979).

H. R. Wilson and J. R. Bergen, "A four mechanism model for threshold spatial vision," Vision Res. 19, 19–32 (1979).

H. R. Wilson, "Quantitative characterization of two types of line spread function near the fovea," Vision Res. 18, 971–982 (1978).

H. R. Wilson and S. C. Giese, "Threshold visibility of frequency gradient patterns," Vision Res. 17, 1177–1190 (1977).

G. C. Phillips and H. R. Wilson, "Orientation selectivity of the human visual system," presented at the Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America, Chicago, 1980.

D. W. Williams and H. R. Wilson, "Spatial frequency adaptation alters spatial probability summation," (to be published).

Am. J. Psychol. (1)

T. N. Cornsweet, "The staircase method in psychophysics," Am. J. Psychol. 75, 485–491 (1962).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. (1)

J. G. Daugman and R. J. W. Mansfield, "Adpatation of spatial channels in human vision," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 18, (1979).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (4)

J. Physiol. (4)

F. W. Campbell and J. Robson, "Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings," J. Physiol. 197, 551–566 (1968).

R. M. Shapley and D. J. Tolhurst, "Edge detectors in human vision," J. Physiol. 229, 165–183 (1973).

C. Blakemore and J. Nachmias, "The orientation specificity of two visual after-effects," J. Physiol. 213, 157–174 (1971).

K. I. Beverley and D. Regan, "Evidence for the existence of neural mechanisms selectively sensitive to the direction of movement in space," J. Physiol. 235, 17–29 (1973).

J. Physiol. London. (1)

C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, "On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images," J. Physiol. London. 203, 237–260 (1969).

Kybernetik (1)

R. F. Quick, "A vector magnitude model of contrast detection," Kybernetik 16, 65–67 (1974).

Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. (2)

G. Legge and J. Foley, "Spatial frequency masking in human vision: dependence on contrast and frequency," Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 18, 59 (1979).

J. Robson and N. Graham, "Probability summation and regional variation in sensitivity across the visual field," Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 17, 221 (1978).

Vision Res. (17)

H. R. Wilson, "Quantitative characterization of two types of line spread function near the fovea," Vision Res. 18, 971–982 (1978).

J. O. Limb and C. B. Rubinstein, "A model of threshold vision incorporating inhomogeneity of the visual field," Vision Res. 17, 571–584 (1977).

H. R. Wilson and J. R. Bergen, "A four mechanism model for threshold spatial vision," Vision Res. 19, 19–32 (1979).

I. Rentschler and A. Fiorentini, "Meridional anisotropy of psychophysical spatial interactions," Vision Res. 14, 1467–1473 (1974).

G. D. Sullivan, M. A. Georgeson, and K. Oatley, "Channels for spatial frequency selection and the detection of single bars by the human visual system," Vision Res. 12, 383–394 (1972).

G. J. Van der Wildt, C. J. Keemink, and G. van den Brink, "Gradient detection and contrast transfer by the number eye," Vision Res. 16, 1047–1054 (1976).

G. E. Legge, "Adaptation to a spatial impulse: implications for Fourier transform models of visual processing," Vision Res. 16, 1407–1418 (1976).

J. Nachmias, R. Sansbury, A. Vassilev, and A. Weber, "Adaptation to square-wave gratings: in search of the elusive third harmonic," Vision Res. 13, 1335–1342 (1973).

O. Bryngdahl, "Perceived contrast variation with eccentricity of spatial sine-wave stimuli," Vision Res. 6, 553–565 (1966).

R. Hilz and C. R. Cavonius, "Functional organization of the peripheral retina: sensitivity to periodic stimuli," Vision Res. 14, 1333–1337 (1974).

H. R. Wilson and S. C. Giese, "Threshold visibility of frequency gradient patterns," Vision Res. 17, 1177–1190 (1977).

N. Graham and J. Nachmias, "Detection of grating patterns containing two spatial frequencies: a comparison of single-channel and multiple-channel models," Vision Res. 11, 251–259 (1971).

J. Hoeskstra, D. P. J. van der Groot, G. van den Brink, and F. A. Bilsen, "The influence of the number of cycles upon the visual contrast threshold for spatial sine patterns," Vision Res. 14, 365–368 (1974).

O. Estevs and C. R. Cavonius, "Low frequency attenuation in the detection of gratings: sorting out the artifacts," Vision Res. 16, 497–500 (1976).

K. K. DeValois, "Spatial frequency adaptation can enhance contrast sensitivity," Vision Res. 17, 1057–1066 (1977).

J. J. Kulikowski and P. E. King-Smith, "Spatial arrangement of line, edge, and grating detectors revealed by subthreshold summation," Vision Res. 13, 1455–1478 (1973).

M. Hines, "Line spread function variation near the fovea," Vision Res. 16, 567–572 (1976).

Other (3)

J. Nachmias, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (personal communication).

G. C. Phillips and H. R. Wilson, "Orientation selectivity of the human visual system," presented at the Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America, Chicago, 1980.

D. W. Williams and H. R. Wilson, "Spatial frequency adaptation alters spatial probability summation," (to be published).

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