Abstract

We have observed 79 two-photon transitions in Na<sub>2</sub> by using cw dye-laser excitation. The transitions are enhanced by the near coincidence of the laser frequency with a suitable one-photon transition. Of these two-photon lines, 57 have been assigned to transitions from the <i>X</i><sup>1</sup>Σ<sub><i>g</i></sub><sup>+</sup> ground state to two recently reported <sup>1</sup>Σ<sub><i>g</i></sub><sup>+</sup> and one <sup>1</sup>Π<sub><i>g</i></sub> state at 33000 cm<sup>-1</sup>. We discuss the spectral structures of the observed lines that arise from the requirements of near-resonant enhancement.

© 1982 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. S. Vasilenko, V. P. Chebotayev, and A. V. Shishaev, "Line shape of two-photon absorption in a standing-wave field in a gas," JETP Lett. 12, 113–116 (1970).
  2. F. Biraben, B. Cagnac, and G. Grynberg, "Experimental evidence of two-photon transitions without Doppler broadening," Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 643–645 (1974).
  3. M. D. Levenson and N. Bloembergen, "Observation of two-photon absorption without Doppler broadening on the 3S–5S transition in sodium vapor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 645–648 (1974).
  4. T. W. Hänsch, K. C. Harvey, G. Meisel, and A. L. Schawlow, "Two-photon spectroscopy of Na 3s–4d without Doppler broadening using a c.w. dye laser," Opt. Commun. 11, 50–53 (1974).
  5. K. C. Harvey, "Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy," Microwave Laboratory Rep. No. 2442, (Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., 1975) (unpublished).
  6. J. P. Woerdman, "Doppler-free two-photon transitions of the sodium molecule," Chem. Phys. Lett. 43, 279–282 (1976).
  7. N. Bloembergen and M. D. Levenson, "Doppler-free two-photon absorption spectroscopy," in Topics in Applied Physics, High Resolution Laser Spectroscopy, K. Shimoda, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), Vol. 13.
  8. G. Herzberg, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure, Vol. 1 of Spectra of Diatomic Molecules (Van Nostrand, Princeton, N.J., 1950).
  9. H.-R. Xia, G.-Y. Yan, and A. L. Schawlow, "Two photon line shapes with year-resonant enhancement," Opt. Commun. 39, 153–158 (1981).
  10. P. Kusch and M. M. Hessel, "An analysis of the B1Πu-X1Σg+ band system of Na2," J. Chem. Phys. 68, 2591–2606 (1978).
  11. P. Kusch and M. M. Hessel, Department of Physics, University of Texas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (personal communication).
  12. A. J. Taylor, K. M. Jones, and A. L. Schawlow, "A study of the excited 1Σg+ states in Na2," Opt. Commun. 39, 47–50 (1981).
  13. N. W. Carlson, A. J. Taylor, K. M. Jones, and A. L. Schawlow, "Two-step polarization-labeling spectroscopy of excited states of Na2," Phys. Rev. A 24, 822–834 (1981).
  14. H. R. Xia, S. V. Benson, and T. W. Hänsch, "A toy-train wavemeter," Laser Focus 17 (3), 54–58 (1981).
  15. J. P. Woerdman and M. F. H. Schuurmans, "Doppler-free three-photon cross-resonances in Na2 vapor," Opt. Commun. 21, 243–246 (1977).

1981

A. J. Taylor, K. M. Jones, and A. L. Schawlow, "A study of the excited 1Σg+ states in Na2," Opt. Commun. 39, 47–50 (1981).

N. W. Carlson, A. J. Taylor, K. M. Jones, and A. L. Schawlow, "Two-step polarization-labeling spectroscopy of excited states of Na2," Phys. Rev. A 24, 822–834 (1981).

H. R. Xia, S. V. Benson, and T. W. Hänsch, "A toy-train wavemeter," Laser Focus 17 (3), 54–58 (1981).

H.-R. Xia, G.-Y. Yan, and A. L. Schawlow, "Two photon line shapes with year-resonant enhancement," Opt. Commun. 39, 153–158 (1981).

1978

P. Kusch and M. M. Hessel, "An analysis of the B1Πu-X1Σg+ band system of Na2," J. Chem. Phys. 68, 2591–2606 (1978).

1977

J. P. Woerdman and M. F. H. Schuurmans, "Doppler-free three-photon cross-resonances in Na2 vapor," Opt. Commun. 21, 243–246 (1977).

1976

J. P. Woerdman, "Doppler-free two-photon transitions of the sodium molecule," Chem. Phys. Lett. 43, 279–282 (1976).

1974

F. Biraben, B. Cagnac, and G. Grynberg, "Experimental evidence of two-photon transitions without Doppler broadening," Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 643–645 (1974).

M. D. Levenson and N. Bloembergen, "Observation of two-photon absorption without Doppler broadening on the 3S–5S transition in sodium vapor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 645–648 (1974).

T. W. Hänsch, K. C. Harvey, G. Meisel, and A. L. Schawlow, "Two-photon spectroscopy of Na 3s–4d without Doppler broadening using a c.w. dye laser," Opt. Commun. 11, 50–53 (1974).

1970

L. S. Vasilenko, V. P. Chebotayev, and A. V. Shishaev, "Line shape of two-photon absorption in a standing-wave field in a gas," JETP Lett. 12, 113–116 (1970).

Benson, S. V.

H. R. Xia, S. V. Benson, and T. W. Hänsch, "A toy-train wavemeter," Laser Focus 17 (3), 54–58 (1981).

Biraben, F.

F. Biraben, B. Cagnac, and G. Grynberg, "Experimental evidence of two-photon transitions without Doppler broadening," Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 643–645 (1974).

Bloembergen, N.

M. D. Levenson and N. Bloembergen, "Observation of two-photon absorption without Doppler broadening on the 3S–5S transition in sodium vapor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 645–648 (1974).

N. Bloembergen and M. D. Levenson, "Doppler-free two-photon absorption spectroscopy," in Topics in Applied Physics, High Resolution Laser Spectroscopy, K. Shimoda, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), Vol. 13.

Cagnac, B.

F. Biraben, B. Cagnac, and G. Grynberg, "Experimental evidence of two-photon transitions without Doppler broadening," Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 643–645 (1974).

Carlson, N. W.

N. W. Carlson, A. J. Taylor, K. M. Jones, and A. L. Schawlow, "Two-step polarization-labeling spectroscopy of excited states of Na2," Phys. Rev. A 24, 822–834 (1981).

Chebotayev, V. P.

L. S. Vasilenko, V. P. Chebotayev, and A. V. Shishaev, "Line shape of two-photon absorption in a standing-wave field in a gas," JETP Lett. 12, 113–116 (1970).

Grynberg, G.

F. Biraben, B. Cagnac, and G. Grynberg, "Experimental evidence of two-photon transitions without Doppler broadening," Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 643–645 (1974).

Hänsch, T. W.

H. R. Xia, S. V. Benson, and T. W. Hänsch, "A toy-train wavemeter," Laser Focus 17 (3), 54–58 (1981).

T. W. Hänsch, K. C. Harvey, G. Meisel, and A. L. Schawlow, "Two-photon spectroscopy of Na 3s–4d without Doppler broadening using a c.w. dye laser," Opt. Commun. 11, 50–53 (1974).

Harvey, K. C.

T. W. Hänsch, K. C. Harvey, G. Meisel, and A. L. Schawlow, "Two-photon spectroscopy of Na 3s–4d without Doppler broadening using a c.w. dye laser," Opt. Commun. 11, 50–53 (1974).

K. C. Harvey, "Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy," Microwave Laboratory Rep. No. 2442, (Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., 1975) (unpublished).

Herzberg, G.

G. Herzberg, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure, Vol. 1 of Spectra of Diatomic Molecules (Van Nostrand, Princeton, N.J., 1950).

Hessel, M. M.

P. Kusch and M. M. Hessel, "An analysis of the B1Πu-X1Σg+ band system of Na2," J. Chem. Phys. 68, 2591–2606 (1978).

P. Kusch and M. M. Hessel, Department of Physics, University of Texas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (personal communication).

Jones, K. M.

A. J. Taylor, K. M. Jones, and A. L. Schawlow, "A study of the excited 1Σg+ states in Na2," Opt. Commun. 39, 47–50 (1981).

N. W. Carlson, A. J. Taylor, K. M. Jones, and A. L. Schawlow, "Two-step polarization-labeling spectroscopy of excited states of Na2," Phys. Rev. A 24, 822–834 (1981).

Kusch, P.

P. Kusch and M. M. Hessel, "An analysis of the B1Πu-X1Σg+ band system of Na2," J. Chem. Phys. 68, 2591–2606 (1978).

P. Kusch and M. M. Hessel, Department of Physics, University of Texas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (personal communication).

Levenson, M. D.

M. D. Levenson and N. Bloembergen, "Observation of two-photon absorption without Doppler broadening on the 3S–5S transition in sodium vapor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 645–648 (1974).

N. Bloembergen and M. D. Levenson, "Doppler-free two-photon absorption spectroscopy," in Topics in Applied Physics, High Resolution Laser Spectroscopy, K. Shimoda, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), Vol. 13.

Meisel, G.

T. W. Hänsch, K. C. Harvey, G. Meisel, and A. L. Schawlow, "Two-photon spectroscopy of Na 3s–4d without Doppler broadening using a c.w. dye laser," Opt. Commun. 11, 50–53 (1974).

Schawlow, A. L.

A. J. Taylor, K. M. Jones, and A. L. Schawlow, "A study of the excited 1Σg+ states in Na2," Opt. Commun. 39, 47–50 (1981).

H.-R. Xia, G.-Y. Yan, and A. L. Schawlow, "Two photon line shapes with year-resonant enhancement," Opt. Commun. 39, 153–158 (1981).

N. W. Carlson, A. J. Taylor, K. M. Jones, and A. L. Schawlow, "Two-step polarization-labeling spectroscopy of excited states of Na2," Phys. Rev. A 24, 822–834 (1981).

T. W. Hänsch, K. C. Harvey, G. Meisel, and A. L. Schawlow, "Two-photon spectroscopy of Na 3s–4d without Doppler broadening using a c.w. dye laser," Opt. Commun. 11, 50–53 (1974).

Schuurmans, M. F. H.

J. P. Woerdman and M. F. H. Schuurmans, "Doppler-free three-photon cross-resonances in Na2 vapor," Opt. Commun. 21, 243–246 (1977).

Shishaev, A. V.

L. S. Vasilenko, V. P. Chebotayev, and A. V. Shishaev, "Line shape of two-photon absorption in a standing-wave field in a gas," JETP Lett. 12, 113–116 (1970).

Taylor, A. J.

A. J. Taylor, K. M. Jones, and A. L. Schawlow, "A study of the excited 1Σg+ states in Na2," Opt. Commun. 39, 47–50 (1981).

N. W. Carlson, A. J. Taylor, K. M. Jones, and A. L. Schawlow, "Two-step polarization-labeling spectroscopy of excited states of Na2," Phys. Rev. A 24, 822–834 (1981).

Vasilenko, L. S.

L. S. Vasilenko, V. P. Chebotayev, and A. V. Shishaev, "Line shape of two-photon absorption in a standing-wave field in a gas," JETP Lett. 12, 113–116 (1970).

Woerdman, J. P.

J. P. Woerdman and M. F. H. Schuurmans, "Doppler-free three-photon cross-resonances in Na2 vapor," Opt. Commun. 21, 243–246 (1977).

J. P. Woerdman, "Doppler-free two-photon transitions of the sodium molecule," Chem. Phys. Lett. 43, 279–282 (1976).

Xia, H. R.

H. R. Xia, S. V. Benson, and T. W. Hänsch, "A toy-train wavemeter," Laser Focus 17 (3), 54–58 (1981).

Xia, H.-R.

H.-R. Xia, G.-Y. Yan, and A. L. Schawlow, "Two photon line shapes with year-resonant enhancement," Opt. Commun. 39, 153–158 (1981).

Yan, G.-Y.

H.-R. Xia, G.-Y. Yan, and A. L. Schawlow, "Two photon line shapes with year-resonant enhancement," Opt. Commun. 39, 153–158 (1981).

Chem. Phys. Lett.

J. P. Woerdman, "Doppler-free two-photon transitions of the sodium molecule," Chem. Phys. Lett. 43, 279–282 (1976).

J. Chem. Phys.

P. Kusch and M. M. Hessel, "An analysis of the B1Πu-X1Σg+ band system of Na2," J. Chem. Phys. 68, 2591–2606 (1978).

JETP Lett.

L. S. Vasilenko, V. P. Chebotayev, and A. V. Shishaev, "Line shape of two-photon absorption in a standing-wave field in a gas," JETP Lett. 12, 113–116 (1970).

Laser Focus

H. R. Xia, S. V. Benson, and T. W. Hänsch, "A toy-train wavemeter," Laser Focus 17 (3), 54–58 (1981).

Opt. Commun.

J. P. Woerdman and M. F. H. Schuurmans, "Doppler-free three-photon cross-resonances in Na2 vapor," Opt. Commun. 21, 243–246 (1977).

A. J. Taylor, K. M. Jones, and A. L. Schawlow, "A study of the excited 1Σg+ states in Na2," Opt. Commun. 39, 47–50 (1981).

H.-R. Xia, G.-Y. Yan, and A. L. Schawlow, "Two photon line shapes with year-resonant enhancement," Opt. Commun. 39, 153–158 (1981).

T. W. Hänsch, K. C. Harvey, G. Meisel, and A. L. Schawlow, "Two-photon spectroscopy of Na 3s–4d without Doppler broadening using a c.w. dye laser," Opt. Commun. 11, 50–53 (1974).

Phys. Rev. A

N. W. Carlson, A. J. Taylor, K. M. Jones, and A. L. Schawlow, "Two-step polarization-labeling spectroscopy of excited states of Na2," Phys. Rev. A 24, 822–834 (1981).

Phys. Rev. Lett.

F. Biraben, B. Cagnac, and G. Grynberg, "Experimental evidence of two-photon transitions without Doppler broadening," Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 643–645 (1974).

M. D. Levenson and N. Bloembergen, "Observation of two-photon absorption without Doppler broadening on the 3S–5S transition in sodium vapor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 645–648 (1974).

Other

K. C. Harvey, "Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy," Microwave Laboratory Rep. No. 2442, (Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., 1975) (unpublished).

P. Kusch and M. M. Hessel, Department of Physics, University of Texas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (personal communication).

N. Bloembergen and M. D. Levenson, "Doppler-free two-photon absorption spectroscopy," in Topics in Applied Physics, High Resolution Laser Spectroscopy, K. Shimoda, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), Vol. 13.

G. Herzberg, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure, Vol. 1 of Spectra of Diatomic Molecules (Van Nostrand, Princeton, N.J., 1950).

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