Abstract

It seems quite certain that the visual entopic phenomenon called Haidinger’s brushes is a consequence of dichroism of the macular pigment; this dichroism is usually ascribed to orientation of the pigment molecules. An alternative explanation of the dichroism, an explanation that requires no orientation of pigment molecules, is investigated and shown to be feasible. Specifically, it is shown that form dichroism that is due to the structure of the Henle fiber layer can account for Haidinger's brushes if the macular pigment is almost entirely confined to the Henle layer, if individual fibers have an index about 5% higher than that of the interfiber medium, and if the fibers form a tightly packed array.

© 1982 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Goldschmidt, "A new test for function of the macula lutea," Arch. Ophthalmol. 44, 129–135 (1950).
  2. H. W. Forster, Jr., "The clinical use of the Haidinger's brushes phenomenon," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 38, 661 (1954).
  3. R. A. Bone, "The role of the macular pigment in the detection of polarized light," Vision Res. 20, 213–220 (1980).
  4. E. J. Naylor and A. Stanworth, "Retinal pigment and the Haidinger effect," J. Physiol. 124, 543–552 (1954).
  5. HI. DeVries, A. Spoor, and R. Jielof, "Properties of the eye with respect to polarized light," Physica 19, 419–432 (1953).
  6. H. Helmholtz, Handbuch der physiologischen Optik (Leopold Voss, Hamburg, 1866).
  7. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1975), Sec. 2.4.2.
  8. B. B. Baker and E. T. Copson, The Mathematical Theory of Huygens' Principle, 2nd ed. (Oxford. U. Press, London, 1953).
  9. H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).
  10. B. S. Fine and M. Yanoff, Ocular Histology (Harper and Row, New York, 1979).
  11. M. J. Hogan, J. A. Alvarado, and J. E. Weddell, Histology of the Human Eye (Saunders, Philadelphia, 1971).
  12. B. F. Hochheimer, "Polarized light retinal photography of a monkey eye," Vision Res. 18, 19–23 (1978).
  13. F. D. Delori, R. H. Webb, and J. S. Parker, "Macular birefringence," Invest. Opthamol. Vis. Sci. 18, 53 (1979).

1980

R. A. Bone, "The role of the macular pigment in the detection of polarized light," Vision Res. 20, 213–220 (1980).

1979

F. D. Delori, R. H. Webb, and J. S. Parker, "Macular birefringence," Invest. Opthamol. Vis. Sci. 18, 53 (1979).

1978

B. F. Hochheimer, "Polarized light retinal photography of a monkey eye," Vision Res. 18, 19–23 (1978).

1954

E. J. Naylor and A. Stanworth, "Retinal pigment and the Haidinger effect," J. Physiol. 124, 543–552 (1954).

H. W. Forster, Jr., "The clinical use of the Haidinger's brushes phenomenon," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 38, 661 (1954).

1953

HI. DeVries, A. Spoor, and R. Jielof, "Properties of the eye with respect to polarized light," Physica 19, 419–432 (1953).

1950

M. Goldschmidt, "A new test for function of the macula lutea," Arch. Ophthalmol. 44, 129–135 (1950).

Alvarado, J. A.

M. J. Hogan, J. A. Alvarado, and J. E. Weddell, Histology of the Human Eye (Saunders, Philadelphia, 1971).

Baker, B. B.

B. B. Baker and E. T. Copson, The Mathematical Theory of Huygens' Principle, 2nd ed. (Oxford. U. Press, London, 1953).

Bone, R. A.

R. A. Bone, "The role of the macular pigment in the detection of polarized light," Vision Res. 20, 213–220 (1980).

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1975), Sec. 2.4.2.

Copson, E. T.

B. B. Baker and E. T. Copson, The Mathematical Theory of Huygens' Principle, 2nd ed. (Oxford. U. Press, London, 1953).

Delori, F. D.

F. D. Delori, R. H. Webb, and J. S. Parker, "Macular birefringence," Invest. Opthamol. Vis. Sci. 18, 53 (1979).

DeVries, Hl.

HI. DeVries, A. Spoor, and R. Jielof, "Properties of the eye with respect to polarized light," Physica 19, 419–432 (1953).

Fine, B. S.

B. S. Fine and M. Yanoff, Ocular Histology (Harper and Row, New York, 1979).

Forster, Jr., H. W.

H. W. Forster, Jr., "The clinical use of the Haidinger's brushes phenomenon," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 38, 661 (1954).

Goldschmidt, M.

M. Goldschmidt, "A new test for function of the macula lutea," Arch. Ophthalmol. 44, 129–135 (1950).

Helmholtz, H.

H. Helmholtz, Handbuch der physiologischen Optik (Leopold Voss, Hamburg, 1866).

Hochheimer, B. F.

B. F. Hochheimer, "Polarized light retinal photography of a monkey eye," Vision Res. 18, 19–23 (1978).

Hogan, M. J.

M. J. Hogan, J. A. Alvarado, and J. E. Weddell, Histology of the Human Eye (Saunders, Philadelphia, 1971).

Jielof, R.

HI. DeVries, A. Spoor, and R. Jielof, "Properties of the eye with respect to polarized light," Physica 19, 419–432 (1953).

Naylor, E. J.

E. J. Naylor and A. Stanworth, "Retinal pigment and the Haidinger effect," J. Physiol. 124, 543–552 (1954).

Parker, J. S.

F. D. Delori, R. H. Webb, and J. S. Parker, "Macular birefringence," Invest. Opthamol. Vis. Sci. 18, 53 (1979).

Spoor, A.

HI. DeVries, A. Spoor, and R. Jielof, "Properties of the eye with respect to polarized light," Physica 19, 419–432 (1953).

Stanworth, A.

E. J. Naylor and A. Stanworth, "Retinal pigment and the Haidinger effect," J. Physiol. 124, 543–552 (1954).

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).

Webb, R. H.

F. D. Delori, R. H. Webb, and J. S. Parker, "Macular birefringence," Invest. Opthamol. Vis. Sci. 18, 53 (1979).

Weddell, J. E.

M. J. Hogan, J. A. Alvarado, and J. E. Weddell, Histology of the Human Eye (Saunders, Philadelphia, 1971).

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1975), Sec. 2.4.2.

Yanoff, M.

B. S. Fine and M. Yanoff, Ocular Histology (Harper and Row, New York, 1979).

Am. J. Ophthalmol.

H. W. Forster, Jr., "The clinical use of the Haidinger's brushes phenomenon," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 38, 661 (1954).

Arch. Ophthalmol.

M. Goldschmidt, "A new test for function of the macula lutea," Arch. Ophthalmol. 44, 129–135 (1950).

Invest. Opthamol. Vis. Sci.

F. D. Delori, R. H. Webb, and J. S. Parker, "Macular birefringence," Invest. Opthamol. Vis. Sci. 18, 53 (1979).

J. Physiol.

E. J. Naylor and A. Stanworth, "Retinal pigment and the Haidinger effect," J. Physiol. 124, 543–552 (1954).

Physica

HI. DeVries, A. Spoor, and R. Jielof, "Properties of the eye with respect to polarized light," Physica 19, 419–432 (1953).

Vision Res.

B. F. Hochheimer, "Polarized light retinal photography of a monkey eye," Vision Res. 18, 19–23 (1978).

R. A. Bone, "The role of the macular pigment in the detection of polarized light," Vision Res. 20, 213–220 (1980).

Other

H. Helmholtz, Handbuch der physiologischen Optik (Leopold Voss, Hamburg, 1866).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1975), Sec. 2.4.2.

B. B. Baker and E. T. Copson, The Mathematical Theory of Huygens' Principle, 2nd ed. (Oxford. U. Press, London, 1953).

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).

B. S. Fine and M. Yanoff, Ocular Histology (Harper and Row, New York, 1979).

M. J. Hogan, J. A. Alvarado, and J. E. Weddell, Histology of the Human Eye (Saunders, Philadelphia, 1971).

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