Abstract

Optical constants, measured ellipsometrically at wavelengths between 400.0 and 632.8 nm, are reported for atomically clean (001) niobium. The results are compared with literature values.

© 1982 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. J. Melmed, S. T. Ceyer, R. T. Tung, and W. R. Graham, “A LEED inquiry into the question of reconstruction of (001) niobium,” Surface Sci. 111, L701–L704 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. J. Carroll and A. J. Melmed, “Optical constants of (112¯0) ruthenium in the visible region,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1050–1051 (1976).
  3. F. L. McCrackin, E. Passaglia, R. Stromberg, and H. L. Steinberg, “Measurement of the thickness and refractive index of very thin films and the optical properties of surfaces by ellipsometry,” J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. Sec. A 67, 363–377 (1963).
    [Crossref]
  4. F. L. McCrackin, “A fortran program for analysis of ellipsometer measurements,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Tech. Note 479(1969).
  5. J. H. Weaver, D. W. Lynch, and C. G. Olson, “Optical properties of niobium from 0.1 to 36.4 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 7, 4311–4318 (1973); D. W. Lynch, Department of Physics, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50010 (personal communication).
    [Crossref]
  6. I. W. Salter, “An investigation into some properties of thin and ultra thin niobium films,” Ph.D. Thesis (University of Aston, Aston, U.K., 1973), p. 58.
  7. J. J. Bellina, R. J. Lederich, and J. E. O’Neal, “Variation of concentration with depth of absorbed oxygen in niobium during oxidation,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 287–292 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  8. R. J. Lederich and J. J. Bellina, “Interpretation of ellipsometric observations of absorbed oxygen in niobium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1697–1698 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. I. Golovashkin, I. E. Leksina, G. P. Motulevich, and A. A. Shubin, “The optical properties of niobium,” Sov. Phys. JETP 29, 27–34 (1969).
  10. B. T. Barnes, “Optical constants of incandescent refractory metals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1546–1550 (1966).
    [Crossref]
  11. A. P. Lenham and D. M. Treherne, “The optical properties of the transition metals,” in Optical Properties and Electron Structure of Metals and Alloys, in Proceedings of the International Colloquium 1965, F. Abelès, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1966), pp. 196–201.
  12. M. M. Kirilova and B. A. Charikov, “Quantum light absorption by certain transition metals,” Phys. Met. Metallogr. 19(2), 13–17 (1965).
  13. H. von Wartenberg, “Optische Konstanten einiger Elemente,” Verh. Dtsch. Phys. Ges. 12, 105–120 (1910).
  14. J. E. Nestell and R. W. Christy, “Optical conductivity of bcc transition metals: V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W,” Phys. Rev. B 21, 3173–3179 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  15. J. E. O’Neal, R. J. Lederich, and J. J. Bellina, “Comparison of reflection electron diffraction and ellipsometric studies of the oxidation of (001) niobium,” Metall. Trans. 3, 599–601 (1972).
    [Crossref]

1981 (1)

A. J. Melmed, S. T. Ceyer, R. T. Tung, and W. R. Graham, “A LEED inquiry into the question of reconstruction of (001) niobium,” Surface Sci. 111, L701–L704 (1981).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

J. E. Nestell and R. W. Christy, “Optical conductivity of bcc transition metals: V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W,” Phys. Rev. B 21, 3173–3179 (1980).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

J. J. Carroll and A. J. Melmed, “Optical constants of (112¯0) ruthenium in the visible region,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1050–1051 (1976).

1973 (1)

J. H. Weaver, D. W. Lynch, and C. G. Olson, “Optical properties of niobium from 0.1 to 36.4 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 7, 4311–4318 (1973); D. W. Lynch, Department of Physics, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50010 (personal communication).
[Crossref]

1972 (2)

J. J. Bellina, R. J. Lederich, and J. E. O’Neal, “Variation of concentration with depth of absorbed oxygen in niobium during oxidation,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 287–292 (1972).
[Crossref]

J. E. O’Neal, R. J. Lederich, and J. J. Bellina, “Comparison of reflection electron diffraction and ellipsometric studies of the oxidation of (001) niobium,” Metall. Trans. 3, 599–601 (1972).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

1969 (2)

A. I. Golovashkin, I. E. Leksina, G. P. Motulevich, and A. A. Shubin, “The optical properties of niobium,” Sov. Phys. JETP 29, 27–34 (1969).

F. L. McCrackin, “A fortran program for analysis of ellipsometer measurements,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Tech. Note 479(1969).

1966 (1)

1965 (1)

M. M. Kirilova and B. A. Charikov, “Quantum light absorption by certain transition metals,” Phys. Met. Metallogr. 19(2), 13–17 (1965).

1963 (1)

F. L. McCrackin, E. Passaglia, R. Stromberg, and H. L. Steinberg, “Measurement of the thickness and refractive index of very thin films and the optical properties of surfaces by ellipsometry,” J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. Sec. A 67, 363–377 (1963).
[Crossref]

1910 (1)

H. von Wartenberg, “Optische Konstanten einiger Elemente,” Verh. Dtsch. Phys. Ges. 12, 105–120 (1910).

Barnes, B. T.

Bellina, J. J.

J. E. O’Neal, R. J. Lederich, and J. J. Bellina, “Comparison of reflection electron diffraction and ellipsometric studies of the oxidation of (001) niobium,” Metall. Trans. 3, 599–601 (1972).
[Crossref]

J. J. Bellina, R. J. Lederich, and J. E. O’Neal, “Variation of concentration with depth of absorbed oxygen in niobium during oxidation,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 287–292 (1972).
[Crossref]

R. J. Lederich and J. J. Bellina, “Interpretation of ellipsometric observations of absorbed oxygen in niobium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1697–1698 (1970).
[Crossref]

Carroll, J. J.

J. J. Carroll and A. J. Melmed, “Optical constants of (112¯0) ruthenium in the visible region,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1050–1051 (1976).

Ceyer, S. T.

A. J. Melmed, S. T. Ceyer, R. T. Tung, and W. R. Graham, “A LEED inquiry into the question of reconstruction of (001) niobium,” Surface Sci. 111, L701–L704 (1981).
[Crossref]

Charikov, B. A.

M. M. Kirilova and B. A. Charikov, “Quantum light absorption by certain transition metals,” Phys. Met. Metallogr. 19(2), 13–17 (1965).

Christy, R. W.

J. E. Nestell and R. W. Christy, “Optical conductivity of bcc transition metals: V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W,” Phys. Rev. B 21, 3173–3179 (1980).
[Crossref]

Golovashkin, A. I.

A. I. Golovashkin, I. E. Leksina, G. P. Motulevich, and A. A. Shubin, “The optical properties of niobium,” Sov. Phys. JETP 29, 27–34 (1969).

Graham, W. R.

A. J. Melmed, S. T. Ceyer, R. T. Tung, and W. R. Graham, “A LEED inquiry into the question of reconstruction of (001) niobium,” Surface Sci. 111, L701–L704 (1981).
[Crossref]

Kirilova, M. M.

M. M. Kirilova and B. A. Charikov, “Quantum light absorption by certain transition metals,” Phys. Met. Metallogr. 19(2), 13–17 (1965).

Lederich, R. J.

J. E. O’Neal, R. J. Lederich, and J. J. Bellina, “Comparison of reflection electron diffraction and ellipsometric studies of the oxidation of (001) niobium,” Metall. Trans. 3, 599–601 (1972).
[Crossref]

J. J. Bellina, R. J. Lederich, and J. E. O’Neal, “Variation of concentration with depth of absorbed oxygen in niobium during oxidation,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 287–292 (1972).
[Crossref]

R. J. Lederich and J. J. Bellina, “Interpretation of ellipsometric observations of absorbed oxygen in niobium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1697–1698 (1970).
[Crossref]

Leksina, I. E.

A. I. Golovashkin, I. E. Leksina, G. P. Motulevich, and A. A. Shubin, “The optical properties of niobium,” Sov. Phys. JETP 29, 27–34 (1969).

Lenham, A. P.

A. P. Lenham and D. M. Treherne, “The optical properties of the transition metals,” in Optical Properties and Electron Structure of Metals and Alloys, in Proceedings of the International Colloquium 1965, F. Abelès, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1966), pp. 196–201.

Lynch, D. W.

J. H. Weaver, D. W. Lynch, and C. G. Olson, “Optical properties of niobium from 0.1 to 36.4 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 7, 4311–4318 (1973); D. W. Lynch, Department of Physics, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50010 (personal communication).
[Crossref]

McCrackin, F. L.

F. L. McCrackin, “A fortran program for analysis of ellipsometer measurements,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Tech. Note 479(1969).

F. L. McCrackin, E. Passaglia, R. Stromberg, and H. L. Steinberg, “Measurement of the thickness and refractive index of very thin films and the optical properties of surfaces by ellipsometry,” J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. Sec. A 67, 363–377 (1963).
[Crossref]

Melmed, A. J.

A. J. Melmed, S. T. Ceyer, R. T. Tung, and W. R. Graham, “A LEED inquiry into the question of reconstruction of (001) niobium,” Surface Sci. 111, L701–L704 (1981).
[Crossref]

J. J. Carroll and A. J. Melmed, “Optical constants of (112¯0) ruthenium in the visible region,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1050–1051 (1976).

Motulevich, G. P.

A. I. Golovashkin, I. E. Leksina, G. P. Motulevich, and A. A. Shubin, “The optical properties of niobium,” Sov. Phys. JETP 29, 27–34 (1969).

Nestell, J. E.

J. E. Nestell and R. W. Christy, “Optical conductivity of bcc transition metals: V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W,” Phys. Rev. B 21, 3173–3179 (1980).
[Crossref]

O’Neal, J. E.

J. E. O’Neal, R. J. Lederich, and J. J. Bellina, “Comparison of reflection electron diffraction and ellipsometric studies of the oxidation of (001) niobium,” Metall. Trans. 3, 599–601 (1972).
[Crossref]

J. J. Bellina, R. J. Lederich, and J. E. O’Neal, “Variation of concentration with depth of absorbed oxygen in niobium during oxidation,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 287–292 (1972).
[Crossref]

Olson, C. G.

J. H. Weaver, D. W. Lynch, and C. G. Olson, “Optical properties of niobium from 0.1 to 36.4 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 7, 4311–4318 (1973); D. W. Lynch, Department of Physics, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50010 (personal communication).
[Crossref]

Passaglia, E.

F. L. McCrackin, E. Passaglia, R. Stromberg, and H. L. Steinberg, “Measurement of the thickness and refractive index of very thin films and the optical properties of surfaces by ellipsometry,” J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. Sec. A 67, 363–377 (1963).
[Crossref]

Salter, I. W.

I. W. Salter, “An investigation into some properties of thin and ultra thin niobium films,” Ph.D. Thesis (University of Aston, Aston, U.K., 1973), p. 58.

Shubin, A. A.

A. I. Golovashkin, I. E. Leksina, G. P. Motulevich, and A. A. Shubin, “The optical properties of niobium,” Sov. Phys. JETP 29, 27–34 (1969).

Steinberg, H. L.

F. L. McCrackin, E. Passaglia, R. Stromberg, and H. L. Steinberg, “Measurement of the thickness and refractive index of very thin films and the optical properties of surfaces by ellipsometry,” J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. Sec. A 67, 363–377 (1963).
[Crossref]

Stromberg, R.

F. L. McCrackin, E. Passaglia, R. Stromberg, and H. L. Steinberg, “Measurement of the thickness and refractive index of very thin films and the optical properties of surfaces by ellipsometry,” J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. Sec. A 67, 363–377 (1963).
[Crossref]

Treherne, D. M.

A. P. Lenham and D. M. Treherne, “The optical properties of the transition metals,” in Optical Properties and Electron Structure of Metals and Alloys, in Proceedings of the International Colloquium 1965, F. Abelès, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1966), pp. 196–201.

Tung, R. T.

A. J. Melmed, S. T. Ceyer, R. T. Tung, and W. R. Graham, “A LEED inquiry into the question of reconstruction of (001) niobium,” Surface Sci. 111, L701–L704 (1981).
[Crossref]

von Wartenberg, H.

H. von Wartenberg, “Optische Konstanten einiger Elemente,” Verh. Dtsch. Phys. Ges. 12, 105–120 (1910).

Weaver, J. H.

J. H. Weaver, D. W. Lynch, and C. G. Olson, “Optical properties of niobium from 0.1 to 36.4 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 7, 4311–4318 (1973); D. W. Lynch, Department of Physics, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50010 (personal communication).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. J. Bellina, R. J. Lederich, and J. E. O’Neal, “Variation of concentration with depth of absorbed oxygen in niobium during oxidation,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 287–292 (1972).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. Sec. A (1)

F. L. McCrackin, E. Passaglia, R. Stromberg, and H. L. Steinberg, “Measurement of the thickness and refractive index of very thin films and the optical properties of surfaces by ellipsometry,” J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. Sec. A 67, 363–377 (1963).
[Crossref]

Metall. Trans. (1)

J. E. O’Neal, R. J. Lederich, and J. J. Bellina, “Comparison of reflection electron diffraction and ellipsometric studies of the oxidation of (001) niobium,” Metall. Trans. 3, 599–601 (1972).
[Crossref]

Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Tech. Note (1)

F. L. McCrackin, “A fortran program for analysis of ellipsometer measurements,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Tech. Note 479(1969).

Phys. Met. Metallogr. (1)

M. M. Kirilova and B. A. Charikov, “Quantum light absorption by certain transition metals,” Phys. Met. Metallogr. 19(2), 13–17 (1965).

Phys. Rev. B (2)

J. E. Nestell and R. W. Christy, “Optical conductivity of bcc transition metals: V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W,” Phys. Rev. B 21, 3173–3179 (1980).
[Crossref]

J. H. Weaver, D. W. Lynch, and C. G. Olson, “Optical properties of niobium from 0.1 to 36.4 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 7, 4311–4318 (1973); D. W. Lynch, Department of Physics, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50010 (personal communication).
[Crossref]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

A. I. Golovashkin, I. E. Leksina, G. P. Motulevich, and A. A. Shubin, “The optical properties of niobium,” Sov. Phys. JETP 29, 27–34 (1969).

Surface Sci. (1)

A. J. Melmed, S. T. Ceyer, R. T. Tung, and W. R. Graham, “A LEED inquiry into the question of reconstruction of (001) niobium,” Surface Sci. 111, L701–L704 (1981).
[Crossref]

Verh. Dtsch. Phys. Ges. (1)

H. von Wartenberg, “Optische Konstanten einiger Elemente,” Verh. Dtsch. Phys. Ges. 12, 105–120 (1910).

Other (2)

A. P. Lenham and D. M. Treherne, “The optical properties of the transition metals,” in Optical Properties and Electron Structure of Metals and Alloys, in Proceedings of the International Colloquium 1965, F. Abelès, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1966), pp. 196–201.

I. W. Salter, “An investigation into some properties of thin and ultra thin niobium films,” Ph.D. Thesis (University of Aston, Aston, U.K., 1973), p. 58.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Index of refraction for niobium. Real part n versus wavelength λ. (●) clean niobium, (○) Ref. 5, (▽) Ref. 6, ( josa-72-5-668-i001) Refs. 7 and 8, (◿) Ref. 9, (◺) Ref. 10, (△) Ref. 11, (□) Ref. 12, (▱) Ref. 13, (+) Ref. 14.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Index of refraction for (001) niobium. Imaginary part κ versus wavelength λ. Same code as for Fig. 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dielectric constant for (001) niobium. Real part 1 versus wavelength λ, and imaginary part 2 versus wavelength λ.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 (001) Niobium Optical Constants