Abstract

The refractive index and extinction coefficient of single-crystal and for the first reported time amorphous germanium have been measured at the He-Ne wavelength in the temperature range 25–400°C by using the pseudo-Brewster method. The vacuum reflectometer is described, and the correction method for the surface oxide layer is outlined. The results are shown to be consistent with the expected shift of room-temperature spectra with increasing temperature. On this basis it was concluded that the gross features of the high-temperature spectra may be obtained from the room-temperature spectra together with high-temperature measurements at only a few preselected energies.

© 1982 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Goldschmidt, "Amorphous germanium as a medium temperature solar selective absorber," Thin Solid Films 90, 139–143 (1982).
  2. G. Baderscher, R. P. Salathe, and H. P. Weber, "Dynamics of laser crystallization in amorphous Ge films," Appl. Phys. 25, 91–93 (1981).
  3. M. R. Baklanov, K. K. Svitashev, L. V. Semenenko, and V. K. Sokolov, "Temperature dependence of the optical characteristics of germanium at 6328 Å," Opt. Spektrosk. 39, 362–366 (1975) [Opt. Spectrosc. 39, 205–207 (1975)].
  4. R. F. Potter, "Analytical determination of optical constants based on the polarized reflectance at a dielectric-conductor interface," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 904–906 (1964).
  5. R. F. Potter, "Optical constants of germanium in spectral region from 0.5 eV to 3.0 eV," Phys. Rev. 150, 562–567 (1966).
  6. R. F. Potter, "Reflectometer for determining optical constants," Appl. Opt. 4, 53–57 (1965).
  7. E. Schmidt, "Simple method for the determination of optical constants of absorbing materials," Appl. Opt. 8, 1905–1908 (1969). Schmidt's technique has been shown to be identical with the p.B. technique: R. F. Potter, "Pseudo-Brewster angle and the optical constants," Appl. Opt. 9, 1717–1718 (1970).
  8. Consists of: 5 HF(48%): 10 HNO3 (70%): 30-mg iodine dissolved in 11 CH3COOH(97%). H. C. Gatos and M. C. Lavine, "Chemical behaviour of semiconductors: etching characteristics," in Progress in Semiconductors, A. F. Gibson and R. E. Burgess, eds. (Temple, London, 1965), Vol. 9, pp. 1–45. This etchant was preferred relative to the more roughening CP4.
  9. D. Goldschmidt, "The optical properties of amorphous germanium at elevated temperatures and their application to the conversion of solar energy into heat," Ph.D. thesis (Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel, 1981), Sec. 3.2, p. 67.
  10. R. J. Archer, "Optical constants of germanium: 3600 Å to 7000 Å," Phys. Rev. 110, 354–358 (1958).
  11. G. A. N. Connell, R. J. Temkin, and W. Paul, "Amorphous germanium III: optical properties," Adv. Phys. 22, 643–665 (1973).
  12. T. M. Donovan, W. E. Spicer, J. M. Bennett, and J. A. Ashley, "Optical properties of amorphous germanium films," Phys. Rev. B 2, 397–413 (1970).
  13. M. Cardona and H. S. Sommers, "Effect of temperature and doping on the reflectivity of germanium in the fundamental absorption region," Phys. Rev. 122, 1382–1388 (1961).
  14. Potter's as well as Archer's reconstructed K were obtained from the spectra given by R. F. Potter, "Optical constants of opaque semiconductors," J. Vac. Sci. Tech. 7, 293–299 (1970).
  15. D. Goldschmidt, "Temperature dependence of the refractive index dispersion in amorphous germanium at elevated temperatures," Phys. Rev (to be published).
  16. Ref. 9, pp. 181, 183.
  17. J. Tauc, "Optical properties of amorphous semiconductors," in Amorphous and Liquid Semiconductors, J. Tauc, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1974), Chap. 4.
  18. Ref. 9, Sec. 4.2.2., p. 120.
  19. The spectral shape in the vicinity of 2.1 eV depends on the amount of impurity; see Ref. 13.
  20. H. R. Philipp and H. Ehrenreich, "Ultraviolet optical properties," in Optical Properties of III- V Compounds, R. K. Wilardson and A. C. Beer, eds., S. C. and S. M. series (Academic, New York, 1967), Chap. 4.
  21. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1975), p. 40.
  22. Ref. 9, App. 4C, p. 162.

1982 (1)

D. Goldschmidt, "Amorphous germanium as a medium temperature solar selective absorber," Thin Solid Films 90, 139–143 (1982).

1981 (1)

G. Baderscher, R. P. Salathe, and H. P. Weber, "Dynamics of laser crystallization in amorphous Ge films," Appl. Phys. 25, 91–93 (1981).

1975 (1)

M. R. Baklanov, K. K. Svitashev, L. V. Semenenko, and V. K. Sokolov, "Temperature dependence of the optical characteristics of germanium at 6328 Å," Opt. Spektrosk. 39, 362–366 (1975) [Opt. Spectrosc. 39, 205–207 (1975)].

1973 (1)

G. A. N. Connell, R. J. Temkin, and W. Paul, "Amorphous germanium III: optical properties," Adv. Phys. 22, 643–665 (1973).

1970 (2)

T. M. Donovan, W. E. Spicer, J. M. Bennett, and J. A. Ashley, "Optical properties of amorphous germanium films," Phys. Rev. B 2, 397–413 (1970).

Potter's as well as Archer's reconstructed K were obtained from the spectra given by R. F. Potter, "Optical constants of opaque semiconductors," J. Vac. Sci. Tech. 7, 293–299 (1970).

1969 (1)

1966 (1)

R. F. Potter, "Optical constants of germanium in spectral region from 0.5 eV to 3.0 eV," Phys. Rev. 150, 562–567 (1966).

1965 (1)

1964 (1)

1961 (1)

M. Cardona and H. S. Sommers, "Effect of temperature and doping on the reflectivity of germanium in the fundamental absorption region," Phys. Rev. 122, 1382–1388 (1961).

1958 (1)

R. J. Archer, "Optical constants of germanium: 3600 Å to 7000 Å," Phys. Rev. 110, 354–358 (1958).

Archer, R. J.

R. J. Archer, "Optical constants of germanium: 3600 Å to 7000 Å," Phys. Rev. 110, 354–358 (1958).

Ashley, J. A.

T. M. Donovan, W. E. Spicer, J. M. Bennett, and J. A. Ashley, "Optical properties of amorphous germanium films," Phys. Rev. B 2, 397–413 (1970).

Baderscher, G.

G. Baderscher, R. P. Salathe, and H. P. Weber, "Dynamics of laser crystallization in amorphous Ge films," Appl. Phys. 25, 91–93 (1981).

Baklanov, M. R.

M. R. Baklanov, K. K. Svitashev, L. V. Semenenko, and V. K. Sokolov, "Temperature dependence of the optical characteristics of germanium at 6328 Å," Opt. Spektrosk. 39, 362–366 (1975) [Opt. Spectrosc. 39, 205–207 (1975)].

Bennett, J. M.

T. M. Donovan, W. E. Spicer, J. M. Bennett, and J. A. Ashley, "Optical properties of amorphous germanium films," Phys. Rev. B 2, 397–413 (1970).

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1975), p. 40.

Cardona, M.

M. Cardona and H. S. Sommers, "Effect of temperature and doping on the reflectivity of germanium in the fundamental absorption region," Phys. Rev. 122, 1382–1388 (1961).

Connell, G. A. N.

G. A. N. Connell, R. J. Temkin, and W. Paul, "Amorphous germanium III: optical properties," Adv. Phys. 22, 643–665 (1973).

Donovan, T. M.

T. M. Donovan, W. E. Spicer, J. M. Bennett, and J. A. Ashley, "Optical properties of amorphous germanium films," Phys. Rev. B 2, 397–413 (1970).

Ehrenreich, H.

H. R. Philipp and H. Ehrenreich, "Ultraviolet optical properties," in Optical Properties of III- V Compounds, R. K. Wilardson and A. C. Beer, eds., S. C. and S. M. series (Academic, New York, 1967), Chap. 4.

Gatos, H. C.

Consists of: 5 HF(48%): 10 HNO3 (70%): 30-mg iodine dissolved in 11 CH3COOH(97%). H. C. Gatos and M. C. Lavine, "Chemical behaviour of semiconductors: etching characteristics," in Progress in Semiconductors, A. F. Gibson and R. E. Burgess, eds. (Temple, London, 1965), Vol. 9, pp. 1–45. This etchant was preferred relative to the more roughening CP4.

Goldschmidt, D.

D. Goldschmidt, "Amorphous germanium as a medium temperature solar selective absorber," Thin Solid Films 90, 139–143 (1982).

D. Goldschmidt, "The optical properties of amorphous germanium at elevated temperatures and their application to the conversion of solar energy into heat," Ph.D. thesis (Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel, 1981), Sec. 3.2, p. 67.

D. Goldschmidt, "Temperature dependence of the refractive index dispersion in amorphous germanium at elevated temperatures," Phys. Rev (to be published).

Lavine, M. C.

Consists of: 5 HF(48%): 10 HNO3 (70%): 30-mg iodine dissolved in 11 CH3COOH(97%). H. C. Gatos and M. C. Lavine, "Chemical behaviour of semiconductors: etching characteristics," in Progress in Semiconductors, A. F. Gibson and R. E. Burgess, eds. (Temple, London, 1965), Vol. 9, pp. 1–45. This etchant was preferred relative to the more roughening CP4.

Paul, W.

G. A. N. Connell, R. J. Temkin, and W. Paul, "Amorphous germanium III: optical properties," Adv. Phys. 22, 643–665 (1973).

Philipp, H. R.

H. R. Philipp and H. Ehrenreich, "Ultraviolet optical properties," in Optical Properties of III- V Compounds, R. K. Wilardson and A. C. Beer, eds., S. C. and S. M. series (Academic, New York, 1967), Chap. 4.

Potter, R. F.

Potter's as well as Archer's reconstructed K were obtained from the spectra given by R. F. Potter, "Optical constants of opaque semiconductors," J. Vac. Sci. Tech. 7, 293–299 (1970).

R. F. Potter, "Optical constants of germanium in spectral region from 0.5 eV to 3.0 eV," Phys. Rev. 150, 562–567 (1966).

R. F. Potter, "Reflectometer for determining optical constants," Appl. Opt. 4, 53–57 (1965).

R. F. Potter, "Analytical determination of optical constants based on the polarized reflectance at a dielectric-conductor interface," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 904–906 (1964).

Salathe, R. P.

G. Baderscher, R. P. Salathe, and H. P. Weber, "Dynamics of laser crystallization in amorphous Ge films," Appl. Phys. 25, 91–93 (1981).

Schmidt, E.

Semenenko, L. V.

M. R. Baklanov, K. K. Svitashev, L. V. Semenenko, and V. K. Sokolov, "Temperature dependence of the optical characteristics of germanium at 6328 Å," Opt. Spektrosk. 39, 362–366 (1975) [Opt. Spectrosc. 39, 205–207 (1975)].

Sokolov, V. K.

M. R. Baklanov, K. K. Svitashev, L. V. Semenenko, and V. K. Sokolov, "Temperature dependence of the optical characteristics of germanium at 6328 Å," Opt. Spektrosk. 39, 362–366 (1975) [Opt. Spectrosc. 39, 205–207 (1975)].

Sommers, H. S.

M. Cardona and H. S. Sommers, "Effect of temperature and doping on the reflectivity of germanium in the fundamental absorption region," Phys. Rev. 122, 1382–1388 (1961).

Spicer, W. E.

T. M. Donovan, W. E. Spicer, J. M. Bennett, and J. A. Ashley, "Optical properties of amorphous germanium films," Phys. Rev. B 2, 397–413 (1970).

Svitashev, K. K.

M. R. Baklanov, K. K. Svitashev, L. V. Semenenko, and V. K. Sokolov, "Temperature dependence of the optical characteristics of germanium at 6328 Å," Opt. Spektrosk. 39, 362–366 (1975) [Opt. Spectrosc. 39, 205–207 (1975)].

Tauc, J.

J. Tauc, "Optical properties of amorphous semiconductors," in Amorphous and Liquid Semiconductors, J. Tauc, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1974), Chap. 4.

Temkin, R. J.

G. A. N. Connell, R. J. Temkin, and W. Paul, "Amorphous germanium III: optical properties," Adv. Phys. 22, 643–665 (1973).

Weber, H. P.

G. Baderscher, R. P. Salathe, and H. P. Weber, "Dynamics of laser crystallization in amorphous Ge films," Appl. Phys. 25, 91–93 (1981).

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1975), p. 40.

Adv. Phys. (1)

G. A. N. Connell, R. J. Temkin, and W. Paul, "Amorphous germanium III: optical properties," Adv. Phys. 22, 643–665 (1973).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. (1)

G. Baderscher, R. P. Salathe, and H. P. Weber, "Dynamics of laser crystallization in amorphous Ge films," Appl. Phys. 25, 91–93 (1981).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Tech. (1)

Potter's as well as Archer's reconstructed K were obtained from the spectra given by R. F. Potter, "Optical constants of opaque semiconductors," J. Vac. Sci. Tech. 7, 293–299 (1970).

Opt. Spektrosk. (1)

M. R. Baklanov, K. K. Svitashev, L. V. Semenenko, and V. K. Sokolov, "Temperature dependence of the optical characteristics of germanium at 6328 Å," Opt. Spektrosk. 39, 362–366 (1975) [Opt. Spectrosc. 39, 205–207 (1975)].

Phys. Rev. (3)

R. F. Potter, "Optical constants of germanium in spectral region from 0.5 eV to 3.0 eV," Phys. Rev. 150, 562–567 (1966).

R. J. Archer, "Optical constants of germanium: 3600 Å to 7000 Å," Phys. Rev. 110, 354–358 (1958).

M. Cardona and H. S. Sommers, "Effect of temperature and doping on the reflectivity of germanium in the fundamental absorption region," Phys. Rev. 122, 1382–1388 (1961).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

T. M. Donovan, W. E. Spicer, J. M. Bennett, and J. A. Ashley, "Optical properties of amorphous germanium films," Phys. Rev. B 2, 397–413 (1970).

Thin Solid Films (1)

D. Goldschmidt, "Amorphous germanium as a medium temperature solar selective absorber," Thin Solid Films 90, 139–143 (1982).

Other (10)

Consists of: 5 HF(48%): 10 HNO3 (70%): 30-mg iodine dissolved in 11 CH3COOH(97%). H. C. Gatos and M. C. Lavine, "Chemical behaviour of semiconductors: etching characteristics," in Progress in Semiconductors, A. F. Gibson and R. E. Burgess, eds. (Temple, London, 1965), Vol. 9, pp. 1–45. This etchant was preferred relative to the more roughening CP4.

D. Goldschmidt, "The optical properties of amorphous germanium at elevated temperatures and their application to the conversion of solar energy into heat," Ph.D. thesis (Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel, 1981), Sec. 3.2, p. 67.

D. Goldschmidt, "Temperature dependence of the refractive index dispersion in amorphous germanium at elevated temperatures," Phys. Rev (to be published).

Ref. 9, pp. 181, 183.

J. Tauc, "Optical properties of amorphous semiconductors," in Amorphous and Liquid Semiconductors, J. Tauc, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1974), Chap. 4.

Ref. 9, Sec. 4.2.2., p. 120.

The spectral shape in the vicinity of 2.1 eV depends on the amount of impurity; see Ref. 13.

H. R. Philipp and H. Ehrenreich, "Ultraviolet optical properties," in Optical Properties of III- V Compounds, R. K. Wilardson and A. C. Beer, eds., S. C. and S. M. series (Academic, New York, 1967), Chap. 4.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1975), p. 40.

Ref. 9, App. 4C, p. 162.

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