Abstract

A new kind of optical self-defocusing is described that in steady state is independent of optical beam power and is strongly asymmetric. The physical mechanism responsible is the photorefractive effect. We present a theory that explains the observed dependence of this self-defocusing on polarization, angle of incidence, beam size, and crystal orientation. Experimental results, using a single-domain crystal of BaTiO<sub>3</sub>, are presented that show excellent quantitative agreement with the theory. Possible device applications are discussed, including an optical diode and a low-power bistable device with permanent memory.

© 1982 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Feinberg and R. W. Hellwarth, "Phase-conjugating mirror with continuous-wave gain," Opt. Lett. 5, 519–521 (1980); 6, 257 (1981).
  2. R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, "Self-trapping of optical beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479–482 (1964).
  3. G. A. Askaryan, "Effects of the gradient of a strong electromagnetic beam on electrons and atoms," Sov. Phys. JETP 15, 1088–1090 (1962).
  4. A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzig, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, J. J. Levinstein, and K. Nassau, "Optically induced refractive index inhomogeneities in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72–74 (1966).
  5. F. S. Chen, "A laser-induced inhomogeneity of refractive indices in KTN," J. Appl. Phys. 38, 3418–3420 (1967).
  6. M. G. Moharam and L. Young, "Hologram writing by the photorefractive effect and Gaussian beams at constant applied voltage," J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4048–4051 (1976).
  7. J. Feinberg, D. Heiman, A. R. Tanguay, Jr., and R. W. Hellwarth, "Photorefractive effects and light-induced charge migration in barium titanate," J. Appl. Phys. 51, 1297–1305 (1980); 52, 537 (1981).
  8. A. R. Johnston and J. M. Weingart, "Determination of the low frequency linear electro-optic effect in tetragonal BaTiO3," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 828–834 (1965); A. R. Johnston, "The strain-free electrooptic effect in single crystal barium titanate," Appl. Phys. Lett 7, 195–198 (1965); 8, 54 (1966); I. P. Kaminow, "Barium titanate light phase modulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 7,123–125 (1965); "Barium titanate modulator II," Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 305–307 (1966).
  9. H. Kogelnik, "Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).

1980 (2)

J. Feinberg and R. W. Hellwarth, "Phase-conjugating mirror with continuous-wave gain," Opt. Lett. 5, 519–521 (1980); 6, 257 (1981).

J. Feinberg, D. Heiman, A. R. Tanguay, Jr., and R. W. Hellwarth, "Photorefractive effects and light-induced charge migration in barium titanate," J. Appl. Phys. 51, 1297–1305 (1980); 52, 537 (1981).

1976 (1)

M. G. Moharam and L. Young, "Hologram writing by the photorefractive effect and Gaussian beams at constant applied voltage," J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4048–4051 (1976).

1969 (1)

H. Kogelnik, "Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).

1967 (1)

F. S. Chen, "A laser-induced inhomogeneity of refractive indices in KTN," J. Appl. Phys. 38, 3418–3420 (1967).

1966 (1)

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzig, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, J. J. Levinstein, and K. Nassau, "Optically induced refractive index inhomogeneities in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72–74 (1966).

1965 (1)

1964 (1)

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, "Self-trapping of optical beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479–482 (1964).

1962 (1)

G. A. Askaryan, "Effects of the gradient of a strong electromagnetic beam on electrons and atoms," Sov. Phys. JETP 15, 1088–1090 (1962).

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzig, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, J. J. Levinstein, and K. Nassau, "Optically induced refractive index inhomogeneities in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72–74 (1966).

Askaryan, G. A.

G. A. Askaryan, "Effects of the gradient of a strong electromagnetic beam on electrons and atoms," Sov. Phys. JETP 15, 1088–1090 (1962).

Ballman, A. A.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzig, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, J. J. Levinstein, and K. Nassau, "Optically induced refractive index inhomogeneities in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72–74 (1966).

Boyd, G. D.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzig, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, J. J. Levinstein, and K. Nassau, "Optically induced refractive index inhomogeneities in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72–74 (1966).

Chen, F. S.

F. S. Chen, "A laser-induced inhomogeneity of refractive indices in KTN," J. Appl. Phys. 38, 3418–3420 (1967).

Chiao, R. Y.

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, "Self-trapping of optical beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479–482 (1964).

Dziedzig, J. M.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzig, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, J. J. Levinstein, and K. Nassau, "Optically induced refractive index inhomogeneities in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72–74 (1966).

Feinberg, J.

J. Feinberg and R. W. Hellwarth, "Phase-conjugating mirror with continuous-wave gain," Opt. Lett. 5, 519–521 (1980); 6, 257 (1981).

J. Feinberg, D. Heiman, A. R. Tanguay, Jr., and R. W. Hellwarth, "Photorefractive effects and light-induced charge migration in barium titanate," J. Appl. Phys. 51, 1297–1305 (1980); 52, 537 (1981).

Garmire, E.

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, "Self-trapping of optical beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479–482 (1964).

Heiman, D.

J. Feinberg, D. Heiman, A. R. Tanguay, Jr., and R. W. Hellwarth, "Photorefractive effects and light-induced charge migration in barium titanate," J. Appl. Phys. 51, 1297–1305 (1980); 52, 537 (1981).

Hellwarth, R. W.

J. Feinberg, D. Heiman, A. R. Tanguay, Jr., and R. W. Hellwarth, "Photorefractive effects and light-induced charge migration in barium titanate," J. Appl. Phys. 51, 1297–1305 (1980); 52, 537 (1981).

J. Feinberg and R. W. Hellwarth, "Phase-conjugating mirror with continuous-wave gain," Opt. Lett. 5, 519–521 (1980); 6, 257 (1981).

Johnston, A. R.

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, "Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).

Levinstein, J. J.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzig, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, J. J. Levinstein, and K. Nassau, "Optically induced refractive index inhomogeneities in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72–74 (1966).

Moharam, M. G.

M. G. Moharam and L. Young, "Hologram writing by the photorefractive effect and Gaussian beams at constant applied voltage," J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4048–4051 (1976).

Nassau, K.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzig, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, J. J. Levinstein, and K. Nassau, "Optically induced refractive index inhomogeneities in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72–74 (1966).

Smith, R. G.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzig, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, J. J. Levinstein, and K. Nassau, "Optically induced refractive index inhomogeneities in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72–74 (1966).

Tanguay, Jr., A. R.

J. Feinberg, D. Heiman, A. R. Tanguay, Jr., and R. W. Hellwarth, "Photorefractive effects and light-induced charge migration in barium titanate," J. Appl. Phys. 51, 1297–1305 (1980); 52, 537 (1981).

Townes, C. H.

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, "Self-trapping of optical beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479–482 (1964).

Weingart, J. M.

Young, L.

M. G. Moharam and L. Young, "Hologram writing by the photorefractive effect and Gaussian beams at constant applied voltage," J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4048–4051 (1976).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzig, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, J. J. Levinstein, and K. Nassau, "Optically induced refractive index inhomogeneities in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72–74 (1966).

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, "Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

F. S. Chen, "A laser-induced inhomogeneity of refractive indices in KTN," J. Appl. Phys. 38, 3418–3420 (1967).

M. G. Moharam and L. Young, "Hologram writing by the photorefractive effect and Gaussian beams at constant applied voltage," J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4048–4051 (1976).

J. Feinberg, D. Heiman, A. R. Tanguay, Jr., and R. W. Hellwarth, "Photorefractive effects and light-induced charge migration in barium titanate," J. Appl. Phys. 51, 1297–1305 (1980); 52, 537 (1981).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, "Self-trapping of optical beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479–482 (1964).

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

G. A. Askaryan, "Effects of the gradient of a strong electromagnetic beam on electrons and atoms," Sov. Phys. JETP 15, 1088–1090 (1962).

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