Abstract

The equations for performance evaluation of the laser time-of-flight velocimeter (LTV) for atmospheric windspeed measurement with single-particle digital-correlation analysis have been derived theoretically. Using an inverse power law for aerosol-size distribution and a simple expression for backscatter-differential cross section, the minimum-detectable number of signal photon counts, the photon-count distribution of signal particles, and the scaling law for LTV measurement rate are expressed in terms of correlator settings and parameters of a Gaussian laser beam. It is shown, both theoretically and experimentally, that these equations can be used to evaluate the system performance and assess the potential usefulness of the single-particle LTV.

© 1982 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. W. Bilbro, "Atmospheric laser Doppler velocimetry: an overview," Opt. Eng. 19, 533–542 (1980).
  2. K. G. Bartlett and C. Y. She, "Remote measurement of wind speed using a dual backscatter laser Doppler velocimeter," Appl. Opt. 15, 1980–1983 (1976).
  3. K. G. Bartlett and C. Y. She, "Single-particle correlated time-of-flight velocimeter for remote wind-speed measurement," Opt. Lett. 1, 175–177 (1977).
  4. L. Lading, A. S. Jensen, C. Fog, and H. Andersen, "Time-of-flight laser anemometer for velocity measurements in the atmosphere," Appl. Opt. 17, 1486–1488 (1978).
  5. F. Durst, B. Howe, and G. Richter, "Long range LDA wind velocity measurements using visible laser radiation," in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Photon Correlation Techniques in Fluid Mechanics, W. T. Mayo, Jr. and A. E. Smart, eds. (Joint Institute for Aeronautics and Acoustics, Stanford, Calif., 1980), Paper 3.
  6. L. Danielsson, "Experiments with laser-fringe velocity measurements over large distances in the atmosphere," in Proceedings of Fourth International Conference on Photon Correlation Techniques in Fluid Mechanics, W. T. Mayo, Jr., and A. E. Smart, eds. (Joint Institute for Aeronautics and Acoustics, Stanford, Calif., 1980), paper 4.
  7. K. G. Bartlett and C. Y. She, "Single-particle correlation techniques for remote measurement of wind speed: aerosol condition and measurement rate," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 455–459 (1979).
  8. L. Elterman, "Relationships between vertical attenuation and surface meteorological range," Appl. Opt. 9, 1804–1810 (1970).
  9. M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic, New York, 1969), pp. 129–139.
  10. A. J. Hughes and E. R. Pike, "Remote measurement of wind speed by laser Doppler systems," Appl. Opt. 12, 597–601 (1973).
  11. W. Wiscombe and A. Mugnai, "Exact calculations of scattering from moderately-nonspherical Tn-particles:, comparisons with equivalent spheres," in Light Scattering by Irregularly Shaped Particles, D. W. Schuerman, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1980), pp. 141–152.
  12. S. Twomey, Atmospheric Aerosols (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1977), p.7.
  13. C. J. Oliver, "Correlation techniques," in Photon Correlation and Light Beating Spectroscopy, Proceedings of NATO ASI, H. Z. Cummins and E. R. Pike, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1974), pp. 151–223.
  14. C. Y. She, "Individual particle scattering and single-burst digital correlation for remote atmospheric wind measurements," Opt. Acta 26, 645–657 (1979).
  15. E. E. Hindman II, R. D. Horn, and W. G. Finnegan, "Generation and characterization of aerosol particles," in Light Absorption by Aerosol Particles, H. E. Gerber and E. E. Hindman II, eds. (Spectrum, Hampton, Va., in press).
  16. C. Y. She, "Photon-burst correlation for detection and speed measurement of individual particles," in Proceedings of Fourth International Conference on Photon Correlation Techniques in Fluid Mechanics, W. T. Mayo, Jr., and A. E. Smart, eds. (Joint Institute for Aeronautics and Acoustics, Stanford, Calif., 1980), paper 20.
  17. C. L. Pan, J. V. Prodan, W. M. Fairbank, Jr., and C. Y. She, "Detection of individual atoms in helium buffer gas and observation of their real-time motion," Opt. Lett. 5, 459–461 (1980).

1980 (2)

1979 (2)

K. G. Bartlett and C. Y. She, "Single-particle correlation techniques for remote measurement of wind speed: aerosol condition and measurement rate," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 455–459 (1979).

C. Y. She, "Individual particle scattering and single-burst digital correlation for remote atmospheric wind measurements," Opt. Acta 26, 645–657 (1979).

1978 (1)

1977 (1)

1976 (1)

1973 (1)

1970 (1)

Andersen, H.

Bartlett, K. G.

Bilbro, J. W.

J. W. Bilbro, "Atmospheric laser Doppler velocimetry: an overview," Opt. Eng. 19, 533–542 (1980).

Danielsson, L.

L. Danielsson, "Experiments with laser-fringe velocity measurements over large distances in the atmosphere," in Proceedings of Fourth International Conference on Photon Correlation Techniques in Fluid Mechanics, W. T. Mayo, Jr., and A. E. Smart, eds. (Joint Institute for Aeronautics and Acoustics, Stanford, Calif., 1980), paper 4.

Durst, F.

F. Durst, B. Howe, and G. Richter, "Long range LDA wind velocity measurements using visible laser radiation," in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Photon Correlation Techniques in Fluid Mechanics, W. T. Mayo, Jr. and A. E. Smart, eds. (Joint Institute for Aeronautics and Acoustics, Stanford, Calif., 1980), Paper 3.

Elterman, L.

Fairbank, Jr., W. M.

Finnegan, W. G.

E. E. Hindman II, R. D. Horn, and W. G. Finnegan, "Generation and characterization of aerosol particles," in Light Absorption by Aerosol Particles, H. E. Gerber and E. E. Hindman II, eds. (Spectrum, Hampton, Va., in press).

Fog, C.

Hindman II, E. E.

E. E. Hindman II, R. D. Horn, and W. G. Finnegan, "Generation and characterization of aerosol particles," in Light Absorption by Aerosol Particles, H. E. Gerber and E. E. Hindman II, eds. (Spectrum, Hampton, Va., in press).

Horn, R. D.

E. E. Hindman II, R. D. Horn, and W. G. Finnegan, "Generation and characterization of aerosol particles," in Light Absorption by Aerosol Particles, H. E. Gerber and E. E. Hindman II, eds. (Spectrum, Hampton, Va., in press).

Howe, B.

F. Durst, B. Howe, and G. Richter, "Long range LDA wind velocity measurements using visible laser radiation," in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Photon Correlation Techniques in Fluid Mechanics, W. T. Mayo, Jr. and A. E. Smart, eds. (Joint Institute for Aeronautics and Acoustics, Stanford, Calif., 1980), Paper 3.

Hughes, A. J.

Jensen, A. S.

Kerker, M.

M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic, New York, 1969), pp. 129–139.

Lading, L.

Mugnai, A.

W. Wiscombe and A. Mugnai, "Exact calculations of scattering from moderately-nonspherical Tn-particles:, comparisons with equivalent spheres," in Light Scattering by Irregularly Shaped Particles, D. W. Schuerman, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1980), pp. 141–152.

Oliver, C. J.

C. J. Oliver, "Correlation techniques," in Photon Correlation and Light Beating Spectroscopy, Proceedings of NATO ASI, H. Z. Cummins and E. R. Pike, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1974), pp. 151–223.

Pan, C. L.

Pike, E. R.

Prodan, J. V.

Richter, G.

F. Durst, B. Howe, and G. Richter, "Long range LDA wind velocity measurements using visible laser radiation," in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Photon Correlation Techniques in Fluid Mechanics, W. T. Mayo, Jr. and A. E. Smart, eds. (Joint Institute for Aeronautics and Acoustics, Stanford, Calif., 1980), Paper 3.

She, C. Y.

C. L. Pan, J. V. Prodan, W. M. Fairbank, Jr., and C. Y. She, "Detection of individual atoms in helium buffer gas and observation of their real-time motion," Opt. Lett. 5, 459–461 (1980).

C. Y. She, "Individual particle scattering and single-burst digital correlation for remote atmospheric wind measurements," Opt. Acta 26, 645–657 (1979).

K. G. Bartlett and C. Y. She, "Single-particle correlation techniques for remote measurement of wind speed: aerosol condition and measurement rate," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 455–459 (1979).

K. G. Bartlett and C. Y. She, "Single-particle correlated time-of-flight velocimeter for remote wind-speed measurement," Opt. Lett. 1, 175–177 (1977).

K. G. Bartlett and C. Y. She, "Remote measurement of wind speed using a dual backscatter laser Doppler velocimeter," Appl. Opt. 15, 1980–1983 (1976).

C. Y. She, "Photon-burst correlation for detection and speed measurement of individual particles," in Proceedings of Fourth International Conference on Photon Correlation Techniques in Fluid Mechanics, W. T. Mayo, Jr., and A. E. Smart, eds. (Joint Institute for Aeronautics and Acoustics, Stanford, Calif., 1980), paper 20.

Twomey, S.

S. Twomey, Atmospheric Aerosols (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1977), p.7.

Wiscombe, W.

W. Wiscombe and A. Mugnai, "Exact calculations of scattering from moderately-nonspherical Tn-particles:, comparisons with equivalent spheres," in Light Scattering by Irregularly Shaped Particles, D. W. Schuerman, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1980), pp. 141–152.

Appl. Opt. (4)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Acta (1)

C. Y. She, "Individual particle scattering and single-burst digital correlation for remote atmospheric wind measurements," Opt. Acta 26, 645–657 (1979).

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. W. Bilbro, "Atmospheric laser Doppler velocimetry: an overview," Opt. Eng. 19, 533–542 (1980).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (8)

E. E. Hindman II, R. D. Horn, and W. G. Finnegan, "Generation and characterization of aerosol particles," in Light Absorption by Aerosol Particles, H. E. Gerber and E. E. Hindman II, eds. (Spectrum, Hampton, Va., in press).

C. Y. She, "Photon-burst correlation for detection and speed measurement of individual particles," in Proceedings of Fourth International Conference on Photon Correlation Techniques in Fluid Mechanics, W. T. Mayo, Jr., and A. E. Smart, eds. (Joint Institute for Aeronautics and Acoustics, Stanford, Calif., 1980), paper 20.

W. Wiscombe and A. Mugnai, "Exact calculations of scattering from moderately-nonspherical Tn-particles:, comparisons with equivalent spheres," in Light Scattering by Irregularly Shaped Particles, D. W. Schuerman, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1980), pp. 141–152.

S. Twomey, Atmospheric Aerosols (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1977), p.7.

C. J. Oliver, "Correlation techniques," in Photon Correlation and Light Beating Spectroscopy, Proceedings of NATO ASI, H. Z. Cummins and E. R. Pike, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1974), pp. 151–223.

F. Durst, B. Howe, and G. Richter, "Long range LDA wind velocity measurements using visible laser radiation," in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Photon Correlation Techniques in Fluid Mechanics, W. T. Mayo, Jr. and A. E. Smart, eds. (Joint Institute for Aeronautics and Acoustics, Stanford, Calif., 1980), Paper 3.

L. Danielsson, "Experiments with laser-fringe velocity measurements over large distances in the atmosphere," in Proceedings of Fourth International Conference on Photon Correlation Techniques in Fluid Mechanics, W. T. Mayo, Jr., and A. E. Smart, eds. (Joint Institute for Aeronautics and Acoustics, Stanford, Calif., 1980), paper 4.

M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic, New York, 1969), pp. 129–139.

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