Abstract

Scotopic spectral sensitivity was measured for nine observers (aged 4.5 months to 66 years) from 400 to 650 nm (10-nm steps) by using a 42° naturally viewed stimulus. The dependent measure was the visually evoked corticalpotential amplitude that was phase locked to an 8-Hz flickering stimulus. Sensitivity was similar for all observers at middle and long wavelengths, but at short wavelengths there was a decrease in sensitivity with increasing age. The density of the preretinal ocular media was estimated by subtracting the log scotopic spectral-sensitivity function of each observer from the human rhodopsin-absorbance spectrum when the two sets of curves were pinned at long wavelengths. The density of the infant ocular media was lower than that for adults. To quantify the sequence of ocular-media development, scotopic sensitivity was determined for an additional 42 observers (aged 1 month to 70 years) at two spectral points: 553 nm, where the optic-media density is low, and 405–430 nm, where the density is high. From these data, optic-media density at 400 nm was calculated. Despite substantial individual differences within each age, a clear aging function emerged. Preretinal optic-media density increased monotonically from birth throughout adulthood. Thus optical density at 400 nm differs by about a factor of 22 between the average 1-month-old infant and the average 70-year-old adult.

© 1982 Optical Society of America

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  23. B. R. Wooten, "Photopic and scotopic contributions to the human visually evoked cortical potential," Vision Res. 12, 1647–1660 (1972).
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  25. E. Adachi-Usami, "Scotopic retinal sensitivity in man as determined with visually evoked cortical potentials," Jpn. J. Physiol. 28, 171–180 (1978).
  26. B. H. Crawford, "The scotopic visibility function," Proc. Phys. Soc. London Sect. B 62, 321–334 (1949).
  27. P. Padmos and D. V. Norren, "The vector voltmeter as a tool to measure electroretinogram spectral sensitivity and dark adaptation," Invest. Ophthamol. 11, 783–788 (1972).
  28. D. R. Griffin, R. Hubbard and G. Wald, "The sensitivity of the human eye to infra-red radiation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 546–554 (1947).
  29. G. Westheimer, "The Maxwellian view," Vision Res. 6, 669–682 (1966).
  30. S. G. DeGroot and J. W. Gebhard, "Pupil size as determined by adapting luminance," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 492–495 (1952).
  31. The slope of the RVR function at 441 nm is shallower for both observers in Fig. 3. This peculiarity was not seen for other observers and other responses for these observers.
  32. S. Hecht, C. Haig, and G. Wald, "The dark adaptation of retinal fields of different size and location," J. Gen. Physiol. 19, 321–337 (1935).
  33. G. B. Arden and R. A. Weale, "Nervous mechanisms and darkadaptation," J. Physiol. (London) 125, 417–426 (1954).
  34. E. Wolf and M. J. Zigler, "Location of the break in the dark adaptation curve in relation to pre-exposure brightness and preexposure time," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 875–879 (1954).
  35. M. Aguilar and W. S. Stiles, "Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation," Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).
  36. W. S. Stiles, "Adaptation, chromatic adaptation, colour transformation," Anales R. Soc. Esp. Quim. Fis., Ser. A 57, 149–175 (1961).
  37. J. C. Armington, "A component of the human electroretinogram associated with red color vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 393–401 (1952).
  38. L.A. Riggs, R. N. Berry and M. Wayner, "A comparison of electrical and psychophysical determinations of the spectral sensitivity of the human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 427–436 (1949).
  39. The optical density of observer LR was interpolated at 400 nm on the basis of the standard curve of Norren and Vos (Ref. 4).
  40. V. Smith and J. Pokorny, Eye Research Laboratories, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (personal communication). Also see V. Smith and J. Pokorny, "Prediction of color-matching functions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1375 (1977).
  41. W. S. Stiles and J. M. Burch, "N.P.L, colour-matching investigation: final report (1958)," Opt. Acta 6, 1–26 (1959).
  42. W. A. H. Rulshton, "The rhodopsin density in the human rods," J. Physiol. (London) 134, 30–46 (1956).
  43. M. Alpern and E. N. Pugh, "The density and photosensitivity of human rhodopsin in the living retina," J. Physiol. (London) 237, 341–370 (1974).
  44. W. H. Dobelle, W. B. Marks, and E. F. MacNichol, "Visual pigment density in single primate foveal cones," Science 166, 1508–1510 (1969).
  45. Y. LeGrand, Light, Colour and Vision (Wiley, New York, 1957), p. 363.
  46. M. K. Powers, M. Schneck, and D. Y. Teller, "Spectral sensitivity of human infants at absolute visual threshold," Vision Res. 21, 1005–1016 (1981).
  47. E. Wolf and J. S. Gardiner, "Studies on the scatter of light in the dioptric media of the eye as a basis of visual glare," Arch. Ophthalmol. 74, 338–345 (1965).
  48. J. Mellerio, "Light absorption and scatter in the human lens," Vision Res. 11, 129–141 (1971).
  49. R. Weekers, Y. Delmarcelle, J. Luyckx-Bacus, and J. Collignon, "Morphological changes of the lens with age and cataract," in The Human Lens—in Relation to Cataract, A. Pirie, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdarm. 1973), pp. 25–40.
  50. V. Kadlecová, M. Peleška, and A. Vaško, "Dependence on age of the diameter of the pupil in the dark," Nature 182, 1520–1521 (1958).
  51. The manner in which the data from previous studies were obtained and transformed for presentation in Fig. 12 is deserving of comment. The general procedure was to divide all axial measurements by 1.16 to compare them with measures made for the whole pupil. Also, when density estimates were not reported for 400 nm, the standard template of Norren and Vos was used to interpolate optical density at 400 nm. Special considerations pertaining to each study are as follows: (1) Only two of the three observers of Alpern et al.52 are presented because the density of the third observer exceeded the axis of ordinates in the figure. (2) The data of Boettner and Wolter7 are based only on the lens. (3) The data of Grover and Zigman53 were based on their smooth function (Fig. 1, p. 71) at age intervals of 10 years. (4) Unfortunately, it was not possible to locate an archival report from Said (1959). The values were obtained from Fig. 2 (p. 9) of a chapter by Weale.54 (5) The lens-density estimates of Said and Weale9 are generally considered to be too low at short wavelengths but reliable above 460 nm.4 Therefore, the density at 460 nm was read from Fig. 2 of Weale54 and the density at 400 nm was interpolated from the standard curve. (6) Stiles and Burch41 did not measure ocular-media absorption directly, but rather, it was calculated from color-matching functions. The position to which these data were scaled was taken from Weale.54 (7) Density at 400 nm was read directly from Tan's10 Fig. 3 (p. 87). These data represent the averages of five age groups. The age plotted in Fig. 12 was the median for each group. (8) The standard observer of Norren and Vos4 was derived primarily from density estimates for observers between 20 and 30 years of age. The age at which the standard observer is plotted in Fig. 12 is 25 years. (9) Weale's55 data were obtained from two excised lenses.
  52. M. Alpern, S. Thompson, and M. S. Lee, "Spectral transmittance of visible light by the living human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 723–727 (1965).
  53. D. Grover and S. Zigman, "Coloration of human lenses by near ultraviolet photo-oxidized tryptophan," Exp. Eye Res. 13, 70–76 (1972).
  54. R. A. Weale, "The effects of the ageing lens on vision," in The Human Lens—in Relation to Cataract, A. Pirie, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1973), pp. 5–20.
  55. R. A. Weale, "Light absorption by the lens of the human eye," Opt. Acta 1, 107–110 (1954).
  56. J. S. Werner and B. R. Wooten, "Human infant color vision and color perception," Infant Behav. Dev. 2, 241–274 (1979).

1981 (1)

M. K. Powers, M. Schneck, and D. Y. Teller, "Spectral sensitivity of human infants at absolute visual threshold," Vision Res. 21, 1005–1016 (1981).

1979 (1)

J. S. Werner and B. R. Wooten, "Human infant color vision and color perception," Infant Behav. Dev. 2, 241–274 (1979).

1978 (1)

E. Adachi-Usami, "Scotopic retinal sensitivity in man as determined with visually evoked cortical potentials," Jpn. J. Physiol. 28, 171–180 (1978).

1977 (1)

M. Kojima and E. Zrenner, "Local and spatial distribution of photopic and scotopic responses in the visual field as reflected in the visually evoked cortical potential (VECP)," Doc. Ophthalmolog. 13, 31–40 (1977).

1974 (2)

M. Alpern and E. N. Pugh, "The density and photosensitivity of human rhodopsin in the living retina," J. Physiol. (London) 237, 341–370 (1974).

D. V. Norren and J. J. Vos, "Spectral transmission of the human ocular media," Vision Res. 14, 1237–1244 (1974).

1972 (4)

S. Coren and 4. S. Girgus, "Density of human lens pigmentation: in uivo measures over an extended age range," Vision Res. 12, 343–346 (1972).

B. R. Wooten, "Photopic and scotopic contributions to the human visually evoked cortical potential," Vision Res. 12, 1647–1660 (1972).

D. Grover and S. Zigman, "Coloration of human lenses by near ultraviolet photo-oxidized tryptophan," Exp. Eye Res. 13, 70–76 (1972).

P. Padmos and D. V. Norren, "The vector voltmeter as a tool to measure electroretinogram spectral sensitivity and dark adaptation," Invest. Ophthamol. 11, 783–788 (1972).

1971 (1)

J. Mellerio, "Light absorption and scatter in the human lens," Vision Res. 11, 129–141 (1971).

1970 (1)

H. J. A. Dartnall, "Some recent work on visual pigments," Brit. Med. Bull. 26, 175–178 (1970).

1969 (2)

G. F. Cooper and J. G. Robson, "Theyellow colour of the lens of man and the other primates," J. Physiol. (London) 203, 411–417 (1969).

W. H. Dobelle, W. B. Marks, and E. F. MacNichol, "Visual pigment density in single primate foveal cones," Science 166, 1508–1510 (1969).

1966 (2)

G. Westheimer, "The Maxwellian view," Vision Res. 6, 669–682 (1966).

R. E. Dustman and E. C. Beck, "Visually evoked potentials: amplitude changes with age," Science 151, 1013–1015 (1966).

1965 (2)

E. Wolf and J. S. Gardiner, "Studies on the scatter of light in the dioptric media of the eye as a basis of visual glare," Arch. Ophthalmol. 74, 338–345 (1965).

M. Alpern, S. Thompson, and M. S. Lee, "Spectral transmittance of visible light by the living human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 723–727 (1965).

1962 (1)

E. A. Boettner and J. R. Wolter, "Transmission of the ocular media," Invest. Ophthal. 1, 776–783 (1962).

1961 (1)

W. S. Stiles, "Adaptation, chromatic adaptation, colour transformation," Anales R. Soc. Esp. Quim. Fis., Ser. A 57, 149–175 (1961).

1959 (1)

F. S. Said and R. A. Weale, "The variation with age of the spectral transmissivity of the living human crystalline lens," Gerontologia 3, 213–231 (1959).

1958 (3)

G. Wald and P. K. Brown, "Human rhodopsin," Science 127, 222–226 (1958).

V. Kadlecová, M. Peleška, and A. Vaško, "Dependence on age of the diameter of the pupil in the dark," Nature 182, 1520–1521 (1958).

W. S. Stiles and J. M. Burch, "N.P.L, colour-matching investigation: final report (1958)," Opt. Acta 6, 1–26 (1959).

1956 (1)

W. A. H. Rulshton, "The rhodopsin density in the human rods," J. Physiol. (London) 134, 30–46 (1956).

1954 (5)

G. B. Arden and R. A. Weale, "Nervous mechanisms and darkadaptation," J. Physiol. (London) 125, 417–426 (1954).

M. Aguilar and W. S. Stiles, "Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation," Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).

R. A. Weale, "Light absorption by the lens of the human eye," Opt. Acta 1, 107–110 (1954).

E. Wolf and M. J. Zigler, "Location of the break in the dark adaptation curve in relation to pre-exposure brightness and preexposure time," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 875–879 (1954).

R. M. Boynton, J. M. Enoch, and W. R. Bush, "Physical measures of stray light in excised eyes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 879–886 (1954).

1953 (2)

R. M. Boynton, "Stray light and the human electroretinogram," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 442–449 (1953).

F. Crescitelli and H. J. A. Dartnall, "Human visual purple," Nature 172, 195–197 (1953).

1952 (2)

1949 (2)

1947 (1)

1945 (1)

G. Wald, "Human vision and the spectrum," Science 101, 653–658 (1945).

1938 (1)

E. Ludvigh and E. F. McCarthy, "Absorption of visible light by the refractive media of the human eye," Arch. Ophthalmol. 20, 37–51 (1938).

1937 (1)

H. J. A. Dartnall and C. F. Goodeve, "Scotopic luminosity curve and the absorption spectrum of visual purple," Nature 139, 409–411 (1937).

1935 (1)

S. Hecht, C. Haig, and G. Wald, "The dark adaptation of retinal fields of different size and location," J. Gen. Physiol. 19, 321–337 (1935).

1894 (1)

A. König, "Über den menschlichen Sehpurpur und seine Bedeutung für das Sehen," Sitzungsber. K. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. 30, 577–598 (1894).

1885 (1)

E. Hering, "Ueber individuelle Verschiedenbeiten des Farbensinnes," Lotos 6, 142–198 (1885).

1798 (1)

J. Dalton, "Extraordinary facts relating to the vision of colours: with observations," Mem. Proc. Manchester Lit. Philos. Soc. 5, 28–45 (1798).

Adachi-Usami, E.

E. Adachi-Usami, "Scotopic retinal sensitivity in man as determined with visually evoked cortical potentials," Jpn. J. Physiol. 28, 171–180 (1978).

Aguilar, M.

M. Aguilar and W. S. Stiles, "Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation," Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).

Alpern, M.

M. Alpern and E. N. Pugh, "The density and photosensitivity of human rhodopsin in the living retina," J. Physiol. (London) 237, 341–370 (1974).

M. Alpern, S. Thompson, and M. S. Lee, "Spectral transmittance of visible light by the living human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 723–727 (1965).

Arden, G. B.

G. B. Arden and R. A. Weale, "Nervous mechanisms and darkadaptation," J. Physiol. (London) 125, 417–426 (1954).

Armaington, J. C.

J. C. Armaington, "Spectral sensitivity of simultaneous electroretinograms and occipital responses," Clin. Electroretinography: Vision Res. Suppl. (1966), pp. 225–233.

Armington, J. C.

Beck, E. C.

R. E. Dustman and E. C. Beck, "Visually evoked potentials: amplitude changes with age," Science 151, 1013–1015 (1966).

Berry, R. N.

Boettner, E. A.

E. A. Boettner and J. R. Wolter, "Transmission of the ocular media," Invest. Ophthal. 1, 776–783 (1962).

Boynton, R. M.

Brown, P. K.

G. Wald and P. K. Brown, "Human rhodopsin," Science 127, 222–226 (1958).

Burch, J. M.

W. S. Stiles and J. M. Burch, "N.P.L, colour-matching investigation: final report (1958)," Opt. Acta 6, 1–26 (1959).

Bush, W. R.

Collignon, J.

R. Weekers, Y. Delmarcelle, J. Luyckx-Bacus, and J. Collignon, "Morphological changes of the lens with age and cataract," in The Human Lens—in Relation to Cataract, A. Pirie, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdarm. 1973), pp. 25–40.

Cooper, G. F.

G. F. Cooper and J. G. Robson, "Theyellow colour of the lens of man and the other primates," J. Physiol. (London) 203, 411–417 (1969).

Coren, S.

S. Coren and 4. S. Girgus, "Density of human lens pigmentation: in uivo measures over an extended age range," Vision Res. 12, 343–346 (1972).

Crawford, B. H.

B. H. Crawford, "The scotopic visibility function," Proc. Phys. Soc. London Sect. B 62, 321–334 (1949).

Crescitelli, F.

F. Crescitelli and H. J. A. Dartnall, "Human visual purple," Nature 172, 195–197 (1953).

Dalton, J.

J. Dalton, "Extraordinary facts relating to the vision of colours: with observations," Mem. Proc. Manchester Lit. Philos. Soc. 5, 28–45 (1798).

Dartnall, H. J. A.

H. J. A. Dartnall, "Some recent work on visual pigments," Brit. Med. Bull. 26, 175–178 (1970).

F. Crescitelli and H. J. A. Dartnall, "Human visual purple," Nature 172, 195–197 (1953).

H. J. A. Dartnall and C. F. Goodeve, "Scotopic luminosity curve and the absorption spectrum of visual purple," Nature 139, 409–411 (1937).

DeGroot, S. G.

Delmarcelle, Y.

R. Weekers, Y. Delmarcelle, J. Luyckx-Bacus, and J. Collignon, "Morphological changes of the lens with age and cataract," in The Human Lens—in Relation to Cataract, A. Pirie, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdarm. 1973), pp. 25–40.

Dobelle, W. H.

W. H. Dobelle, W. B. Marks, and E. F. MacNichol, "Visual pigment density in single primate foveal cones," Science 166, 1508–1510 (1969).

Dustman, R. E.

R. E. Dustman and E. C. Beck, "Visually evoked potentials: amplitude changes with age," Science 151, 1013–1015 (1966).

Enoch, J. M.

Gardiner, J. S.

E. Wolf and J. S. Gardiner, "Studies on the scatter of light in the dioptric media of the eye as a basis of visual glare," Arch. Ophthalmol. 74, 338–345 (1965).

Gebhard, J. W.

Girgus, J. S.

S. Coren and 4. S. Girgus, "Density of human lens pigmentation: in uivo measures over an extended age range," Vision Res. 12, 343–346 (1972).

Goodeve, C. F.

H. J. A. Dartnall and C. F. Goodeve, "Scotopic luminosity curve and the absorption spectrum of visual purple," Nature 139, 409–411 (1937).

Griffin, D. R.

Grover, D.

D. Grover and S. Zigman, "Coloration of human lenses by near ultraviolet photo-oxidized tryptophan," Exp. Eye Res. 13, 70–76 (1972).

Haig, C.

S. Hecht, C. Haig, and G. Wald, "The dark adaptation of retinal fields of different size and location," J. Gen. Physiol. 19, 321–337 (1935).

Hecht, S.

S. Hecht, C. Haig, and G. Wald, "The dark adaptation of retinal fields of different size and location," J. Gen. Physiol. 19, 321–337 (1935).

Hering, E.

E. Hering, "Ueber individuelle Verschiedenbeiten des Farbensinnes," Lotos 6, 142–198 (1885).

Hubbard, R.

Kadlecová, V.

V. Kadlecová, M. Peleška, and A. Vaško, "Dependence on age of the diameter of the pupil in the dark," Nature 182, 1520–1521 (1958).

Kojima, M.

M. Kojima and E. Zrenner, "Local and spatial distribution of photopic and scotopic responses in the visual field as reflected in the visually evoked cortical potential (VECP)," Doc. Ophthalmolog. 13, 31–40 (1977).

König, A.

A. König, "Über den menschlichen Sehpurpur und seine Bedeutung für das Sehen," Sitzungsber. K. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. 30, 577–598 (1894).

Lee, M. S.

LeGrand, Y.

Y. LeGrand, Light, Colour and Vision (Wiley, New York, 1957), p. 363.

Ludvigh, E.

E. Ludvigh and E. F. McCarthy, "Absorption of visible light by the refractive media of the human eye," Arch. Ophthalmol. 20, 37–51 (1938).

Luyckx-Bacus, J.

R. Weekers, Y. Delmarcelle, J. Luyckx-Bacus, and J. Collignon, "Morphological changes of the lens with age and cataract," in The Human Lens—in Relation to Cataract, A. Pirie, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdarm. 1973), pp. 25–40.

MacNichol, E. F.

W. H. Dobelle, W. B. Marks, and E. F. MacNichol, "Visual pigment density in single primate foveal cones," Science 166, 1508–1510 (1969).

Marks, W. B.

W. H. Dobelle, W. B. Marks, and E. F. MacNichol, "Visual pigment density in single primate foveal cones," Science 166, 1508–1510 (1969).

McCarthy, E. F.

E. Ludvigh and E. F. McCarthy, "Absorption of visible light by the refractive media of the human eye," Arch. Ophthalmol. 20, 37–51 (1938).

Mellerio, J.

J. Mellerio, "Light absorption and scatter in the human lens," Vision Res. 11, 129–141 (1971).

Norren, D. V.

D. V. Norren and J. J. Vos, "Spectral transmission of the human ocular media," Vision Res. 14, 1237–1244 (1974).

P. Padmos and D. V. Norren, "The vector voltmeter as a tool to measure electroretinogram spectral sensitivity and dark adaptation," Invest. Ophthamol. 11, 783–788 (1972).

Padmos, P.

P. Padmos and D. V. Norren, "The vector voltmeter as a tool to measure electroretinogram spectral sensitivity and dark adaptation," Invest. Ophthamol. 11, 783–788 (1972).

Peleška, M.

V. Kadlecová, M. Peleška, and A. Vaško, "Dependence on age of the diameter of the pupil in the dark," Nature 182, 1520–1521 (1958).

Pokorny, J.

V. Smith and J. Pokorny, Eye Research Laboratories, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (personal communication). Also see V. Smith and J. Pokorny, "Prediction of color-matching functions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1375 (1977).

Powers, M. K.

M. K. Powers, M. Schneck, and D. Y. Teller, "Spectral sensitivity of human infants at absolute visual threshold," Vision Res. 21, 1005–1016 (1981).

Pugh, E. N.

M. Alpern and E. N. Pugh, "The density and photosensitivity of human rhodopsin in the living retina," J. Physiol. (London) 237, 341–370 (1974).

Riggs, L. A.

Robson, J. G.

G. F. Cooper and J. G. Robson, "Theyellow colour of the lens of man and the other primates," J. Physiol. (London) 203, 411–417 (1969).

Ruddock, K. H.

K. H. Ruddock, "Light transmission through the ocular media and macular pigment and its significance for psychophysical investigation," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. VII/4, Visual Psychophysics, D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972).

Rulshton, W. A. H.

W. A. H. Rulshton, "The rhodopsin density in the human rods," J. Physiol. (London) 134, 30–46 (1956).

Said, F. S.

F. S. Said and R. A. Weale, "The variation with age of the spectral transmissivity of the living human crystalline lens," Gerontologia 3, 213–231 (1959).

Schneck, M.

M. K. Powers, M. Schneck, and D. Y. Teller, "Spectral sensitivity of human infants at absolute visual threshold," Vision Res. 21, 1005–1016 (1981).

Smith, V.

V. Smith and J. Pokorny, Eye Research Laboratories, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (personal communication). Also see V. Smith and J. Pokorny, "Prediction of color-matching functions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1375 (1977).

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles, "Adaptation, chromatic adaptation, colour transformation," Anales R. Soc. Esp. Quim. Fis., Ser. A 57, 149–175 (1961).

W. S. Stiles and J. M. Burch, "N.P.L, colour-matching investigation: final report (1958)," Opt. Acta 6, 1–26 (1959).

M. Aguilar and W. S. Stiles, "Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation," Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967).

W. S. Stiles, "The physical interpretation of the spectral sensitivity curve of the eye," Trans. Opt. Con. Worshipful Cormp. Spectacle Makers, 97–107 (Spectacle Makers' Company, London, 1948).

Tan, K. E. W. P.

K. E. W. P. Tan, "Vision in the ultraviolet," Doctoral Thesis (University of Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 1971).

Teller, D. Y.

M. K. Powers, M. Schneck, and D. Y. Teller, "Spectral sensitivity of human infants at absolute visual threshold," Vision Res. 21, 1005–1016 (1981).

Thompson, S.

Vaško, A.

V. Kadlecová, M. Peleška, and A. Vaško, "Dependence on age of the diameter of the pupil in the dark," Nature 182, 1520–1521 (1958).

Vos, J. J.

D. V. Norren and J. J. Vos, "Spectral transmission of the human ocular media," Vision Res. 14, 1237–1244 (1974).

Wald, G.

G. Wald and P. K. Brown, "Human rhodopsin," Science 127, 222–226 (1958).

D. R. Griffin, R. Hubbard and G. Wald, "The sensitivity of the human eye to infra-red radiation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 546–554 (1947).

S. Hecht, C. Haig, and G. Wald, "The dark adaptation of retinal fields of different size and location," J. Gen. Physiol. 19, 321–337 (1935).

Wayner, M.

Weale, R. A.

F. S. Said and R. A. Weale, "The variation with age of the spectral transmissivity of the living human crystalline lens," Gerontologia 3, 213–231 (1959).

R. A. Weale, "Light absorption by the lens of the human eye," Opt. Acta 1, 107–110 (1954).

G. B. Arden and R. A. Weale, "Nervous mechanisms and darkadaptation," J. Physiol. (London) 125, 417–426 (1954).

R. A. Weale, "The effects of the ageing lens on vision," in The Human Lens—in Relation to Cataract, A. Pirie, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1973), pp. 5–20.

Weekers, R.

R. Weekers, Y. Delmarcelle, J. Luyckx-Bacus, and J. Collignon, "Morphological changes of the lens with age and cataract," in The Human Lens—in Relation to Cataract, A. Pirie, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdarm. 1973), pp. 25–40.

Werner, J. S.

J. S. Werner and B. R. Wooten, "Human infant color vision and color perception," Infant Behav. Dev. 2, 241–274 (1979).

Westheimer, G.

G. Westheimer, "The Maxwellian view," Vision Res. 6, 669–682 (1966).

Wolf, E.

E. Wolf and J. S. Gardiner, "Studies on the scatter of light in the dioptric media of the eye as a basis of visual glare," Arch. Ophthalmol. 74, 338–345 (1965).

E. Wolf and M. J. Zigler, "Location of the break in the dark adaptation curve in relation to pre-exposure brightness and preexposure time," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 875–879 (1954).

Wolter, J. R.

E. A. Boettner and J. R. Wolter, "Transmission of the ocular media," Invest. Ophthal. 1, 776–783 (1962).

Wooten, B. R.

J. S. Werner and B. R. Wooten, "Human infant color vision and color perception," Infant Behav. Dev. 2, 241–274 (1979).

B. R. Wooten, "Photopic and scotopic contributions to the human visually evoked cortical potential," Vision Res. 12, 1647–1660 (1972).

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967).

Zigler, M. J.

Zigman, S.

D. Grover and S. Zigman, "Coloration of human lenses by near ultraviolet photo-oxidized tryptophan," Exp. Eye Res. 13, 70–76 (1972).

Zrenner, E.

M. Kojima and E. Zrenner, "Local and spatial distribution of photopic and scotopic responses in the visual field as reflected in the visually evoked cortical potential (VECP)," Doc. Ophthalmolog. 13, 31–40 (1977).

Anales R. Soc. Esp. Quim. Fis., Ser. A (1)

W. S. Stiles, "Adaptation, chromatic adaptation, colour transformation," Anales R. Soc. Esp. Quim. Fis., Ser. A 57, 149–175 (1961).

Arch. Ophthalmol. (2)

E. Wolf and J. S. Gardiner, "Studies on the scatter of light in the dioptric media of the eye as a basis of visual glare," Arch. Ophthalmol. 74, 338–345 (1965).

E. Ludvigh and E. F. McCarthy, "Absorption of visible light by the refractive media of the human eye," Arch. Ophthalmol. 20, 37–51 (1938).

Brit. Med. Bull. (1)

H. J. A. Dartnall, "Some recent work on visual pigments," Brit. Med. Bull. 26, 175–178 (1970).

Doc. Ophthalmolog. (1)

M. Kojima and E. Zrenner, "Local and spatial distribution of photopic and scotopic responses in the visual field as reflected in the visually evoked cortical potential (VECP)," Doc. Ophthalmolog. 13, 31–40 (1977).

Exp. Eye Res. (1)

D. Grover and S. Zigman, "Coloration of human lenses by near ultraviolet photo-oxidized tryptophan," Exp. Eye Res. 13, 70–76 (1972).

Gerontologia (1)

F. S. Said and R. A. Weale, "The variation with age of the spectral transmissivity of the living human crystalline lens," Gerontologia 3, 213–231 (1959).

Infant Behav. Dev. (1)

J. S. Werner and B. R. Wooten, "Human infant color vision and color perception," Infant Behav. Dev. 2, 241–274 (1979).

Invest. Ophthal. (1)

E. A. Boettner and J. R. Wolter, "Transmission of the ocular media," Invest. Ophthal. 1, 776–783 (1962).

Invest. Ophthamol. (1)

P. Padmos and D. V. Norren, "The vector voltmeter as a tool to measure electroretinogram spectral sensitivity and dark adaptation," Invest. Ophthamol. 11, 783–788 (1972).

J. Gen. Physiol. (1)

S. Hecht, C. Haig, and G. Wald, "The dark adaptation of retinal fields of different size and location," J. Gen. Physiol. 19, 321–337 (1935).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (8)

J. Physiol. (4)

G. B. Arden and R. A. Weale, "Nervous mechanisms and darkadaptation," J. Physiol. (London) 125, 417–426 (1954).

W. A. H. Rulshton, "The rhodopsin density in the human rods," J. Physiol. (London) 134, 30–46 (1956).

M. Alpern and E. N. Pugh, "The density and photosensitivity of human rhodopsin in the living retina," J. Physiol. (London) 237, 341–370 (1974).

G. F. Cooper and J. G. Robson, "Theyellow colour of the lens of man and the other primates," J. Physiol. (London) 203, 411–417 (1969).

Jpn. J. Physiol. (1)

E. Adachi-Usami, "Scotopic retinal sensitivity in man as determined with visually evoked cortical potentials," Jpn. J. Physiol. 28, 171–180 (1978).

Lotos (1)

E. Hering, "Ueber individuelle Verschiedenbeiten des Farbensinnes," Lotos 6, 142–198 (1885).

Mem. Proc. Manchester Lit. Philos. Soc. (1)

J. Dalton, "Extraordinary facts relating to the vision of colours: with observations," Mem. Proc. Manchester Lit. Philos. Soc. 5, 28–45 (1798).

Nature (3)

H. J. A. Dartnall and C. F. Goodeve, "Scotopic luminosity curve and the absorption spectrum of visual purple," Nature 139, 409–411 (1937).

F. Crescitelli and H. J. A. Dartnall, "Human visual purple," Nature 172, 195–197 (1953).

V. Kadlecová, M. Peleška, and A. Vaško, "Dependence on age of the diameter of the pupil in the dark," Nature 182, 1520–1521 (1958).

Opt. Acta (3)

M. Aguilar and W. S. Stiles, "Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation," Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).

R. A. Weale, "Light absorption by the lens of the human eye," Opt. Acta 1, 107–110 (1954).

W. S. Stiles and J. M. Burch, "N.P.L, colour-matching investigation: final report (1958)," Opt. Acta 6, 1–26 (1959).

Proc. Phys. Soc. London Sect. B (1)

B. H. Crawford, "The scotopic visibility function," Proc. Phys. Soc. London Sect. B 62, 321–334 (1949).

Science (4)

W. H. Dobelle, W. B. Marks, and E. F. MacNichol, "Visual pigment density in single primate foveal cones," Science 166, 1508–1510 (1969).

G. Wald and P. K. Brown, "Human rhodopsin," Science 127, 222–226 (1958).

G. Wald, "Human vision and the spectrum," Science 101, 653–658 (1945).

R. E. Dustman and E. C. Beck, "Visually evoked potentials: amplitude changes with age," Science 151, 1013–1015 (1966).

Sitzungsber. K. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. (1)

A. König, "Über den menschlichen Sehpurpur und seine Bedeutung für das Sehen," Sitzungsber. K. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. 30, 577–598 (1894).

Vision Res. (6)

B. R. Wooten, "Photopic and scotopic contributions to the human visually evoked cortical potential," Vision Res. 12, 1647–1660 (1972).

M. K. Powers, M. Schneck, and D. Y. Teller, "Spectral sensitivity of human infants at absolute visual threshold," Vision Res. 21, 1005–1016 (1981).

S. Coren and 4. S. Girgus, "Density of human lens pigmentation: in uivo measures over an extended age range," Vision Res. 12, 343–346 (1972).

D. V. Norren and J. J. Vos, "Spectral transmission of the human ocular media," Vision Res. 14, 1237–1244 (1974).

J. Mellerio, "Light absorption and scatter in the human lens," Vision Res. 11, 129–141 (1971).

G. Westheimer, "The Maxwellian view," Vision Res. 6, 669–682 (1966).

Other (12)

R. Weekers, Y. Delmarcelle, J. Luyckx-Bacus, and J. Collignon, "Morphological changes of the lens with age and cataract," in The Human Lens—in Relation to Cataract, A. Pirie, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdarm. 1973), pp. 25–40.

The manner in which the data from previous studies were obtained and transformed for presentation in Fig. 12 is deserving of comment. The general procedure was to divide all axial measurements by 1.16 to compare them with measures made for the whole pupil. Also, when density estimates were not reported for 400 nm, the standard template of Norren and Vos was used to interpolate optical density at 400 nm. Special considerations pertaining to each study are as follows: (1) Only two of the three observers of Alpern et al.52 are presented because the density of the third observer exceeded the axis of ordinates in the figure. (2) The data of Boettner and Wolter7 are based only on the lens. (3) The data of Grover and Zigman53 were based on their smooth function (Fig. 1, p. 71) at age intervals of 10 years. (4) Unfortunately, it was not possible to locate an archival report from Said (1959). The values were obtained from Fig. 2 (p. 9) of a chapter by Weale.54 (5) The lens-density estimates of Said and Weale9 are generally considered to be too low at short wavelengths but reliable above 460 nm.4 Therefore, the density at 460 nm was read from Fig. 2 of Weale54 and the density at 400 nm was interpolated from the standard curve. (6) Stiles and Burch41 did not measure ocular-media absorption directly, but rather, it was calculated from color-matching functions. The position to which these data were scaled was taken from Weale.54 (7) Density at 400 nm was read directly from Tan's10 Fig. 3 (p. 87). These data represent the averages of five age groups. The age plotted in Fig. 12 was the median for each group. (8) The standard observer of Norren and Vos4 was derived primarily from density estimates for observers between 20 and 30 years of age. The age at which the standard observer is plotted in Fig. 12 is 25 years. (9) Weale's55 data were obtained from two excised lenses.

R. A. Weale, "The effects of the ageing lens on vision," in The Human Lens—in Relation to Cataract, A. Pirie, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1973), pp. 5–20.

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967).

K. H. Ruddock, "Light transmission through the ocular media and macular pigment and its significance for psychophysical investigation," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. VII/4, Visual Psychophysics, D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972).

K. E. W. P. Tan, "Vision in the ultraviolet," Doctoral Thesis (University of Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 1971).

W. S. Stiles, "The physical interpretation of the spectral sensitivity curve of the eye," Trans. Opt. Con. Worshipful Cormp. Spectacle Makers, 97–107 (Spectacle Makers' Company, London, 1948).

J. C. Armaington, "Spectral sensitivity of simultaneous electroretinograms and occipital responses," Clin. Electroretinography: Vision Res. Suppl. (1966), pp. 225–233.

The slope of the RVR function at 441 nm is shallower for both observers in Fig. 3. This peculiarity was not seen for other observers and other responses for these observers.

Y. LeGrand, Light, Colour and Vision (Wiley, New York, 1957), p. 363.

The optical density of observer LR was interpolated at 400 nm on the basis of the standard curve of Norren and Vos (Ref. 4).

V. Smith and J. Pokorny, Eye Research Laboratories, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (personal communication). Also see V. Smith and J. Pokorny, "Prediction of color-matching functions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1375 (1977).

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