Abstract

It is well known that targets whose images are stabilized on the retina by optical means, as well as afterimages that are naturally stabilized on the retina, fade and eventually disappear. Comparative data are presented on the rate of disappearance of stabilized images and afterimages as a function of contrast and spatial frequency. The main finding is that they disappear in a similar fashion only when target contrast is low.

© 1982 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. S. Brindley, "Two new properties of foveal afterimages and a photochemical process to explain them," J. Physiol. Lond. 164, 168–197 (1962).
  2. R. W. Ditchburn and A. E. Drysdale, "Perception of structure in flashes and in afterimages," Vision Res. 13, 2423–2433 (1973).
  3. J. J. Koenderink, "Contrast enhancement and the negative afterimage," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 685–689 (1972).
  4. B. Sakitt, "Psychophysical correlates of photoreceptor activity," Vision Res. 16, 129–140 (1976).
  5. V. Virsu and P. Laurenin, "Long-lasting afterimages caused by neural adaptation," Vision Res. 17, 853–860 (1977).
  6. D. H. Kelly, "Visual contrast sensitivity," Opt. Acta 24, 107–129 (1977).
  7. J. M. Woodhouse and F. W. Campbell, "Spatial frequency and wave-form dependence of the negative afterimages," Vision Res. (to be published).
  8. L. A. Riggs and S. U. Tulunay, "Visual effects of varying the extent of compensation for eye movements," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 741–745 (1959).
  9. R. M. Jones, J. G. Webster, and Ü. Tulunay-Keesey, "An active feedback system for stabilizing visual images," IEEE Trans. Bio-Med. Electron. BME-19, 29–33 (1972).
  10. R. M. Jones and Ü. Tulunay-Keesey, "Accuracy of image stabilization by an optical-electronic feedback system," Vision Res. 15, 57–61 (1975).
  11. D. H. Kelly, "Motion and vision. I. Stabilized images of stationary gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1266–1274 (1979).
  12. Ü. Tulunay-Keesey and R. M. Jones, "Contrast sensitivity measures and accuracy of image stabilization systems," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1306–1310 (1980).
  13. D. H. Kelly, "Motion and vision. II. Stabilized spatiotemporal threshold surface," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1340–1349 (1979).
  14. Ü. Tulunay-Keesey, "Stabilized target visibility as a function of contrast and flicker frequency," Vision Res. 13, 1367–1373 (1973).
  15. C. R. Sharpe, "The visibility and fading of thin lines visualized by their controlled movement across the retina," J. Physiol. 222, 112–134 (1972).
  16. H. J. M. Gerritts and A. J. H. Vendrik, "Artificial movements of a stabilized image," Vision Res. 10, 1443–1456 (1970).
  17. P. Ewen King-Smith and L. A. Riggs, "Visual sensitivity to controlled motion of a line or edge," Vision Res. 11, 1509–1520 (1978).
  18. D. I. A. MacLeod and M. M. Hayhoe, "Retention of detail in afterimages: sharply localized sensitivity loss in the 'retina," presented at the Spring Meeting of the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, 1976.
  19. P. Lennie, "Paralle visual pathways: a review," Vision Res. 20, 561–594 (1980).

1980 (2)

1979 (2)

1978 (1)

P. Ewen King-Smith and L. A. Riggs, "Visual sensitivity to controlled motion of a line or edge," Vision Res. 11, 1509–1520 (1978).

1977 (2)

V. Virsu and P. Laurenin, "Long-lasting afterimages caused by neural adaptation," Vision Res. 17, 853–860 (1977).

D. H. Kelly, "Visual contrast sensitivity," Opt. Acta 24, 107–129 (1977).

1976 (1)

B. Sakitt, "Psychophysical correlates of photoreceptor activity," Vision Res. 16, 129–140 (1976).

1975 (1)

R. M. Jones and Ü. Tulunay-Keesey, "Accuracy of image stabilization by an optical-electronic feedback system," Vision Res. 15, 57–61 (1975).

1973 (2)

Ü. Tulunay-Keesey, "Stabilized target visibility as a function of contrast and flicker frequency," Vision Res. 13, 1367–1373 (1973).

R. W. Ditchburn and A. E. Drysdale, "Perception of structure in flashes and in afterimages," Vision Res. 13, 2423–2433 (1973).

1972 (3)

R. M. Jones, J. G. Webster, and Ü. Tulunay-Keesey, "An active feedback system for stabilizing visual images," IEEE Trans. Bio-Med. Electron. BME-19, 29–33 (1972).

C. R. Sharpe, "The visibility and fading of thin lines visualized by their controlled movement across the retina," J. Physiol. 222, 112–134 (1972).

J. J. Koenderink, "Contrast enhancement and the negative afterimage," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 685–689 (1972).

1970 (1)

H. J. M. Gerritts and A. J. H. Vendrik, "Artificial movements of a stabilized image," Vision Res. 10, 1443–1456 (1970).

1962 (1)

G. S. Brindley, "Two new properties of foveal afterimages and a photochemical process to explain them," J. Physiol. Lond. 164, 168–197 (1962).

1959 (1)

Brindley, G. S.

G. S. Brindley, "Two new properties of foveal afterimages and a photochemical process to explain them," J. Physiol. Lond. 164, 168–197 (1962).

Campbell, F. W.

J. M. Woodhouse and F. W. Campbell, "Spatial frequency and wave-form dependence of the negative afterimages," Vision Res. (to be published).

Ditchburn, R. W.

R. W. Ditchburn and A. E. Drysdale, "Perception of structure in flashes and in afterimages," Vision Res. 13, 2423–2433 (1973).

Drysdale, A. E.

R. W. Ditchburn and A. E. Drysdale, "Perception of structure in flashes and in afterimages," Vision Res. 13, 2423–2433 (1973).

Ewen King-Smith, P.

P. Ewen King-Smith and L. A. Riggs, "Visual sensitivity to controlled motion of a line or edge," Vision Res. 11, 1509–1520 (1978).

Gerritts, H. J. M.

H. J. M. Gerritts and A. J. H. Vendrik, "Artificial movements of a stabilized image," Vision Res. 10, 1443–1456 (1970).

Hayhoe, M. M.

D. I. A. MacLeod and M. M. Hayhoe, "Retention of detail in afterimages: sharply localized sensitivity loss in the 'retina," presented at the Spring Meeting of the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, 1976.

Jones, R. M.

Ü. Tulunay-Keesey and R. M. Jones, "Contrast sensitivity measures and accuracy of image stabilization systems," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1306–1310 (1980).

R. M. Jones and Ü. Tulunay-Keesey, "Accuracy of image stabilization by an optical-electronic feedback system," Vision Res. 15, 57–61 (1975).

R. M. Jones, J. G. Webster, and Ü. Tulunay-Keesey, "An active feedback system for stabilizing visual images," IEEE Trans. Bio-Med. Electron. BME-19, 29–33 (1972).

Kelly, D. H.

Koenderink, J. J.

Laurenin, P.

V. Virsu and P. Laurenin, "Long-lasting afterimages caused by neural adaptation," Vision Res. 17, 853–860 (1977).

Lennie, P.

P. Lennie, "Paralle visual pathways: a review," Vision Res. 20, 561–594 (1980).

MacLeod, D. I. A.

D. I. A. MacLeod and M. M. Hayhoe, "Retention of detail in afterimages: sharply localized sensitivity loss in the 'retina," presented at the Spring Meeting of the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, 1976.

Riggs, L. A.

P. Ewen King-Smith and L. A. Riggs, "Visual sensitivity to controlled motion of a line or edge," Vision Res. 11, 1509–1520 (1978).

L. A. Riggs and S. U. Tulunay, "Visual effects of varying the extent of compensation for eye movements," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 741–745 (1959).

Sakitt, B.

B. Sakitt, "Psychophysical correlates of photoreceptor activity," Vision Res. 16, 129–140 (1976).

Sharpe, C. R.

C. R. Sharpe, "The visibility and fading of thin lines visualized by their controlled movement across the retina," J. Physiol. 222, 112–134 (1972).

Tulunay, S. U.

Tulunay-Keesey, Ü.

Ü. Tulunay-Keesey and R. M. Jones, "Contrast sensitivity measures and accuracy of image stabilization systems," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1306–1310 (1980).

R. M. Jones and Ü. Tulunay-Keesey, "Accuracy of image stabilization by an optical-electronic feedback system," Vision Res. 15, 57–61 (1975).

Ü. Tulunay-Keesey, "Stabilized target visibility as a function of contrast and flicker frequency," Vision Res. 13, 1367–1373 (1973).

R. M. Jones, J. G. Webster, and Ü. Tulunay-Keesey, "An active feedback system for stabilizing visual images," IEEE Trans. Bio-Med. Electron. BME-19, 29–33 (1972).

Vendrik, A. J. H.

H. J. M. Gerritts and A. J. H. Vendrik, "Artificial movements of a stabilized image," Vision Res. 10, 1443–1456 (1970).

Virsu, V.

V. Virsu and P. Laurenin, "Long-lasting afterimages caused by neural adaptation," Vision Res. 17, 853–860 (1977).

Webster, J. G.

R. M. Jones, J. G. Webster, and Ü. Tulunay-Keesey, "An active feedback system for stabilizing visual images," IEEE Trans. Bio-Med. Electron. BME-19, 29–33 (1972).

Woodhouse, J. M.

J. M. Woodhouse and F. W. Campbell, "Spatial frequency and wave-form dependence of the negative afterimages," Vision Res. (to be published).

IEEE Trans. Bio-Med. Electron. (1)

R. M. Jones, J. G. Webster, and Ü. Tulunay-Keesey, "An active feedback system for stabilizing visual images," IEEE Trans. Bio-Med. Electron. BME-19, 29–33 (1972).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (5)

J. Physiol. (1)

C. R. Sharpe, "The visibility and fading of thin lines visualized by their controlled movement across the retina," J. Physiol. 222, 112–134 (1972).

J. Physiol. Lond. (1)

G. S. Brindley, "Two new properties of foveal afterimages and a photochemical process to explain them," J. Physiol. Lond. 164, 168–197 (1962).

Opt. Acta (1)

D. H. Kelly, "Visual contrast sensitivity," Opt. Acta 24, 107–129 (1977).

Vision Res. (8)

B. Sakitt, "Psychophysical correlates of photoreceptor activity," Vision Res. 16, 129–140 (1976).

V. Virsu and P. Laurenin, "Long-lasting afterimages caused by neural adaptation," Vision Res. 17, 853–860 (1977).

R. W. Ditchburn and A. E. Drysdale, "Perception of structure in flashes and in afterimages," Vision Res. 13, 2423–2433 (1973).

R. M. Jones and Ü. Tulunay-Keesey, "Accuracy of image stabilization by an optical-electronic feedback system," Vision Res. 15, 57–61 (1975).

Ü. Tulunay-Keesey, "Stabilized target visibility as a function of contrast and flicker frequency," Vision Res. 13, 1367–1373 (1973).

H. J. M. Gerritts and A. J. H. Vendrik, "Artificial movements of a stabilized image," Vision Res. 10, 1443–1456 (1970).

P. Ewen King-Smith and L. A. Riggs, "Visual sensitivity to controlled motion of a line or edge," Vision Res. 11, 1509–1520 (1978).

P. Lennie, "Paralle visual pathways: a review," Vision Res. 20, 561–594 (1980).

Other (2)

D. I. A. MacLeod and M. M. Hayhoe, "Retention of detail in afterimages: sharply localized sensitivity loss in the 'retina," presented at the Spring Meeting of the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, 1976.

J. M. Woodhouse and F. W. Campbell, "Spatial frequency and wave-form dependence of the negative afterimages," Vision Res. (to be published).

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