Abstract

It is well known that targets whose images are stabilized on the retina by optical means, as well as afterimages that are naturally stabilized on the retina, fade and eventually disappear. Comparative data are presented on the rate of disappearance of stabilized images and afterimages as a function of contrast and spatial frequency. The main finding is that they disappear in a similar fashion only when target contrast is low.

© 1982 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. S. Brindley, “Two new properties of foveal afterimages and a photochemical process to explain them,” J. Physiol. Lond. 164, 168–197 (1962).
  2. R. W. Ditchburn and A. E. Drysdale, “Perception of structure in flashes and in afterimages,” Vision Res. 13, 2423–2433 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. J. Koenderink, “Contrast enhancement and the negative afterimage,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 685–689 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B. Sakitt, “Psychophysical correlates of photoreceptor activity,” Vision Res. 16, 129–140 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. V. Virsu and P. Laurenin, “Long-lasting afterimages caused by neural adaptation,” Vision Res. 17, 853–860 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. H. Kelly, “Visual contrast sensitivity,” Opt. Acta 24, 107–129 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. M. Woodhouse and F. W. Campbell, “Spatial frequency and wave-form dependence of the negative afterimages,” Vision Res. (to be published).
  8. L. A. Riggs and S. U. Tulunay, “Visual effects of varying the extent of compensation for eye movements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 741–745 (1959).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. M. Jones, J. G. Webster, and Ü. Tulunay-Keesey, “An active feedback system for stabilizing visual images,” IEEE Trans. Bio-Med. Electron. BME-19, 29–33 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. M. Jones and Ü. Tulunay-Keesey, “Accuracy of image stabilization by an optical-electronic feedback system,” Vision Res. 15, 57–61 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. H. Kelly, “Motion and vision. I. Stabilized images of stationary gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1266–1274 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Ü. Tulunay-Keesey and R. M. Jones, “Contrast sensitivity measures and accuracy of image stabilization systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1306–1310 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. H. Kelly, “Motion and vision. II. Stabilized spatiotemporal threshold surface,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1340–1349 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Ü. Tulunay-Keesey, “Stabilized target visibility as a function of contrast and flicker frequency,” Vision Res. 13, 1367–1373 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. C. R. Sharpe, “The visibility and fading of thin lines visualized by their controlled movement across the retina,” J. Physiol. 222, 112–134 (1972).
  16. H. J. M. Gerritts and A. J. H. Vendrik, “Artificial movements of a stabilized image,” Vision Res. 10, 1443–1456 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. Ewen King-Smith and L. A. Riggs, “Visual sensitivity to controlled motion of a line or edge,” Vision Res. 11, 1509–1520 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. I. A. MacLeod and M. M. Hayhoe, “Retention of detail in afterimages: sharply localized sensitivity loss in the retina,” presented at the Spring Meeting of the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, 1976.
  19. P. Lennie, “Paralle visual pathways: a review,” Vision Res. 20, 561–594 (1980).
    [CrossRef]

1980 (2)

1979 (2)

1978 (1)

P. Ewen King-Smith and L. A. Riggs, “Visual sensitivity to controlled motion of a line or edge,” Vision Res. 11, 1509–1520 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (2)

V. Virsu and P. Laurenin, “Long-lasting afterimages caused by neural adaptation,” Vision Res. 17, 853–860 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Kelly, “Visual contrast sensitivity,” Opt. Acta 24, 107–129 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

B. Sakitt, “Psychophysical correlates of photoreceptor activity,” Vision Res. 16, 129–140 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

R. M. Jones and Ü. Tulunay-Keesey, “Accuracy of image stabilization by an optical-electronic feedback system,” Vision Res. 15, 57–61 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973 (2)

R. W. Ditchburn and A. E. Drysdale, “Perception of structure in flashes and in afterimages,” Vision Res. 13, 2423–2433 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ü. Tulunay-Keesey, “Stabilized target visibility as a function of contrast and flicker frequency,” Vision Res. 13, 1367–1373 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (3)

C. R. Sharpe, “The visibility and fading of thin lines visualized by their controlled movement across the retina,” J. Physiol. 222, 112–134 (1972).

J. J. Koenderink, “Contrast enhancement and the negative afterimage,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 685–689 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Jones, J. G. Webster, and Ü. Tulunay-Keesey, “An active feedback system for stabilizing visual images,” IEEE Trans. Bio-Med. Electron. BME-19, 29–33 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

H. J. M. Gerritts and A. J. H. Vendrik, “Artificial movements of a stabilized image,” Vision Res. 10, 1443–1456 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

G. S. Brindley, “Two new properties of foveal afterimages and a photochemical process to explain them,” J. Physiol. Lond. 164, 168–197 (1962).

1959 (1)

Brindley, G. S.

G. S. Brindley, “Two new properties of foveal afterimages and a photochemical process to explain them,” J. Physiol. Lond. 164, 168–197 (1962).

Campbell, F. W.

J. M. Woodhouse and F. W. Campbell, “Spatial frequency and wave-form dependence of the negative afterimages,” Vision Res. (to be published).

Ditchburn, R. W.

R. W. Ditchburn and A. E. Drysdale, “Perception of structure in flashes and in afterimages,” Vision Res. 13, 2423–2433 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drysdale, A. E.

R. W. Ditchburn and A. E. Drysdale, “Perception of structure in flashes and in afterimages,” Vision Res. 13, 2423–2433 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ewen King-Smith, P.

P. Ewen King-Smith and L. A. Riggs, “Visual sensitivity to controlled motion of a line or edge,” Vision Res. 11, 1509–1520 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Gerritts, H. J. M.

H. J. M. Gerritts and A. J. H. Vendrik, “Artificial movements of a stabilized image,” Vision Res. 10, 1443–1456 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Hayhoe, M. M.

D. I. A. MacLeod and M. M. Hayhoe, “Retention of detail in afterimages: sharply localized sensitivity loss in the retina,” presented at the Spring Meeting of the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, 1976.

Jones, R. M.

Ü. Tulunay-Keesey and R. M. Jones, “Contrast sensitivity measures and accuracy of image stabilization systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1306–1310 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Jones and Ü. Tulunay-Keesey, “Accuracy of image stabilization by an optical-electronic feedback system,” Vision Res. 15, 57–61 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Jones, J. G. Webster, and Ü. Tulunay-Keesey, “An active feedback system for stabilizing visual images,” IEEE Trans. Bio-Med. Electron. BME-19, 29–33 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, D. H.

Koenderink, J. J.

Laurenin, P.

V. Virsu and P. Laurenin, “Long-lasting afterimages caused by neural adaptation,” Vision Res. 17, 853–860 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lennie, P.

P. Lennie, “Paralle visual pathways: a review,” Vision Res. 20, 561–594 (1980).
[CrossRef]

MacLeod, D. I. A.

D. I. A. MacLeod and M. M. Hayhoe, “Retention of detail in afterimages: sharply localized sensitivity loss in the retina,” presented at the Spring Meeting of the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, 1976.

Riggs, L. A.

P. Ewen King-Smith and L. A. Riggs, “Visual sensitivity to controlled motion of a line or edge,” Vision Res. 11, 1509–1520 (1978).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Riggs and S. U. Tulunay, “Visual effects of varying the extent of compensation for eye movements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 741–745 (1959).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakitt, B.

B. Sakitt, “Psychophysical correlates of photoreceptor activity,” Vision Res. 16, 129–140 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharpe, C. R.

C. R. Sharpe, “The visibility and fading of thin lines visualized by their controlled movement across the retina,” J. Physiol. 222, 112–134 (1972).

Tulunay, S. U.

Tulunay-Keesey, Ü.

Ü. Tulunay-Keesey and R. M. Jones, “Contrast sensitivity measures and accuracy of image stabilization systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1306–1310 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Jones and Ü. Tulunay-Keesey, “Accuracy of image stabilization by an optical-electronic feedback system,” Vision Res. 15, 57–61 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ü. Tulunay-Keesey, “Stabilized target visibility as a function of contrast and flicker frequency,” Vision Res. 13, 1367–1373 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Jones, J. G. Webster, and Ü. Tulunay-Keesey, “An active feedback system for stabilizing visual images,” IEEE Trans. Bio-Med. Electron. BME-19, 29–33 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Vendrik, A. J. H.

H. J. M. Gerritts and A. J. H. Vendrik, “Artificial movements of a stabilized image,” Vision Res. 10, 1443–1456 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Virsu, V.

V. Virsu and P. Laurenin, “Long-lasting afterimages caused by neural adaptation,” Vision Res. 17, 853–860 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webster, J. G.

R. M. Jones, J. G. Webster, and Ü. Tulunay-Keesey, “An active feedback system for stabilizing visual images,” IEEE Trans. Bio-Med. Electron. BME-19, 29–33 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Woodhouse, J. M.

J. M. Woodhouse and F. W. Campbell, “Spatial frequency and wave-form dependence of the negative afterimages,” Vision Res. (to be published).

IEEE Trans. Bio-Med. Electron. (1)

R. M. Jones, J. G. Webster, and Ü. Tulunay-Keesey, “An active feedback system for stabilizing visual images,” IEEE Trans. Bio-Med. Electron. BME-19, 29–33 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (5)

J. Physiol. (1)

C. R. Sharpe, “The visibility and fading of thin lines visualized by their controlled movement across the retina,” J. Physiol. 222, 112–134 (1972).

J. Physiol. Lond. (1)

G. S. Brindley, “Two new properties of foveal afterimages and a photochemical process to explain them,” J. Physiol. Lond. 164, 168–197 (1962).

Opt. Acta (1)

D. H. Kelly, “Visual contrast sensitivity,” Opt. Acta 24, 107–129 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res. (8)

R. M. Jones and Ü. Tulunay-Keesey, “Accuracy of image stabilization by an optical-electronic feedback system,” Vision Res. 15, 57–61 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Ditchburn and A. E. Drysdale, “Perception of structure in flashes and in afterimages,” Vision Res. 13, 2423–2433 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sakitt, “Psychophysical correlates of photoreceptor activity,” Vision Res. 16, 129–140 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Virsu and P. Laurenin, “Long-lasting afterimages caused by neural adaptation,” Vision Res. 17, 853–860 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. M. Gerritts and A. J. H. Vendrik, “Artificial movements of a stabilized image,” Vision Res. 10, 1443–1456 (1970).
[CrossRef]

P. Ewen King-Smith and L. A. Riggs, “Visual sensitivity to controlled motion of a line or edge,” Vision Res. 11, 1509–1520 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ü. Tulunay-Keesey, “Stabilized target visibility as a function of contrast and flicker frequency,” Vision Res. 13, 1367–1373 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Lennie, “Paralle visual pathways: a review,” Vision Res. 20, 561–594 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

D. I. A. MacLeod and M. M. Hayhoe, “Retention of detail in afterimages: sharply localized sensitivity loss in the retina,” presented at the Spring Meeting of the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, 1976.

J. M. Woodhouse and F. W. Campbell, “Spatial frequency and wave-form dependence of the negative afterimages,” Vision Res. (to be published).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(A) Thresholds for detecting an off-image (dotted line) and a real-light image (solid line) in stabilized vision. (B) Contrast thresholds for detecting real-light (solid line) image and an off-image (dotted line) in unstabilized, normal vision. For the method used to obtain the off-image, see the text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Time it takes for a stabilized image to disappear as a function of contrast. Contrast for each spatial frequency is expressed as multiples of its own threshold level. There was a 20-sec limit imposed on viewing time; for 18 cpd, 10 and 15 times contrast were not used.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(A) Time to disappearance of an off-image produced by a stabilized inducing target as a function of inducing contrast. (B) Time to disappearance of an off-image produced by a normally viewed, unstabilized inducing target as a function of inducing contrast. The inducing targets were presented for 10 sec.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(A) Time to disappearance of an off-image produced by an unstabilized inducing target (squares and solid line), a stabilized inducing target (open circles and dotted line), and a real-light stabilized image (filled circles and dotted line) as a function of spatial frequency. All were at threshold level. (B) Time to disappearance of off-images (squares and solid line for the unstabilized inducing, circles and dotted line for stabilized inducing targets) and the real-light stabilized image (filled circles and dotted lines) as a function of spatial frequency. The inducing image and the real-light image were at contrast levels five times their threshold.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(A) Time to disappearance as a function of spatial frequency of off-images produced by a stabilized inducing target (open circles and dotted line) compared with the disappearance of real-light stabilized images of equivalent contrast (filled circles and dotted line); (B) Time to disappearance as a function of spatial frequency of off-images produced by a normally viewed unstabilized inducing target (squares and solid line) and stabilized real-light targets of equivalent contrast (filled circles and dotted line).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Time to disappearance as a function of spatial frequency of stabilized sine-wave and square-wave gratings as well as normally viewed, well-fixated sine-wave gratings at the (A) threshold and (B) 10-times-above-threshold levels of contrast. Open circles and dashed line indicate stabilized sine-wave, filled circles and dashed line indicate stabilized square-wave, squares and solid line indicate unstabilized sine-wave gratings.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Inducing and Canceling Contrasts for Off-Images in Stabilized and Unstabilized Vision