Abstract

The doublet oscillator-strength ratios ρ<sub><i>n</i></sub> of the cesium principal series (6<sup>2</sup><i>S</i><sub>1/2-</sub><i>n</i><sup>2</sup><i>P</i><sub>3/2,1/2</sub>) have been measured for principal quantum number <i>n</i> = 7–21. Both emission and absorption spectroscopic measurements were performed with a 9.1-m focal-length spectrometer. The results show that ρ<sub><i>n</i></sub> increases monotonically with <i>n</i>. Discrepancies between emission and absorption results are attributed to collisional mixing of the excited-state populations. Oscillator strengths of both fine structure lines were obtained from the absorption measurements. These agree substantially with similar work by Lorenzen and Niemax [J. Phys. B 11, L723 (1978)]. Fano <i>X</i> parameters derived from the measured results are found to decrease monotonically with <i>n</i>. The value of <i>X</i>, extrapolated to the ionization potential, is 2.05 ± 0.03, in good agreement with recent laser-excited atomic-beam results of Raimond <i>et al.</i> [J. Phys. B 11, L765 (1978)]. This makes unlikely the existence of a pole of ρ<sub><i>n</i></sub> in the discrete spectrum, which requires that <i>X</i> have the value 2.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Fermi, "Über das Intensitätsverhältnis der Dublettkomponeten der Alkalien," Z. Phys. 59, 680–686 (1930).
  2. S. Sambursky, "Eine neue Gesetzmässigkeit in den Intensitätsverhältnissen der Hauptseriendubletts der Alkalien," Z. Phys. 49, 731–739 (1928).
  3. M. Beutell, "Intensitätsmessungen an der Hauptserie des Caesiums in einer Caesium-Neon-Entladung," Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 36, 533–556 (1939).
  4. G. S. Kvater and T. G. Meister, "Absolute values of transition probabilities for members of the principal series of cesium," Vestn. Leningr. Univ. 1, 137–160 (1952), translated in Optical Transition Probabilities (National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C., 1962), pp. 191–223.
  5. P. M. Stone, "Cesium oscillator strengths," Phys. Rev. 127, 1151–1156 (1962).
  6. L. Agnew, "Absolute oscillator strengths for members of the principal series of cesium," Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 11, 327 (1966); L. Agnew, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, personal communication.
  7. B. Warner, "Atomic oscillator strengths-III. Alkali-like spectra," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 139, 115–128 (1968).
  8. G. zu Putlitz, "On Fermi's paper concerning spin-orbit perturbation and intensity ratios of doublet lines in heavy alkalies," Comments At. Mol. Phys. 1, 51–55 (1969).
  9. U. Fano, "Spin orientation of photoelectrons ejected by circularly polarized light," Phys. Rev. 178, 131–136 (1969).
  10. G. Baum, M. S. Lubell, and W. Raith, "Measurement of the spin-orbit perturbation in the P-state continuum of heavy alkali metal atoms: K, Rb, and Cs," Phys. Rev. A 5, 1073–1087 (1972).
  11. U. Heinzmann, J. Kessler, and J. Lorentz, "Elektronen-Spin-Polarisation bei der Photoionisation unpolarisierter Cäsiumatome mit zirkularpolarisiertem Licht," Z. Phys. 240, 42–61 (1970).
  12. J. C. Weisheit, "Photoabsorption by ground-state alkali-metal atoms," Phys. Rev. A 5, 1621–1630 (1972).
  13. D. W. Norcross, "Photoabsorption by cesium," Phys. Rev. A 7, 606–616 (1973); 20, 1285–1286 (1979).
  14. J. J. Chang and H. P. Kelly, "Relativistic calculations for photoionization cross sections and the spin orientation of photoejected electrons from potassium, rubidium, and cesium atoms," Phys. Rev. A 5, 1713–1717 (1972).
  15. K. N. Huang and A. F. Starace, Phys. Rev. A 19, 2335–2346 (1979).
  16. E. Koenig, "Fonctions d'onde atomiques relativistes dans l' approximation du champ central," Physica (The Hague) 62, 393–408 (1972).
  17. G. F. Fülöp and H. H. Stroke, "Photoelectric measurements of doublet intensity ratios in cesium," in Atomic Physics, Vol. 3, S. J. Smith and G. K. Walters, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1973), pp. 543–552.
  18. D. Popescu, I. Popescu, J. Maurer, C. B. Collins, and B. W. Johnson, "Doublet line-strength ratios for the principal series of cesium," Phys. Rev. A 12, 1425–1431 (1975).
  19. G. Pichler, "Measurement of the oscillator strengths of principal-series lines of cesium," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 16, 147–151 (1976).
  20. R. J. Exton, "Cesium oscillator strengths measured with a multiple-path-length absorption cell," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 16, 309–314 (1976).
  21. M. Fabry, "Theoretical and experimental determinations of cesium oscillator strengths," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 16, 127–135 (1976).
  22. D. Hofsaess, "Photoabsorption of alkali and alkaline earth elements calculated by the scaled Thomas Fermi method," Z. Phys. A281, 1–13 (1977).
  23. C. J. Lorenzen and K. Niemax, "Oscillator strengths of some higher Cs principal series lines," J. Phys. B 11, L723–L728 (1978).
  24. J. M. Raimond, M. Gross, C. Fabre, S. Haroche, and H. H. Stroke, "Laser measurement of intensity ratio anomalies in principal series doublets of cesium Rydberg states: does the D1 line vanish?" J. Phys. B 11, L765–L771 (1978).
  25. S. Hameed, A. Herzenberg, and M. G. James, "Core polarization correction to oscillator strengths in the alkali atoms," J. Phys. B 1, 822–830 (1968).
  26. S. Hameed, "Difficulties of the independent-particle model in the description of energetic transtions in atoms," Phys. Rev. 179, 16–19 (1969).
  27. I. L. Beigman, L. A. Vainstein, and V. P. Shevelko, "The effect of polarization of the atomic core on the oscillator strengths and photoionization cross-sections of alkali element atoms," Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 28, 229–231 (1970).
  28. 1. Popescu, C. Ghita, A. Popescu, and G. Musa, "Investigation on the thermionic detection of photoionization spectra of caesium vapours," Ann. Phys. 18, 103–111 (1966).
  29. D. Popescu, I. Popescu, and J. Richter, "Absorptionsspektroskopie angeregter Cäsium Atome," Z. Phys. 226, 160–174 (1969).
  30. G. F. Fülöp, C.-S. O, and H. H. Stroke, "Method for accumulating high-resolution optical spectra by repetitive photoelectric scanning," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 48, 1550–1554 (1977).
  31. R. G. Brewer, "High intensity low noise rubidium light source," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 32, 1356–1358 (1961).
  32. E. U. Condon and G. H. Shortley, The Theory of Atomic Spectra (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, England, 1935), Chap. 4.
  33. E. W. Foster, "The measurement of oscillator strengths in atomic spectra," Rep. Prog. Phys. 27, 469–551 (1964).
  34. J. B. Taylor and I. Langmuir, "Vapor pressure of caesium by the positive ion method," Phys. Rev. 51, 753–760 (1937).
  35. C. L. Chen and A. V. Phelps, "Self-broadening of cesium resonance lines at 8521 and 8944 Å," Phys. Rev. 173, 62–69 (1968).
  36. M. Lapp and L. P. Harris, "Absorption cross sections of alkali-vapor molecules," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 6, 169–179 (1966).
  37. H. G. Kratz, "The principal series of potassium, rubidium, and cesium in absorption," Phys. Rev. 75, 1844–1850 (1949).
  38. E. E. Nikitin, "Resonance and non-resonance excitation transfer in collisions of excited and ground-state alkali atoms," Comm. At. Mol. Phys. 1, 111–115 (1969).
  39. L. R. Pendrill, "Collisional perturbation of caesium Rydberg states," J. Phys. B 10, L469–L475 (1977).
  40. E. U. Condon and G. H. Shortley, The Theory of Atomic Spectra (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, England, 1935), p. 142.
  41. L. N. Shabanova, Yu. N. Monakov, and A. N. Khlyustalov, "Oscillator strengths of lines in the principal series of cesium," Opt. pectrosc. (USSR) 47, 1–3 (1979).

1979 (1)

L. N. Shabanova, Yu. N. Monakov, and A. N. Khlyustalov, "Oscillator strengths of lines in the principal series of cesium," Opt. pectrosc. (USSR) 47, 1–3 (1979).

1978 (2)

C. J. Lorenzen and K. Niemax, "Oscillator strengths of some higher Cs principal series lines," J. Phys. B 11, L723–L728 (1978).

J. M. Raimond, M. Gross, C. Fabre, S. Haroche, and H. H. Stroke, "Laser measurement of intensity ratio anomalies in principal series doublets of cesium Rydberg states: does the D1 line vanish?" J. Phys. B 11, L765–L771 (1978).

1977 (3)

D. Hofsaess, "Photoabsorption of alkali and alkaline earth elements calculated by the scaled Thomas Fermi method," Z. Phys. A281, 1–13 (1977).

G. F. Fülöp, C.-S. O, and H. H. Stroke, "Method for accumulating high-resolution optical spectra by repetitive photoelectric scanning," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 48, 1550–1554 (1977).

L. R. Pendrill, "Collisional perturbation of caesium Rydberg states," J. Phys. B 10, L469–L475 (1977).

1976 (3)

G. Pichler, "Measurement of the oscillator strengths of principal-series lines of cesium," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 16, 147–151 (1976).

R. J. Exton, "Cesium oscillator strengths measured with a multiple-path-length absorption cell," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 16, 309–314 (1976).

M. Fabry, "Theoretical and experimental determinations of cesium oscillator strengths," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 16, 127–135 (1976).

1975 (1)

D. Popescu, I. Popescu, J. Maurer, C. B. Collins, and B. W. Johnson, "Doublet line-strength ratios for the principal series of cesium," Phys. Rev. A 12, 1425–1431 (1975).

1973 (1)

D. W. Norcross, "Photoabsorption by cesium," Phys. Rev. A 7, 606–616 (1973); 20, 1285–1286 (1979).

1972 (4)

J. J. Chang and H. P. Kelly, "Relativistic calculations for photoionization cross sections and the spin orientation of photoejected electrons from potassium, rubidium, and cesium atoms," Phys. Rev. A 5, 1713–1717 (1972).

E. Koenig, "Fonctions d'onde atomiques relativistes dans l' approximation du champ central," Physica (The Hague) 62, 393–408 (1972).

G. Baum, M. S. Lubell, and W. Raith, "Measurement of the spin-orbit perturbation in the P-state continuum of heavy alkali metal atoms: K, Rb, and Cs," Phys. Rev. A 5, 1073–1087 (1972).

J. C. Weisheit, "Photoabsorption by ground-state alkali-metal atoms," Phys. Rev. A 5, 1621–1630 (1972).

1970 (2)

U. Heinzmann, J. Kessler, and J. Lorentz, "Elektronen-Spin-Polarisation bei der Photoionisation unpolarisierter Cäsiumatome mit zirkularpolarisiertem Licht," Z. Phys. 240, 42–61 (1970).

I. L. Beigman, L. A. Vainstein, and V. P. Shevelko, "The effect of polarization of the atomic core on the oscillator strengths and photoionization cross-sections of alkali element atoms," Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 28, 229–231 (1970).

1969 (5)

S. Hameed, "Difficulties of the independent-particle model in the description of energetic transtions in atoms," Phys. Rev. 179, 16–19 (1969).

D. Popescu, I. Popescu, and J. Richter, "Absorptionsspektroskopie angeregter Cäsium Atome," Z. Phys. 226, 160–174 (1969).

E. E. Nikitin, "Resonance and non-resonance excitation transfer in collisions of excited and ground-state alkali atoms," Comm. At. Mol. Phys. 1, 111–115 (1969).

G. zu Putlitz, "On Fermi's paper concerning spin-orbit perturbation and intensity ratios of doublet lines in heavy alkalies," Comments At. Mol. Phys. 1, 51–55 (1969).

U. Fano, "Spin orientation of photoelectrons ejected by circularly polarized light," Phys. Rev. 178, 131–136 (1969).

1968 (3)

B. Warner, "Atomic oscillator strengths-III. Alkali-like spectra," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 139, 115–128 (1968).

C. L. Chen and A. V. Phelps, "Self-broadening of cesium resonance lines at 8521 and 8944 Å," Phys. Rev. 173, 62–69 (1968).

S. Hameed, A. Herzenberg, and M. G. James, "Core polarization correction to oscillator strengths in the alkali atoms," J. Phys. B 1, 822–830 (1968).

1966 (3)

1. Popescu, C. Ghita, A. Popescu, and G. Musa, "Investigation on the thermionic detection of photoionization spectra of caesium vapours," Ann. Phys. 18, 103–111 (1966).

M. Lapp and L. P. Harris, "Absorption cross sections of alkali-vapor molecules," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 6, 169–179 (1966).

L. Agnew, "Absolute oscillator strengths for members of the principal series of cesium," Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 11, 327 (1966); L. Agnew, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, personal communication.

1964 (1)

E. W. Foster, "The measurement of oscillator strengths in atomic spectra," Rep. Prog. Phys. 27, 469–551 (1964).

1962 (1)

P. M. Stone, "Cesium oscillator strengths," Phys. Rev. 127, 1151–1156 (1962).

1961 (1)

R. G. Brewer, "High intensity low noise rubidium light source," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 32, 1356–1358 (1961).

1949 (1)

H. G. Kratz, "The principal series of potassium, rubidium, and cesium in absorption," Phys. Rev. 75, 1844–1850 (1949).

1939 (1)

M. Beutell, "Intensitätsmessungen an der Hauptserie des Caesiums in einer Caesium-Neon-Entladung," Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 36, 533–556 (1939).

1937 (1)

J. B. Taylor and I. Langmuir, "Vapor pressure of caesium by the positive ion method," Phys. Rev. 51, 753–760 (1937).

1930 (1)

E. Fermi, "Über das Intensitätsverhältnis der Dublettkomponeten der Alkalien," Z. Phys. 59, 680–686 (1930).

1928 (1)

S. Sambursky, "Eine neue Gesetzmässigkeit in den Intensitätsverhältnissen der Hauptseriendubletts der Alkalien," Z. Phys. 49, 731–739 (1928).

Agnew, L.

L. Agnew, "Absolute oscillator strengths for members of the principal series of cesium," Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 11, 327 (1966); L. Agnew, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, personal communication.

Baum, G.

G. Baum, M. S. Lubell, and W. Raith, "Measurement of the spin-orbit perturbation in the P-state continuum of heavy alkali metal atoms: K, Rb, and Cs," Phys. Rev. A 5, 1073–1087 (1972).

Beigman, I. L.

I. L. Beigman, L. A. Vainstein, and V. P. Shevelko, "The effect of polarization of the atomic core on the oscillator strengths and photoionization cross-sections of alkali element atoms," Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 28, 229–231 (1970).

Beutell, M.

M. Beutell, "Intensitätsmessungen an der Hauptserie des Caesiums in einer Caesium-Neon-Entladung," Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 36, 533–556 (1939).

Brewer, R. G.

R. G. Brewer, "High intensity low noise rubidium light source," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 32, 1356–1358 (1961).

Chang, J. J.

J. J. Chang and H. P. Kelly, "Relativistic calculations for photoionization cross sections and the spin orientation of photoejected electrons from potassium, rubidium, and cesium atoms," Phys. Rev. A 5, 1713–1717 (1972).

Chen, C. L.

C. L. Chen and A. V. Phelps, "Self-broadening of cesium resonance lines at 8521 and 8944 Å," Phys. Rev. 173, 62–69 (1968).

Collins, C. B.

D. Popescu, I. Popescu, J. Maurer, C. B. Collins, and B. W. Johnson, "Doublet line-strength ratios for the principal series of cesium," Phys. Rev. A 12, 1425–1431 (1975).

Condon, E. U.

E. U. Condon and G. H. Shortley, The Theory of Atomic Spectra (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, England, 1935), Chap. 4.

E. U. Condon and G. H. Shortley, The Theory of Atomic Spectra (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, England, 1935), p. 142.

Exton, R. J.

R. J. Exton, "Cesium oscillator strengths measured with a multiple-path-length absorption cell," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 16, 309–314 (1976).

Fabre, C.

J. M. Raimond, M. Gross, C. Fabre, S. Haroche, and H. H. Stroke, "Laser measurement of intensity ratio anomalies in principal series doublets of cesium Rydberg states: does the D1 line vanish?" J. Phys. B 11, L765–L771 (1978).

Fabry, M.

M. Fabry, "Theoretical and experimental determinations of cesium oscillator strengths," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 16, 127–135 (1976).

Fano, U.

U. Fano, "Spin orientation of photoelectrons ejected by circularly polarized light," Phys. Rev. 178, 131–136 (1969).

Fermi, E.

E. Fermi, "Über das Intensitätsverhältnis der Dublettkomponeten der Alkalien," Z. Phys. 59, 680–686 (1930).

Foster, E. W.

E. W. Foster, "The measurement of oscillator strengths in atomic spectra," Rep. Prog. Phys. 27, 469–551 (1964).

Fülöp, G. F.

G. F. Fülöp, C.-S. O, and H. H. Stroke, "Method for accumulating high-resolution optical spectra by repetitive photoelectric scanning," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 48, 1550–1554 (1977).

G. F. Fülöp and H. H. Stroke, "Photoelectric measurements of doublet intensity ratios in cesium," in Atomic Physics, Vol. 3, S. J. Smith and G. K. Walters, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1973), pp. 543–552.

Ghita, C.

1. Popescu, C. Ghita, A. Popescu, and G. Musa, "Investigation on the thermionic detection of photoionization spectra of caesium vapours," Ann. Phys. 18, 103–111 (1966).

Gross, M.

J. M. Raimond, M. Gross, C. Fabre, S. Haroche, and H. H. Stroke, "Laser measurement of intensity ratio anomalies in principal series doublets of cesium Rydberg states: does the D1 line vanish?" J. Phys. B 11, L765–L771 (1978).

Hameed, S.

S. Hameed, "Difficulties of the independent-particle model in the description of energetic transtions in atoms," Phys. Rev. 179, 16–19 (1969).

S. Hameed, A. Herzenberg, and M. G. James, "Core polarization correction to oscillator strengths in the alkali atoms," J. Phys. B 1, 822–830 (1968).

Haroche, S.

J. M. Raimond, M. Gross, C. Fabre, S. Haroche, and H. H. Stroke, "Laser measurement of intensity ratio anomalies in principal series doublets of cesium Rydberg states: does the D1 line vanish?" J. Phys. B 11, L765–L771 (1978).

Harris, L. P.

M. Lapp and L. P. Harris, "Absorption cross sections of alkali-vapor molecules," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 6, 169–179 (1966).

Heinzmann, U.

U. Heinzmann, J. Kessler, and J. Lorentz, "Elektronen-Spin-Polarisation bei der Photoionisation unpolarisierter Cäsiumatome mit zirkularpolarisiertem Licht," Z. Phys. 240, 42–61 (1970).

Herzenberg, A.

S. Hameed, A. Herzenberg, and M. G. James, "Core polarization correction to oscillator strengths in the alkali atoms," J. Phys. B 1, 822–830 (1968).

Hofsaess, D.

D. Hofsaess, "Photoabsorption of alkali and alkaline earth elements calculated by the scaled Thomas Fermi method," Z. Phys. A281, 1–13 (1977).

Huang, K. N.

K. N. Huang and A. F. Starace, Phys. Rev. A 19, 2335–2346 (1979).

James, M. G.

S. Hameed, A. Herzenberg, and M. G. James, "Core polarization correction to oscillator strengths in the alkali atoms," J. Phys. B 1, 822–830 (1968).

Johnson, B. W.

D. Popescu, I. Popescu, J. Maurer, C. B. Collins, and B. W. Johnson, "Doublet line-strength ratios for the principal series of cesium," Phys. Rev. A 12, 1425–1431 (1975).

Kelly, H. P.

J. J. Chang and H. P. Kelly, "Relativistic calculations for photoionization cross sections and the spin orientation of photoejected electrons from potassium, rubidium, and cesium atoms," Phys. Rev. A 5, 1713–1717 (1972).

Kessler, J.

U. Heinzmann, J. Kessler, and J. Lorentz, "Elektronen-Spin-Polarisation bei der Photoionisation unpolarisierter Cäsiumatome mit zirkularpolarisiertem Licht," Z. Phys. 240, 42–61 (1970).

Khlyustalov, A. N.

L. N. Shabanova, Yu. N. Monakov, and A. N. Khlyustalov, "Oscillator strengths of lines in the principal series of cesium," Opt. pectrosc. (USSR) 47, 1–3 (1979).

Koenig, E.

E. Koenig, "Fonctions d'onde atomiques relativistes dans l' approximation du champ central," Physica (The Hague) 62, 393–408 (1972).

Kratz, H. G.

H. G. Kratz, "The principal series of potassium, rubidium, and cesium in absorption," Phys. Rev. 75, 1844–1850 (1949).

Kvater, G. S.

G. S. Kvater and T. G. Meister, "Absolute values of transition probabilities for members of the principal series of cesium," Vestn. Leningr. Univ. 1, 137–160 (1952), translated in Optical Transition Probabilities (National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C., 1962), pp. 191–223.

Langmuir, I.

J. B. Taylor and I. Langmuir, "Vapor pressure of caesium by the positive ion method," Phys. Rev. 51, 753–760 (1937).

Lapp, M.

M. Lapp and L. P. Harris, "Absorption cross sections of alkali-vapor molecules," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 6, 169–179 (1966).

Lorentz, J.

U. Heinzmann, J. Kessler, and J. Lorentz, "Elektronen-Spin-Polarisation bei der Photoionisation unpolarisierter Cäsiumatome mit zirkularpolarisiertem Licht," Z. Phys. 240, 42–61 (1970).

Lorenzen, C. J.

C. J. Lorenzen and K. Niemax, "Oscillator strengths of some higher Cs principal series lines," J. Phys. B 11, L723–L728 (1978).

Lubell, M. S.

G. Baum, M. S. Lubell, and W. Raith, "Measurement of the spin-orbit perturbation in the P-state continuum of heavy alkali metal atoms: K, Rb, and Cs," Phys. Rev. A 5, 1073–1087 (1972).

Maurer, J.

D. Popescu, I. Popescu, J. Maurer, C. B. Collins, and B. W. Johnson, "Doublet line-strength ratios for the principal series of cesium," Phys. Rev. A 12, 1425–1431 (1975).

Meister, T. G.

G. S. Kvater and T. G. Meister, "Absolute values of transition probabilities for members of the principal series of cesium," Vestn. Leningr. Univ. 1, 137–160 (1952), translated in Optical Transition Probabilities (National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C., 1962), pp. 191–223.

Monakov, Yu. N.

L. N. Shabanova, Yu. N. Monakov, and A. N. Khlyustalov, "Oscillator strengths of lines in the principal series of cesium," Opt. pectrosc. (USSR) 47, 1–3 (1979).

Musa, G.

1. Popescu, C. Ghita, A. Popescu, and G. Musa, "Investigation on the thermionic detection of photoionization spectra of caesium vapours," Ann. Phys. 18, 103–111 (1966).

Niemax, K.

C. J. Lorenzen and K. Niemax, "Oscillator strengths of some higher Cs principal series lines," J. Phys. B 11, L723–L728 (1978).

Nikitin, E. E.

E. E. Nikitin, "Resonance and non-resonance excitation transfer in collisions of excited and ground-state alkali atoms," Comm. At. Mol. Phys. 1, 111–115 (1969).

Norcross, D. W.

D. W. Norcross, "Photoabsorption by cesium," Phys. Rev. A 7, 606–616 (1973); 20, 1285–1286 (1979).

O, C.-S.

G. F. Fülöp, C.-S. O, and H. H. Stroke, "Method for accumulating high-resolution optical spectra by repetitive photoelectric scanning," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 48, 1550–1554 (1977).

Pendrill, L. R.

L. R. Pendrill, "Collisional perturbation of caesium Rydberg states," J. Phys. B 10, L469–L475 (1977).

Phelps, A. V.

C. L. Chen and A. V. Phelps, "Self-broadening of cesium resonance lines at 8521 and 8944 Å," Phys. Rev. 173, 62–69 (1968).

Pichler, G.

G. Pichler, "Measurement of the oscillator strengths of principal-series lines of cesium," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 16, 147–151 (1976).

Popescu, A.

1. Popescu, C. Ghita, A. Popescu, and G. Musa, "Investigation on the thermionic detection of photoionization spectra of caesium vapours," Ann. Phys. 18, 103–111 (1966).

Popescu, D.

D. Popescu, I. Popescu, J. Maurer, C. B. Collins, and B. W. Johnson, "Doublet line-strength ratios for the principal series of cesium," Phys. Rev. A 12, 1425–1431 (1975).

D. Popescu, I. Popescu, and J. Richter, "Absorptionsspektroskopie angeregter Cäsium Atome," Z. Phys. 226, 160–174 (1969).

Popescu, I.

D. Popescu, I. Popescu, J. Maurer, C. B. Collins, and B. W. Johnson, "Doublet line-strength ratios for the principal series of cesium," Phys. Rev. A 12, 1425–1431 (1975).

D. Popescu, I. Popescu, and J. Richter, "Absorptionsspektroskopie angeregter Cäsium Atome," Z. Phys. 226, 160–174 (1969).

1. Popescu, C. Ghita, A. Popescu, and G. Musa, "Investigation on the thermionic detection of photoionization spectra of caesium vapours," Ann. Phys. 18, 103–111 (1966).

Raimond, J. M.

J. M. Raimond, M. Gross, C. Fabre, S. Haroche, and H. H. Stroke, "Laser measurement of intensity ratio anomalies in principal series doublets of cesium Rydberg states: does the D1 line vanish?" J. Phys. B 11, L765–L771 (1978).

Raith, W.

G. Baum, M. S. Lubell, and W. Raith, "Measurement of the spin-orbit perturbation in the P-state continuum of heavy alkali metal atoms: K, Rb, and Cs," Phys. Rev. A 5, 1073–1087 (1972).

Richter, J.

D. Popescu, I. Popescu, and J. Richter, "Absorptionsspektroskopie angeregter Cäsium Atome," Z. Phys. 226, 160–174 (1969).

Sambursky, S.

S. Sambursky, "Eine neue Gesetzmässigkeit in den Intensitätsverhältnissen der Hauptseriendubletts der Alkalien," Z. Phys. 49, 731–739 (1928).

Shabanova, L. N.

L. N. Shabanova, Yu. N. Monakov, and A. N. Khlyustalov, "Oscillator strengths of lines in the principal series of cesium," Opt. pectrosc. (USSR) 47, 1–3 (1979).

Shevelko, V. P.

I. L. Beigman, L. A. Vainstein, and V. P. Shevelko, "The effect of polarization of the atomic core on the oscillator strengths and photoionization cross-sections of alkali element atoms," Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 28, 229–231 (1970).

Shortley, G. H.

E. U. Condon and G. H. Shortley, The Theory of Atomic Spectra (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, England, 1935), Chap. 4.

E. U. Condon and G. H. Shortley, The Theory of Atomic Spectra (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, England, 1935), p. 142.

Starace, A. F.

K. N. Huang and A. F. Starace, Phys. Rev. A 19, 2335–2346 (1979).

Stone, P. M.

P. M. Stone, "Cesium oscillator strengths," Phys. Rev. 127, 1151–1156 (1962).

Stroke, H. H.

J. M. Raimond, M. Gross, C. Fabre, S. Haroche, and H. H. Stroke, "Laser measurement of intensity ratio anomalies in principal series doublets of cesium Rydberg states: does the D1 line vanish?" J. Phys. B 11, L765–L771 (1978).

G. F. Fülöp, C.-S. O, and H. H. Stroke, "Method for accumulating high-resolution optical spectra by repetitive photoelectric scanning," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 48, 1550–1554 (1977).

G. F. Fülöp and H. H. Stroke, "Photoelectric measurements of doublet intensity ratios in cesium," in Atomic Physics, Vol. 3, S. J. Smith and G. K. Walters, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1973), pp. 543–552.

Taylor, J. B.

J. B. Taylor and I. Langmuir, "Vapor pressure of caesium by the positive ion method," Phys. Rev. 51, 753–760 (1937).

Vainstein, L. A.

I. L. Beigman, L. A. Vainstein, and V. P. Shevelko, "The effect of polarization of the atomic core on the oscillator strengths and photoionization cross-sections of alkali element atoms," Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 28, 229–231 (1970).

Warner, B.

B. Warner, "Atomic oscillator strengths-III. Alkali-like spectra," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 139, 115–128 (1968).

Weisheit, J. C.

J. C. Weisheit, "Photoabsorption by ground-state alkali-metal atoms," Phys. Rev. A 5, 1621–1630 (1972).

zu Putlitz, G.

G. zu Putlitz, "On Fermi's paper concerning spin-orbit perturbation and intensity ratios of doublet lines in heavy alkalies," Comments At. Mol. Phys. 1, 51–55 (1969).

Ann. Phys. (2)

M. Beutell, "Intensitätsmessungen an der Hauptserie des Caesiums in einer Caesium-Neon-Entladung," Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 36, 533–556 (1939).

1. Popescu, C. Ghita, A. Popescu, and G. Musa, "Investigation on the thermionic detection of photoionization spectra of caesium vapours," Ann. Phys. 18, 103–111 (1966).

Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. (1)

L. Agnew, "Absolute oscillator strengths for members of the principal series of cesium," Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 11, 327 (1966); L. Agnew, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, personal communication.

Comm. At. Mol. Phys. (1)

E. E. Nikitin, "Resonance and non-resonance excitation transfer in collisions of excited and ground-state alkali atoms," Comm. At. Mol. Phys. 1, 111–115 (1969).

Comments At. Mol. Phys. (1)

G. zu Putlitz, "On Fermi's paper concerning spin-orbit perturbation and intensity ratios of doublet lines in heavy alkalies," Comments At. Mol. Phys. 1, 51–55 (1969).

J. Phys. B (4)

C. J. Lorenzen and K. Niemax, "Oscillator strengths of some higher Cs principal series lines," J. Phys. B 11, L723–L728 (1978).

J. M. Raimond, M. Gross, C. Fabre, S. Haroche, and H. H. Stroke, "Laser measurement of intensity ratio anomalies in principal series doublets of cesium Rydberg states: does the D1 line vanish?" J. Phys. B 11, L765–L771 (1978).

S. Hameed, A. Herzenberg, and M. G. James, "Core polarization correction to oscillator strengths in the alkali atoms," J. Phys. B 1, 822–830 (1968).

L. R. Pendrill, "Collisional perturbation of caesium Rydberg states," J. Phys. B 10, L469–L475 (1977).

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (4)

M. Lapp and L. P. Harris, "Absorption cross sections of alkali-vapor molecules," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 6, 169–179 (1966).

G. Pichler, "Measurement of the oscillator strengths of principal-series lines of cesium," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 16, 147–151 (1976).

R. J. Exton, "Cesium oscillator strengths measured with a multiple-path-length absorption cell," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 16, 309–314 (1976).

M. Fabry, "Theoretical and experimental determinations of cesium oscillator strengths," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 16, 127–135 (1976).

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (1)

B. Warner, "Atomic oscillator strengths-III. Alkali-like spectra," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 139, 115–128 (1968).

Opt. pectrosc. (1)

L. N. Shabanova, Yu. N. Monakov, and A. N. Khlyustalov, "Oscillator strengths of lines in the principal series of cesium," Opt. pectrosc. (USSR) 47, 1–3 (1979).

Opt. Spectrosc. (1)

I. L. Beigman, L. A. Vainstein, and V. P. Shevelko, "The effect of polarization of the atomic core on the oscillator strengths and photoionization cross-sections of alkali element atoms," Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 28, 229–231 (1970).

Phys. Rev. (6)

P. M. Stone, "Cesium oscillator strengths," Phys. Rev. 127, 1151–1156 (1962).

S. Hameed, "Difficulties of the independent-particle model in the description of energetic transtions in atoms," Phys. Rev. 179, 16–19 (1969).

U. Fano, "Spin orientation of photoelectrons ejected by circularly polarized light," Phys. Rev. 178, 131–136 (1969).

H. G. Kratz, "The principal series of potassium, rubidium, and cesium in absorption," Phys. Rev. 75, 1844–1850 (1949).

J. B. Taylor and I. Langmuir, "Vapor pressure of caesium by the positive ion method," Phys. Rev. 51, 753–760 (1937).

C. L. Chen and A. V. Phelps, "Self-broadening of cesium resonance lines at 8521 and 8944 Å," Phys. Rev. 173, 62–69 (1968).

Phys. Rev. A (5)

G. Baum, M. S. Lubell, and W. Raith, "Measurement of the spin-orbit perturbation in the P-state continuum of heavy alkali metal atoms: K, Rb, and Cs," Phys. Rev. A 5, 1073–1087 (1972).

J. C. Weisheit, "Photoabsorption by ground-state alkali-metal atoms," Phys. Rev. A 5, 1621–1630 (1972).

D. W. Norcross, "Photoabsorption by cesium," Phys. Rev. A 7, 606–616 (1973); 20, 1285–1286 (1979).

J. J. Chang and H. P. Kelly, "Relativistic calculations for photoionization cross sections and the spin orientation of photoejected electrons from potassium, rubidium, and cesium atoms," Phys. Rev. A 5, 1713–1717 (1972).

D. Popescu, I. Popescu, J. Maurer, C. B. Collins, and B. W. Johnson, "Doublet line-strength ratios for the principal series of cesium," Phys. Rev. A 12, 1425–1431 (1975).

Physica (1)

E. Koenig, "Fonctions d'onde atomiques relativistes dans l' approximation du champ central," Physica (The Hague) 62, 393–408 (1972).

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

E. W. Foster, "The measurement of oscillator strengths in atomic spectra," Rep. Prog. Phys. 27, 469–551 (1964).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

G. F. Fülöp, C.-S. O, and H. H. Stroke, "Method for accumulating high-resolution optical spectra by repetitive photoelectric scanning," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 48, 1550–1554 (1977).

R. G. Brewer, "High intensity low noise rubidium light source," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 32, 1356–1358 (1961).

Z. Phys. (5)

D. Popescu, I. Popescu, and J. Richter, "Absorptionsspektroskopie angeregter Cäsium Atome," Z. Phys. 226, 160–174 (1969).

D. Hofsaess, "Photoabsorption of alkali and alkaline earth elements calculated by the scaled Thomas Fermi method," Z. Phys. A281, 1–13 (1977).

U. Heinzmann, J. Kessler, and J. Lorentz, "Elektronen-Spin-Polarisation bei der Photoionisation unpolarisierter Cäsiumatome mit zirkularpolarisiertem Licht," Z. Phys. 240, 42–61 (1970).

E. Fermi, "Über das Intensitätsverhältnis der Dublettkomponeten der Alkalien," Z. Phys. 59, 680–686 (1930).

S. Sambursky, "Eine neue Gesetzmässigkeit in den Intensitätsverhältnissen der Hauptseriendubletts der Alkalien," Z. Phys. 49, 731–739 (1928).

Other (5)

G. S. Kvater and T. G. Meister, "Absolute values of transition probabilities for members of the principal series of cesium," Vestn. Leningr. Univ. 1, 137–160 (1952), translated in Optical Transition Probabilities (National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C., 1962), pp. 191–223.

G. F. Fülöp and H. H. Stroke, "Photoelectric measurements of doublet intensity ratios in cesium," in Atomic Physics, Vol. 3, S. J. Smith and G. K. Walters, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1973), pp. 543–552.

K. N. Huang and A. F. Starace, Phys. Rev. A 19, 2335–2346 (1979).

E. U. Condon and G. H. Shortley, The Theory of Atomic Spectra (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, England, 1935), Chap. 4.

E. U. Condon and G. H. Shortley, The Theory of Atomic Spectra (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, England, 1935), p. 142.

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