Abstract

To identify and account for the effects from cryocontamination, the infrared spectral transmittances of cryofilms formed by CO<sub>2</sub>, H<sub>2</sub>O, and NH<sub>3</sub> were measured. These 0.25–14-µm-thick films were cryopumped onto 20-, 80-, and in one case 50-K germanium substrates; the deposition pressures for the films deposited at 20 K and that for 80-K films were approximately 2 × 10<sup>-6</sup> Torr. Transmittance spectra were obtained for the 500–3700-cm<sup>-1</sup> range with a Fourier-transform spectrometer. Values of the optical properties (<i>n</i>, <i>k</i>) for the CO<sub>2</sub>, H<sub>2</sub>O, and NH<sub>3</sub> cryofilms were derived from the experimental data using a thin-film-transmittance analytical model and the nonlinear leastsquares method. Results from the least-squares method are compared with a Kramers-Kronig determination ofthe refractive index (<i>n</i>). The optical properties (<i>n</i>, <i>k</i>) of such cryofilms are essential for predicting the degradation of contaminated cryocooled optical surfaces.

© 1982 Optical Society of America

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. A. Roux, B. E. Wood, and A. M. Smith, "IR optical properties of thin H2O, NH3, and CO2 cryofilms," AEDC-TR-79-57 (ADA074913, September 1979).
  2. K. E. Tempelmeyer and D. W. Mills, Jr., "Refractive index of carbon dioxide cryodeposit," Appl. Opt. 39, 2968–2969 (1968).
  3. A. M. Smith, K. E. Tempelmeyer, P. R. Muller, and B. E. Wood, "Angular distribution of visible and near IR radiation reflected from CO2 cryodeposits," AIAA J. 7, 2274–2280 (1969).
  4. S. B. Thompson; F. Arnold, R. B. Sanderson, and A. W. Monty, "Optical properties of cryodeposits on low scatter mirrors," in Thermophysics and Spacecraft Thermal Control, Vol. 35 in Progress in Aeronautics and Astronautics (MIT Press; Cambridge, Mass., 1974), pp. 229–248.
  5. J. G. Pipes, J. A. Roux, A. M. Smith, and H. E. Scott, "Infrared transmission of contaminated cryocooled optical windows," AIAA J. 16, 984–990 (1978).
  6. H. Wolff, H. G. Rollar, and E. Wolff, "Infrared spectra and vapor pressure isotope effect of crystallized ammonia and its deuterium derivatives," J. Chem. Phys. 55, 1373–1378 (1971).
  7. F. P. Reding and D. F. Hornig, "The vibrational spectra of molecules and complex ions in crystals. V. Ammonia and deuteroammonia," J. Chem. Phys. 19, 594–601 (1951).
  8. G. Herzberg, Infrared and Raman Spectra of Polyatomic Molecules (Van Nostrand, Princeton, N.J., 1954).
  9. W. E. Osberg and D. F. Hornig, "The vibrational spectra of molecules and complex ions and crystal. VI. Carbon dioxide," J. Chem. Phys. 20, 1345–1357 (1952).
  10. J. E. Bertie, H. J. Labbe, and E. Whalley, "Absorptivity of ice I in the range 4000–30 cm-1," J. Chem. Phys. 50, 4501–4520 (1969).
  11. N. Ockman, "The infrared and raman spectra of ice," Adv. Phys. 7, 199–220 (1957).
  12. A. Vasicek, Optics of Thin Films (Trans. H. Watney-Kaczer) (Interscience, New York, 1960).
  13. O. S. Heavens, Optical Properties of Thin Films (Dover, New York, 1965).
  14. M. Herzberger and C. D. Salzberg, "Refractive indices of infrared optical materials and color correction of infrared lenses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 420–426 (1962).
  15. C. W. Robertson, H. D. Downing, B. Curnutte, and D. Williams, "Optical constants of solid ammonia in the infrared," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 432–435 (1975).
  16. G. Sill, U. Fink, and J. R. Ferraro, "Absorption coefficients of solid NH3 from 50 to 7000 cm-1," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 724–739 (1980).
  17. J. A. Roux, B. E. Wood, A. M. Smith, and R. R. Plyler, "Infrared optical properties of thin CO, NO, CH4, HCl, N2O, O2, N2, Ar, and air cryofilms," AEDC-TR-79-81 (AD-A088269, August 1980).

1980 (1)

1978 (1)

J. G. Pipes, J. A. Roux, A. M. Smith, and H. E. Scott, "Infrared transmission of contaminated cryocooled optical windows," AIAA J. 16, 984–990 (1978).

1975 (1)

1971 (1)

H. Wolff, H. G. Rollar, and E. Wolff, "Infrared spectra and vapor pressure isotope effect of crystallized ammonia and its deuterium derivatives," J. Chem. Phys. 55, 1373–1378 (1971).

1969 (2)

A. M. Smith, K. E. Tempelmeyer, P. R. Muller, and B. E. Wood, "Angular distribution of visible and near IR radiation reflected from CO2 cryodeposits," AIAA J. 7, 2274–2280 (1969).

J. E. Bertie, H. J. Labbe, and E. Whalley, "Absorptivity of ice I in the range 4000–30 cm-1," J. Chem. Phys. 50, 4501–4520 (1969).

1968 (1)

K. E. Tempelmeyer and D. W. Mills, Jr., "Refractive index of carbon dioxide cryodeposit," Appl. Opt. 39, 2968–2969 (1968).

1962 (1)

1957 (1)

N. Ockman, "The infrared and raman spectra of ice," Adv. Phys. 7, 199–220 (1957).

1952 (1)

W. E. Osberg and D. F. Hornig, "The vibrational spectra of molecules and complex ions and crystal. VI. Carbon dioxide," J. Chem. Phys. 20, 1345–1357 (1952).

1951 (1)

F. P. Reding and D. F. Hornig, "The vibrational spectra of molecules and complex ions in crystals. V. Ammonia and deuteroammonia," J. Chem. Phys. 19, 594–601 (1951).

Arnold, F.

S. B. Thompson; F. Arnold, R. B. Sanderson, and A. W. Monty, "Optical properties of cryodeposits on low scatter mirrors," in Thermophysics and Spacecraft Thermal Control, Vol. 35 in Progress in Aeronautics and Astronautics (MIT Press; Cambridge, Mass., 1974), pp. 229–248.

Bertie, J. E.

J. E. Bertie, H. J. Labbe, and E. Whalley, "Absorptivity of ice I in the range 4000–30 cm-1," J. Chem. Phys. 50, 4501–4520 (1969).

Curnutte, B.

Downing, H. D.

Ferraro, J. R.

Fink, U.

Heavens, O. S.

O. S. Heavens, Optical Properties of Thin Films (Dover, New York, 1965).

Herzberg, G.

G. Herzberg, Infrared and Raman Spectra of Polyatomic Molecules (Van Nostrand, Princeton, N.J., 1954).

Herzberger, M.

Hornig, D. F.

W. E. Osberg and D. F. Hornig, "The vibrational spectra of molecules and complex ions and crystal. VI. Carbon dioxide," J. Chem. Phys. 20, 1345–1357 (1952).

F. P. Reding and D. F. Hornig, "The vibrational spectra of molecules and complex ions in crystals. V. Ammonia and deuteroammonia," J. Chem. Phys. 19, 594–601 (1951).

Labbe, H. J.

J. E. Bertie, H. J. Labbe, and E. Whalley, "Absorptivity of ice I in the range 4000–30 cm-1," J. Chem. Phys. 50, 4501–4520 (1969).

Mills, Jr., D. W.

K. E. Tempelmeyer and D. W. Mills, Jr., "Refractive index of carbon dioxide cryodeposit," Appl. Opt. 39, 2968–2969 (1968).

Monty, A. W.

S. B. Thompson; F. Arnold, R. B. Sanderson, and A. W. Monty, "Optical properties of cryodeposits on low scatter mirrors," in Thermophysics and Spacecraft Thermal Control, Vol. 35 in Progress in Aeronautics and Astronautics (MIT Press; Cambridge, Mass., 1974), pp. 229–248.

Muller, P. R.

A. M. Smith, K. E. Tempelmeyer, P. R. Muller, and B. E. Wood, "Angular distribution of visible and near IR radiation reflected from CO2 cryodeposits," AIAA J. 7, 2274–2280 (1969).

Ockman, N.

N. Ockman, "The infrared and raman spectra of ice," Adv. Phys. 7, 199–220 (1957).

Osberg, W. E.

W. E. Osberg and D. F. Hornig, "The vibrational spectra of molecules and complex ions and crystal. VI. Carbon dioxide," J. Chem. Phys. 20, 1345–1357 (1952).

Pipes, J. G.

J. G. Pipes, J. A. Roux, A. M. Smith, and H. E. Scott, "Infrared transmission of contaminated cryocooled optical windows," AIAA J. 16, 984–990 (1978).

Plyler, R. R.

J. A. Roux, B. E. Wood, A. M. Smith, and R. R. Plyler, "Infrared optical properties of thin CO, NO, CH4, HCl, N2O, O2, N2, Ar, and air cryofilms," AEDC-TR-79-81 (AD-A088269, August 1980).

Reding, F. P.

F. P. Reding and D. F. Hornig, "The vibrational spectra of molecules and complex ions in crystals. V. Ammonia and deuteroammonia," J. Chem. Phys. 19, 594–601 (1951).

Robertson, C. W.

Rollar, H. G.

H. Wolff, H. G. Rollar, and E. Wolff, "Infrared spectra and vapor pressure isotope effect of crystallized ammonia and its deuterium derivatives," J. Chem. Phys. 55, 1373–1378 (1971).

Roux, J. A.

J. G. Pipes, J. A. Roux, A. M. Smith, and H. E. Scott, "Infrared transmission of contaminated cryocooled optical windows," AIAA J. 16, 984–990 (1978).

J. A. Roux, B. E. Wood, and A. M. Smith, "IR optical properties of thin H2O, NH3, and CO2 cryofilms," AEDC-TR-79-57 (ADA074913, September 1979).

J. A. Roux, B. E. Wood, A. M. Smith, and R. R. Plyler, "Infrared optical properties of thin CO, NO, CH4, HCl, N2O, O2, N2, Ar, and air cryofilms," AEDC-TR-79-81 (AD-A088269, August 1980).

Salzberg, C. D.

Sanderson, R. B.

S. B. Thompson; F. Arnold, R. B. Sanderson, and A. W. Monty, "Optical properties of cryodeposits on low scatter mirrors," in Thermophysics and Spacecraft Thermal Control, Vol. 35 in Progress in Aeronautics and Astronautics (MIT Press; Cambridge, Mass., 1974), pp. 229–248.

Scott, H. E.

J. G. Pipes, J. A. Roux, A. M. Smith, and H. E. Scott, "Infrared transmission of contaminated cryocooled optical windows," AIAA J. 16, 984–990 (1978).

Sill, G.

Smith, A. M.

J. G. Pipes, J. A. Roux, A. M. Smith, and H. E. Scott, "Infrared transmission of contaminated cryocooled optical windows," AIAA J. 16, 984–990 (1978).

A. M. Smith, K. E. Tempelmeyer, P. R. Muller, and B. E. Wood, "Angular distribution of visible and near IR radiation reflected from CO2 cryodeposits," AIAA J. 7, 2274–2280 (1969).

J. A. Roux, B. E. Wood, and A. M. Smith, "IR optical properties of thin H2O, NH3, and CO2 cryofilms," AEDC-TR-79-57 (ADA074913, September 1979).

J. A. Roux, B. E. Wood, A. M. Smith, and R. R. Plyler, "Infrared optical properties of thin CO, NO, CH4, HCl, N2O, O2, N2, Ar, and air cryofilms," AEDC-TR-79-81 (AD-A088269, August 1980).

Tempelmeyer, K. E.

A. M. Smith, K. E. Tempelmeyer, P. R. Muller, and B. E. Wood, "Angular distribution of visible and near IR radiation reflected from CO2 cryodeposits," AIAA J. 7, 2274–2280 (1969).

K. E. Tempelmeyer and D. W. Mills, Jr., "Refractive index of carbon dioxide cryodeposit," Appl. Opt. 39, 2968–2969 (1968).

Thompson, S. B.

S. B. Thompson; F. Arnold, R. B. Sanderson, and A. W. Monty, "Optical properties of cryodeposits on low scatter mirrors," in Thermophysics and Spacecraft Thermal Control, Vol. 35 in Progress in Aeronautics and Astronautics (MIT Press; Cambridge, Mass., 1974), pp. 229–248.

Vasicek, A.

A. Vasicek, Optics of Thin Films (Trans. H. Watney-Kaczer) (Interscience, New York, 1960).

Whalley, E.

J. E. Bertie, H. J. Labbe, and E. Whalley, "Absorptivity of ice I in the range 4000–30 cm-1," J. Chem. Phys. 50, 4501–4520 (1969).

Williams, D.

Wolff, E.

H. Wolff, H. G. Rollar, and E. Wolff, "Infrared spectra and vapor pressure isotope effect of crystallized ammonia and its deuterium derivatives," J. Chem. Phys. 55, 1373–1378 (1971).

Wolff, H.

H. Wolff, H. G. Rollar, and E. Wolff, "Infrared spectra and vapor pressure isotope effect of crystallized ammonia and its deuterium derivatives," J. Chem. Phys. 55, 1373–1378 (1971).

Wood, B. E.

A. M. Smith, K. E. Tempelmeyer, P. R. Muller, and B. E. Wood, "Angular distribution of visible and near IR radiation reflected from CO2 cryodeposits," AIAA J. 7, 2274–2280 (1969).

J. A. Roux, B. E. Wood, and A. M. Smith, "IR optical properties of thin H2O, NH3, and CO2 cryofilms," AEDC-TR-79-57 (ADA074913, September 1979).

J. A. Roux, B. E. Wood, A. M. Smith, and R. R. Plyler, "Infrared optical properties of thin CO, NO, CH4, HCl, N2O, O2, N2, Ar, and air cryofilms," AEDC-TR-79-81 (AD-A088269, August 1980).

Adv. Phys. (1)

N. Ockman, "The infrared and raman spectra of ice," Adv. Phys. 7, 199–220 (1957).

AIAA J. (2)

A. M. Smith, K. E. Tempelmeyer, P. R. Muller, and B. E. Wood, "Angular distribution of visible and near IR radiation reflected from CO2 cryodeposits," AIAA J. 7, 2274–2280 (1969).

J. G. Pipes, J. A. Roux, A. M. Smith, and H. E. Scott, "Infrared transmission of contaminated cryocooled optical windows," AIAA J. 16, 984–990 (1978).

Appl. Opt. (1)

K. E. Tempelmeyer and D. W. Mills, Jr., "Refractive index of carbon dioxide cryodeposit," Appl. Opt. 39, 2968–2969 (1968).

J. Chem. Phys. (4)

H. Wolff, H. G. Rollar, and E. Wolff, "Infrared spectra and vapor pressure isotope effect of crystallized ammonia and its deuterium derivatives," J. Chem. Phys. 55, 1373–1378 (1971).

F. P. Reding and D. F. Hornig, "The vibrational spectra of molecules and complex ions in crystals. V. Ammonia and deuteroammonia," J. Chem. Phys. 19, 594–601 (1951).

W. E. Osberg and D. F. Hornig, "The vibrational spectra of molecules and complex ions and crystal. VI. Carbon dioxide," J. Chem. Phys. 20, 1345–1357 (1952).

J. E. Bertie, H. J. Labbe, and E. Whalley, "Absorptivity of ice I in the range 4000–30 cm-1," J. Chem. Phys. 50, 4501–4520 (1969).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

Other (6)

J. A. Roux, B. E. Wood, A. M. Smith, and R. R. Plyler, "Infrared optical properties of thin CO, NO, CH4, HCl, N2O, O2, N2, Ar, and air cryofilms," AEDC-TR-79-81 (AD-A088269, August 1980).

A. Vasicek, Optics of Thin Films (Trans. H. Watney-Kaczer) (Interscience, New York, 1960).

O. S. Heavens, Optical Properties of Thin Films (Dover, New York, 1965).

G. Herzberg, Infrared and Raman Spectra of Polyatomic Molecules (Van Nostrand, Princeton, N.J., 1954).

J. A. Roux, B. E. Wood, and A. M. Smith, "IR optical properties of thin H2O, NH3, and CO2 cryofilms," AEDC-TR-79-57 (ADA074913, September 1979).

S. B. Thompson; F. Arnold, R. B. Sanderson, and A. W. Monty, "Optical properties of cryodeposits on low scatter mirrors," in Thermophysics and Spacecraft Thermal Control, Vol. 35 in Progress in Aeronautics and Astronautics (MIT Press; Cambridge, Mass., 1974), pp. 229–248.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.