Abstract

<i>In situ</i> experimental data are presented on the off-axis radiance produced by a pulsed underwater laser operating at a wavelength of 520 nm. Path lengths in homogeneous seawater range up to 50 m with separations of up to more than 6 m from the path. Absorption and scattering lengths in the water are about 6 and 4 m, respectively. These results are compared with the predictions provided by popular models derived from radiative transfer theory. Limitations are clearly shown on the accuracy of the radiance predicted by these models. The inability of the models in the small-angle approximation to predict the magnitude and shape of the radiance distributions are quantitatively shown for several experimental conditions and configurations.

© 1982 Optical Society of America

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1979 (2)

1978 (3)

1977 (3)

1976 (1)

S. T. Hong and A. Ishinihru, "Two frequency mutual coherence function, coherence bandwidth, and coherence time of millimeter and optical waves in rain, fog, and turbulence," Radio Sci. 11 (6), 551–559 (1976).

1975 (2)

A. Ishimaru and S. T. Hong, "Multiple scattering effects oh coherent bandwidth and pulse distortion of a wave propagating in a random distribution of particles," Radio Sci. 10, 637–644 (1975).

G. R. Allgaier, "Spreading of light beams passing through substantial air-water paths," Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 64, 23 (1975).

1974 (1)

E. A. Bucher, "Propagation models for optical ommunications through fog and clouds," Proc. Nat. Electron. Conf. 29,180–185 (1974).

1973 (3)

1972 (1)

1971 (1)

1969 (1)

D. M. Bravo-Zhivotovskiy, L. S. Dolin, A. G. Luchmin, and V. A. Sarelyev, "Structure of a narrow light beam in sea water," Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 5, (2), 160–167 (1969) (translated by P. A. Kaehn).

1968 (1)

Allgaier, G. R.

G. R. Allgaier, "Spreading of light beams passing through substantial air-water paths," Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 64, 23 (1975).

Arnush, D.

Austin, R. W.

R. W. Austin, "Ocean Optical Properties—520 nanometers Santa Catalina Island, Lat: 33° 27.2′N, Long: 118° 28.0′W," (Visibility Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif., 1976). Technical Memorandum ML-76-005t Rev. 23 June 1976.

R. W. Austin and T. J. Petzold, "An instrument for the measurement of spectral attenuation coefficient and narrow angle volume scattering function of ocean waters," Proc. SPIE 64, 50 (1975).

Bravo-Zhivotovskiy, D. M.

D. M. Bravo-Zhivotovskiy, L. S. Dolin, A. G. Luchmin, and V. A. Sarelyev, "Structure of a narrow light beam in sea water," Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 5, (2), 160–167 (1969) (translated by P. A. Kaehn).

Bucher, E. A.

Carswell, A. I.

Chandrasekhar, S.

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Clarendon, Oxford, 1960) (reprinted by Dover, New York, 1960).

Dell-Imagine, R. A.

R. A. Dell-Imagine, "A study of multiple, scattering of optical radiation with applications to laser communications," in Advances in Communication Systems, V. A. Balakrishnar, ed. (Academic, New York, 1966), Vol. II, p. 1.

Discroll, R. G.

R. G. Discroll, J. N. Martin, and S. Karp, "OPSATCOM Field Measurements," Technical Document 490, Naval Electronics Laboratory Center, 1 June 1976.

Dolin, L. S.

D. M. Bravo-Zhivotovskiy, L. S. Dolin, A. G. Luchmin, and V. A. Sarelyev, "Structure of a narrow light beam in sea water," Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 5, (2), 160–167 (1969) (translated by P. A. Kaehn).

Duntley, S. Q.

S. Q. Duntley, "Underwater lighting by submerged lasers," (Visibility Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif., 1971), Ref. 71-1.

Epstein, D. J.

Fante, R.

R. Fante; "Electromagnetic Beam Propagation in turbulent media: an update," Proc. IEEE 68, 1424–1445 (1980).

Fante, R. L.

R. L. Fante, "Propagaticn of electromagnetic wavs through turbulent plasma using transport, theory," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-21, 750–755 (1973).

Fried, D. L.

Geller, M.

Heggestad, H. M.

Hong, S. T.

S. T. Hong and A. Ishinihru, "Two frequency mutual coherence function, coherence bandwidth, and coherence time of millimeter and optical waves in rain, fog, and turbulence," Radio Sci. 11 (6), 551–559 (1976).

A. Ishimaru and S. T. Hong, "Multiple scattering effects oh coherent bandwidth and pulse distortion of a wave propagating in a random distribution of particles," Radio Sci. 10, 637–644 (1975).

Ishimaru, A.

A. Ishimaru and S. T. Hong, "Multiple scattering effects oh coherent bandwidth and pulse distortion of a wave propagating in a random distribution of particles," Radio Sci. 10, 637–644 (1975).

A. Ishimaru, "Theory and application of wave propagation and scattering in random media," Proc. IEEE 65, 1030–1061 (1977).

Ishinihru, A.

S. T. Hong and A. Ishinihru, "Two frequency mutual coherence function, coherence bandwidth, and coherence time of millimeter and optical waves in rain, fog, and turbulence," Radio Sci. 11 (6), 551–559 (1976).

Jerlov, N. G.

N. G. Jerlov, Marine Optics (American Elsevier, New York, 1976).,

Karp, S.

R. G. Discroll, J. N. Martin, and S. Karp, "OPSATCOM Field Measurements," Technical Document 490, Naval Electronics Laboratory Center, 1 June 1976.

Kattawar, G. W.

Kennedy, R. S.

Kourganoff, V.

V. Kourganoff, Basic Methods in Transfer Problems (Dover, New York, 1963).

Krautwald, R. A.

Lerner, R. M.

Luchmin, A. G.

D. M. Bravo-Zhivotovskiy, L. S. Dolin, A. G. Luchmin, and V. A. Sarelyev, "Structure of a narrow light beam in sea water," Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 5, (2), 160–167 (1969) (translated by P. A. Kaehn).

Lutomirski, R. F.

Martin, J. N.

R. G. Discroll, J. N. Martin, and S. Karp, "OPSATCOM Field Measurements," Technical Document 490, Naval Electronics Laboratory Center, 1 June 1976.

Mooradian, G. C.

Paik, W. H.

Petzold, T. J.

R. W. Austin and T. J. Petzold, "An instrument for the measurement of spectral attenuation coefficient and narrow angle volume scattering function of ocean waters," Proc. SPIE 64, 50 (1975).

Plass, G. N.

Preisendorfer, R.

R. Preisendorfer, Radiative Transfer on Discrete Spaces (Pergamon, New York, 1965).

Ryan, J. S.

Sarelyev, V. A.

D. M. Bravo-Zhivotovskiy, L. S. Dolin, A. G. Luchmin, and V. A. Sarelyev, "Structure of a narrow light beam in sea water," Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 5, (2), 160–167 (1969) (translated by P. A. Kaehn).

Shapiro, J. H.

Stephens, D. H.

Stotts, L. B.

Tam, W. G.

Tebyani, M.

Zardecki, A.

Appl. Opt. (6)

Atmos. Oceanic Phys. (1)

D. M. Bravo-Zhivotovskiy, L. S. Dolin, A. G. Luchmin, and V. A. Sarelyev, "Structure of a narrow light beam in sea water," Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 5, (2), 160–167 (1969) (translated by P. A. Kaehn).

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

R. L. Fante, "Propagaticn of electromagnetic wavs through turbulent plasma using transport, theory," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-21, 750–755 (1973).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (6)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Nat. Electron. Conf. (1)

E. A. Bucher, "Propagation models for optical ommunications through fog and clouds," Proc. Nat. Electron. Conf. 29,180–185 (1974).

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

G. R. Allgaier, "Spreading of light beams passing through substantial air-water paths," Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 64, 23 (1975).

Radio Sci. (2)

A. Ishimaru and S. T. Hong, "Multiple scattering effects oh coherent bandwidth and pulse distortion of a wave propagating in a random distribution of particles," Radio Sci. 10, 637–644 (1975).

S. T. Hong and A. Ishinihru, "Two frequency mutual coherence function, coherence bandwidth, and coherence time of millimeter and optical waves in rain, fog, and turbulence," Radio Sci. 11 (6), 551–559 (1976).

Other (11)

A. Ishimaru, "Theory and application of wave propagation and scattering in random media," Proc. IEEE 65, 1030–1061 (1977).

R. A. Dell-Imagine, "A study of multiple, scattering of optical radiation with applications to laser communications," in Advances in Communication Systems, V. A. Balakrishnar, ed. (Academic, New York, 1966), Vol. II, p. 1.

R. Fante; "Electromagnetic Beam Propagation in turbulent media: an update," Proc. IEEE 68, 1424–1445 (1980).

S. Q. Duntley, "Underwater lighting by submerged lasers," (Visibility Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif., 1971), Ref. 71-1.

R. G. Discroll, J. N. Martin, and S. Karp, "OPSATCOM Field Measurements," Technical Document 490, Naval Electronics Laboratory Center, 1 June 1976.

R. W. Austin, "Ocean Optical Properties—520 nanometers Santa Catalina Island, Lat: 33° 27.2′N, Long: 118° 28.0′W," (Visibility Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif., 1976). Technical Memorandum ML-76-005t Rev. 23 June 1976.

R. W. Austin and T. J. Petzold, "An instrument for the measurement of spectral attenuation coefficient and narrow angle volume scattering function of ocean waters," Proc. SPIE 64, 50 (1975).

N. G. Jerlov, Marine Optics (American Elsevier, New York, 1976).,

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Clarendon, Oxford, 1960) (reprinted by Dover, New York, 1960).

V. Kourganoff, Basic Methods in Transfer Problems (Dover, New York, 1963).

R. Preisendorfer, Radiative Transfer on Discrete Spaces (Pergamon, New York, 1965).

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