Abstract

Stiles’s π5 field sensitivity approaches the sensitivity of the long-wavelength (L) cone as the duration of the test flash decreases. Further, for short test flashes mixtures of red and green backgrounds are additive. For long test flashes the backgrounds cancel, the mixture raising threshold less than expected. These results are explained if π5 is approximately the L-cone sensitivity combined with some opponent-channel sensitivity.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. M. Enoch, “The two-color threshold technique of Stiles and derived component color mechanisms,” in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Volume VII/4, D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1972), pp. 537–567; G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967), pp. 571–580; W. S. Stiles, Mechanisms of Colour Vision (Academic, New York, 1978).
    [Crossref]
  2. C. R. Ingling and B. H. -P. Tsou, “Orthogonal combination of the three visual channels,” Vision Res. 17, 1075–1082 (1977).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. E. N. Pugh and C. Sigel, “Evaluation of the candidacy of the mechanisms of Stiles for color-matching fundamentals,” Vision Res. 18, 317–330 (1978); J. K. Bowmaker, H. J. A. Dartnall, J. N. Lythgoe, and J. D. Mollon, “The visual pigments of rods and cones in the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta,” J. Physiol. London 274, 329–348 (1978);C. Sigel and E. N. Pugh, “Stiles’s π5 color mechanism: tests of field displacement and field additivity properties,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 71–81 (1980).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. S. L. Guth and H. R. Lodge, “Heterochromatic additivity, foveal spectral sensitivity, and a new color model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 450–462 (1973); S. L. Guth, R. W. Massof, and T. Benzschawel, “Vector model for normal and dichromatic color vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 197–212 (1980).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. “Light as a true visual quality: principles of measurements,” CIE Technical Report of Tech. Comm. TC 1.4 (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1978).
  6. The L-cone sensitivity is from Smith and Pokorny, Eye Research Laboratories, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, personal communication, and is tabulated in Ref. 2 above. This comparison does not depend on choosing a particular L-cone fundamental sensitivity; e.g., Vos and Walraven’s (Ref. 10) R cone could be used.
  7. For a review of the temporal physiological properties of chromatic and achromatic channels, see C. R. Ingling, “Luminance and opponent color contributions to visual detection and to temporal and spatial integration: comment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1143–1146 (1978).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. See Pugh and Sigel, Ref. 3, who come to the same conclusion; for threshold elevations below 1.0 log unit, the backgrounds obey the displacement rule.
  9. R. M. Boynton and S. R. Das, “Visual adaptation: increased efficiency resulting from spectrally distributed mixtures of stimuli,” Science 154, 1581–1583 (1966); R. M. Boynton, S. R. Das, and J. Gardiner, “Interactions between photopic visual mechanisms revealed by mixing conditioning fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1775–1780 (1966). These authors tested the additivity of backgrounds and found supersummation instead of cancellation. This may have occurred because their test-flash wavelengths were too short and did not isolate π5 for all adaptations. If so, when the backgrounds are mixed, any nonlinear (compressive) adaptation produces supersummation. Pugh and Sigel in Ref. 3 above discuss other possibilities.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. J. J. Vos and P. L. Walraven, “On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries,” Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. K. Bowmaker and H. J. A. Dartnall, “Visual pigments of rods and cones in a human retina,” J. Physiol. 298, 501–511 (1980);J. K. Bowmaker, H. J. A. Dartnall, and J. D. Mollon, “Microspectrophotometric demonstration of four classes of photoreceptor in an Old World primate, Macaca fasicularis,” J. Physiol. 298, 131–143 (1980).
  12. B. A. Wandell and E. N. Pugh, “A field additive pathway detects brief-duration, long-wavelength incremental flashes,” Vision Res. 20, 613–624 (1980); “Detection of long-duration, long-wavelength incremental flashes by a chromatically coded pathway,” Vision Res. 20, 625–636 (1980).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1980 (2)

J. K. Bowmaker and H. J. A. Dartnall, “Visual pigments of rods and cones in a human retina,” J. Physiol. 298, 501–511 (1980);J. K. Bowmaker, H. J. A. Dartnall, and J. D. Mollon, “Microspectrophotometric demonstration of four classes of photoreceptor in an Old World primate, Macaca fasicularis,” J. Physiol. 298, 131–143 (1980).

B. A. Wandell and E. N. Pugh, “A field additive pathway detects brief-duration, long-wavelength incremental flashes,” Vision Res. 20, 613–624 (1980); “Detection of long-duration, long-wavelength incremental flashes by a chromatically coded pathway,” Vision Res. 20, 625–636 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1978 (2)

E. N. Pugh and C. Sigel, “Evaluation of the candidacy of the mechanisms of Stiles for color-matching fundamentals,” Vision Res. 18, 317–330 (1978); J. K. Bowmaker, H. J. A. Dartnall, J. N. Lythgoe, and J. D. Mollon, “The visual pigments of rods and cones in the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta,” J. Physiol. London 274, 329–348 (1978);C. Sigel and E. N. Pugh, “Stiles’s π5 color mechanism: tests of field displacement and field additivity properties,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 71–81 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

For a review of the temporal physiological properties of chromatic and achromatic channels, see C. R. Ingling, “Luminance and opponent color contributions to visual detection and to temporal and spatial integration: comment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1143–1146 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

C. R. Ingling and B. H. -P. Tsou, “Orthogonal combination of the three visual channels,” Vision Res. 17, 1075–1082 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1973 (1)

1970 (1)

J. J. Vos and P. L. Walraven, “On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries,” Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1970).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

R. M. Boynton and S. R. Das, “Visual adaptation: increased efficiency resulting from spectrally distributed mixtures of stimuli,” Science 154, 1581–1583 (1966); R. M. Boynton, S. R. Das, and J. Gardiner, “Interactions between photopic visual mechanisms revealed by mixing conditioning fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1775–1780 (1966). These authors tested the additivity of backgrounds and found supersummation instead of cancellation. This may have occurred because their test-flash wavelengths were too short and did not isolate π5 for all adaptations. If so, when the backgrounds are mixed, any nonlinear (compressive) adaptation produces supersummation. Pugh and Sigel in Ref. 3 above discuss other possibilities.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bowmaker, J. K.

J. K. Bowmaker and H. J. A. Dartnall, “Visual pigments of rods and cones in a human retina,” J. Physiol. 298, 501–511 (1980);J. K. Bowmaker, H. J. A. Dartnall, and J. D. Mollon, “Microspectrophotometric demonstration of four classes of photoreceptor in an Old World primate, Macaca fasicularis,” J. Physiol. 298, 131–143 (1980).

Boynton, R. M.

R. M. Boynton and S. R. Das, “Visual adaptation: increased efficiency resulting from spectrally distributed mixtures of stimuli,” Science 154, 1581–1583 (1966); R. M. Boynton, S. R. Das, and J. Gardiner, “Interactions between photopic visual mechanisms revealed by mixing conditioning fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1775–1780 (1966). These authors tested the additivity of backgrounds and found supersummation instead of cancellation. This may have occurred because their test-flash wavelengths were too short and did not isolate π5 for all adaptations. If so, when the backgrounds are mixed, any nonlinear (compressive) adaptation produces supersummation. Pugh and Sigel in Ref. 3 above discuss other possibilities.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dartnall, H. J. A.

J. K. Bowmaker and H. J. A. Dartnall, “Visual pigments of rods and cones in a human retina,” J. Physiol. 298, 501–511 (1980);J. K. Bowmaker, H. J. A. Dartnall, and J. D. Mollon, “Microspectrophotometric demonstration of four classes of photoreceptor in an Old World primate, Macaca fasicularis,” J. Physiol. 298, 131–143 (1980).

Das, S. R.

R. M. Boynton and S. R. Das, “Visual adaptation: increased efficiency resulting from spectrally distributed mixtures of stimuli,” Science 154, 1581–1583 (1966); R. M. Boynton, S. R. Das, and J. Gardiner, “Interactions between photopic visual mechanisms revealed by mixing conditioning fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1775–1780 (1966). These authors tested the additivity of backgrounds and found supersummation instead of cancellation. This may have occurred because their test-flash wavelengths were too short and did not isolate π5 for all adaptations. If so, when the backgrounds are mixed, any nonlinear (compressive) adaptation produces supersummation. Pugh and Sigel in Ref. 3 above discuss other possibilities.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Enoch, J. M.

J. M. Enoch, “The two-color threshold technique of Stiles and derived component color mechanisms,” in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Volume VII/4, D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1972), pp. 537–567; G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967), pp. 571–580; W. S. Stiles, Mechanisms of Colour Vision (Academic, New York, 1978).
[Crossref]

Guth, S. L.

Ingling, C. R.

Lodge, H. R.

Pokorny,

The L-cone sensitivity is from Smith and Pokorny, Eye Research Laboratories, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, personal communication, and is tabulated in Ref. 2 above. This comparison does not depend on choosing a particular L-cone fundamental sensitivity; e.g., Vos and Walraven’s (Ref. 10) R cone could be used.

Pugh, E. N.

B. A. Wandell and E. N. Pugh, “A field additive pathway detects brief-duration, long-wavelength incremental flashes,” Vision Res. 20, 613–624 (1980); “Detection of long-duration, long-wavelength incremental flashes by a chromatically coded pathway,” Vision Res. 20, 625–636 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. N. Pugh and C. Sigel, “Evaluation of the candidacy of the mechanisms of Stiles for color-matching fundamentals,” Vision Res. 18, 317–330 (1978); J. K. Bowmaker, H. J. A. Dartnall, J. N. Lythgoe, and J. D. Mollon, “The visual pigments of rods and cones in the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta,” J. Physiol. London 274, 329–348 (1978);C. Sigel and E. N. Pugh, “Stiles’s π5 color mechanism: tests of field displacement and field additivity properties,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 71–81 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sigel, C.

E. N. Pugh and C. Sigel, “Evaluation of the candidacy of the mechanisms of Stiles for color-matching fundamentals,” Vision Res. 18, 317–330 (1978); J. K. Bowmaker, H. J. A. Dartnall, J. N. Lythgoe, and J. D. Mollon, “The visual pigments of rods and cones in the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta,” J. Physiol. London 274, 329–348 (1978);C. Sigel and E. N. Pugh, “Stiles’s π5 color mechanism: tests of field displacement and field additivity properties,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 71–81 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith,

The L-cone sensitivity is from Smith and Pokorny, Eye Research Laboratories, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, personal communication, and is tabulated in Ref. 2 above. This comparison does not depend on choosing a particular L-cone fundamental sensitivity; e.g., Vos and Walraven’s (Ref. 10) R cone could be used.

Tsou, B. H. -P.

C. R. Ingling and B. H. -P. Tsou, “Orthogonal combination of the three visual channels,” Vision Res. 17, 1075–1082 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vos, J. J.

J. J. Vos and P. L. Walraven, “On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries,” Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1970).
[Crossref]

Walraven, P. L.

J. J. Vos and P. L. Walraven, “On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries,” Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1970).
[Crossref]

Wandell, B. A.

B. A. Wandell and E. N. Pugh, “A field additive pathway detects brief-duration, long-wavelength incremental flashes,” Vision Res. 20, 613–624 (1980); “Detection of long-duration, long-wavelength incremental flashes by a chromatically coded pathway,” Vision Res. 20, 625–636 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Physiol. (1)

J. K. Bowmaker and H. J. A. Dartnall, “Visual pigments of rods and cones in a human retina,” J. Physiol. 298, 501–511 (1980);J. K. Bowmaker, H. J. A. Dartnall, and J. D. Mollon, “Microspectrophotometric demonstration of four classes of photoreceptor in an Old World primate, Macaca fasicularis,” J. Physiol. 298, 131–143 (1980).

Science (1)

R. M. Boynton and S. R. Das, “Visual adaptation: increased efficiency resulting from spectrally distributed mixtures of stimuli,” Science 154, 1581–1583 (1966); R. M. Boynton, S. R. Das, and J. Gardiner, “Interactions between photopic visual mechanisms revealed by mixing conditioning fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1775–1780 (1966). These authors tested the additivity of backgrounds and found supersummation instead of cancellation. This may have occurred because their test-flash wavelengths were too short and did not isolate π5 for all adaptations. If so, when the backgrounds are mixed, any nonlinear (compressive) adaptation produces supersummation. Pugh and Sigel in Ref. 3 above discuss other possibilities.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (4)

J. J. Vos and P. L. Walraven, “On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries,” Vision Res. 11, 799–818 (1970).
[Crossref]

C. R. Ingling and B. H. -P. Tsou, “Orthogonal combination of the three visual channels,” Vision Res. 17, 1075–1082 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. N. Pugh and C. Sigel, “Evaluation of the candidacy of the mechanisms of Stiles for color-matching fundamentals,” Vision Res. 18, 317–330 (1978); J. K. Bowmaker, H. J. A. Dartnall, J. N. Lythgoe, and J. D. Mollon, “The visual pigments of rods and cones in the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta,” J. Physiol. London 274, 329–348 (1978);C. Sigel and E. N. Pugh, “Stiles’s π5 color mechanism: tests of field displacement and field additivity properties,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 71–81 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. A. Wandell and E. N. Pugh, “A field additive pathway detects brief-duration, long-wavelength incremental flashes,” Vision Res. 20, 613–624 (1980); “Detection of long-duration, long-wavelength incremental flashes by a chromatically coded pathway,” Vision Res. 20, 625–636 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

J. M. Enoch, “The two-color threshold technique of Stiles and derived component color mechanisms,” in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Volume VII/4, D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1972), pp. 537–567; G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967), pp. 571–580; W. S. Stiles, Mechanisms of Colour Vision (Academic, New York, 1978).
[Crossref]

“Light as a true visual quality: principles of measurements,” CIE Technical Report of Tech. Comm. TC 1.4 (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1978).

The L-cone sensitivity is from Smith and Pokorny, Eye Research Laboratories, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, personal communication, and is tabulated in Ref. 2 above. This comparison does not depend on choosing a particular L-cone fundamental sensitivity; e.g., Vos and Walraven’s (Ref. 10) R cone could be used.

See Pugh and Sigel, Ref. 3, who come to the same conclusion; for threshold elevations below 1.0 log unit, the backgrounds obey the displacement rule.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Top, a comparison of CIE Vλ, which is based largely on a temporal-resolution criterion (flicker photometry) (open circles) with brightness-matching spectral sensitivities (filled circles). Of particular interest are the differences between the curves around 610 and 530 nm, where an opponent process is thought to contribute to the extra sensitivity. The solid circles are Guth’s V**, the brightness predictions of an opponent theory. (The large difference at short wavelengths is in part due to a known error in the CIE Vλ.) Bottom, a comparison of Stiles’s π5 (open circles) with the spectral sensitivity of the L cone (wavy line). The difference suggests that the additional sensitivity of π5 is contributed by the opponent channels.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Log-test-threshold versus log-background-radiance (tvr) curves for 610- and 570-nm backgrounds, 300-msec test-flash duration. Each pair of backgrounds was run on a different day; the difference between days is typical. There is no branching on one day; on the other day the branching occurs for elevations of the test flash greater than 1 log unit. Because the opponent signal is maximal for 610 backgrounds and minimal for 570 backgrounds, these conditions should be optimal for demonstrating a difference in tvr curve shape for long test flashes. The curves show that the displacement rules hold.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

As the test-flash duration (abscissa) increases from 4 to 300 msec, the sensitivity at 610 increases relative to the sensitivity at 570 nm by nearly 0.2 log unit for observer CI. The 10-Hz flicker point is plotted arbitrarily at zero test-flash duration. The insert sketches the decrease in sensitivity bounded by π5 on top and by the L cone below. The family of curves shown is scaled to pass through the 610-nm points; the decreasing 610/570 ratios are those shown on the test-flash-duration versus relative-sensitivity ratio curve. As the flash duration decreases, the points plotted at 610 nm indicate the π5-to-L-cone transition.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Sums and Proportions of Background Units Required in the 530–610-nm Mixture Background to Raise the Threshold for 4- and 300-msec Flashes 10× above Their Absolute Thresholds