Abstract

The quality of many imaging devices can be characterized, within certain constraints, by means of the modulation transfer function (MTF) and the phase transfer function (PTF). In many cases, it is possible to estimate, qualitatively, the effect of the MTF on the appearance of objects, and much progress has been made in making quantitative predictions of the detectability of objects and features within objects. This is not the case, however, for the PTF, and its influence is often neglected, even though nonideal PTF’s obviously may degrade image quality. Experiments are described that attempt to assess the significance of the PTF for human visual performance. The effects of various PTF’s were simulated by means of a technique that maintained the modulation of the spatial-frequency components closely constant. The visual detectability of such phase changes was measured by a discrimination method, and phase threshold levels were evaluated. Simple linear patterns provided the targets for all measurements, although some images are shown that illustrate qualitatively the phase-shift results on real two-dimensional targets. The work enables an assessment to be made of the effects of phase changes produced by various imaging systems.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Nachmias and R. V. Sansbury, "Grating contrast: discrimination may be better than detection," Vision Res. 14, 1039–1042 (1974).
  2. J. J. Kulikowski, "Effective contrast constancy and linearity of contrast sensation," Vision Res. 16, 1419–1431 (1976).
  3. C. R. Carlson and R. W. Cohen, "Visibility of displayed information, Rep. no. PRRL-78-CR-34, RCA Laboratories, Princeton, N.J. (July 1978).
  4. G. J. Burton, "Contrast discrimination by the human visual system," Biol. Cybernetics 40, 27–38 (1981).
  5. R. C. Gonzalez and P. Wintz, Digital Image Processing (Addison-Wesley, London, 1977).
  6. K. J. Rosenbruck and R. Gershler, "Die Bedeutung der Phasenübertragungsfunktion und der Modulationsübertragungsfunktion bei der Benutzung der OTF als Bildgüterkriterium," Optik 55, 173–182 (1980).
  7. G. Westheimer, "Spatial phase sensitivity for sinusoidal grating targets," Vision Res. 18, 1073–1074 (1978).
  8. D. Burr, "Sensitivity to spatial phase," Vision Res. 20, 391–396 (1980).
  9. B. H. Crawford, Physical Photometry, National Physical Laboratory Notes on Applied Science no. 29 (H. M. Stationery Office, London, 1962).
  10. T. N. Cornsweet, "The staircase method in psychophysics," Am. J. Psychol. 75, 485–491 (1962).
  11. D. H. Kelly and R. E. Savoie, "A study of sine-wave contrast sensitivity by two psychophysical methods," Percep. Psychophys. 14, 313–318 (1973).
  12. J. J. Mezrich, C. R. Carlson, and R. W. Cohen, "Image descriptors for displays," Rep. no. PRRL-77-CR-7, RCA Laboratories, Princeton, N.J. (February 1977).
  13. F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, "Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings," J. Physiol. London 197, 551–566 (1965).
  14. P. W. Cobb and F. K. Moss, "The four variables of the visual threshold," J. Franklin Inst. 205, 831–847 (1928).
  15. J. Nachmias, "Effect of exposure duration on visual contrast sensitivity with square-wave gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 421–427 (1967).
  16. H. R. Blackwell, "Contrast thresholds of the human eye," J. Opt .Soc. Am. 36, 624–643 (1946).
  17. L. C. Martin, Technical Optics. Vol. II (Pitman, London, 1960).
  18. M. B. Sachs, J. Nachmias, and J. G. Robson, "Spatial-frequency channels in human vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1176–1186 (1971).
  19. I. Overington, Vision and Acquisition (Pentech, London, 1976).
  20. G. Hauske, W. Wolf, and U. Lupp, "Matched filters in human vision," Biol. Cybernetics 22, 181–188 (1976).
  21. G. J. Burton, "Visual detection model for static targets," presented at Symposium on Visual Modelling for Operational Research, Royal Military College of Science, Shrivenham, Wilts, United Kingdom, January, 1978.

1981 (1)

G. J. Burton, "Contrast discrimination by the human visual system," Biol. Cybernetics 40, 27–38 (1981).

1980 (2)

K. J. Rosenbruck and R. Gershler, "Die Bedeutung der Phasenübertragungsfunktion und der Modulationsübertragungsfunktion bei der Benutzung der OTF als Bildgüterkriterium," Optik 55, 173–182 (1980).

D. Burr, "Sensitivity to spatial phase," Vision Res. 20, 391–396 (1980).

1978 (1)

G. Westheimer, "Spatial phase sensitivity for sinusoidal grating targets," Vision Res. 18, 1073–1074 (1978).

1976 (2)

J. J. Kulikowski, "Effective contrast constancy and linearity of contrast sensation," Vision Res. 16, 1419–1431 (1976).

G. Hauske, W. Wolf, and U. Lupp, "Matched filters in human vision," Biol. Cybernetics 22, 181–188 (1976).

1974 (1)

J. Nachmias and R. V. Sansbury, "Grating contrast: discrimination may be better than detection," Vision Res. 14, 1039–1042 (1974).

1973 (1)

D. H. Kelly and R. E. Savoie, "A study of sine-wave contrast sensitivity by two psychophysical methods," Percep. Psychophys. 14, 313–318 (1973).

1971 (1)

1967 (1)

1965 (1)

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, "Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings," J. Physiol. London 197, 551–566 (1965).

1962 (1)

T. N. Cornsweet, "The staircase method in psychophysics," Am. J. Psychol. 75, 485–491 (1962).

1946 (1)

H. R. Blackwell, "Contrast thresholds of the human eye," J. Opt .Soc. Am. 36, 624–643 (1946).

1928 (1)

P. W. Cobb and F. K. Moss, "The four variables of the visual threshold," J. Franklin Inst. 205, 831–847 (1928).

Blackwell, H. R.

H. R. Blackwell, "Contrast thresholds of the human eye," J. Opt .Soc. Am. 36, 624–643 (1946).

Burr, D.

D. Burr, "Sensitivity to spatial phase," Vision Res. 20, 391–396 (1980).

Burton, G. J.

G. J. Burton, "Contrast discrimination by the human visual system," Biol. Cybernetics 40, 27–38 (1981).

G. J. Burton, "Visual detection model for static targets," presented at Symposium on Visual Modelling for Operational Research, Royal Military College of Science, Shrivenham, Wilts, United Kingdom, January, 1978.

Campbell, F. W.

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, "Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings," J. Physiol. London 197, 551–566 (1965).

Carlson, C. R.

C. R. Carlson and R. W. Cohen, "Visibility of displayed information, Rep. no. PRRL-78-CR-34, RCA Laboratories, Princeton, N.J. (July 1978).

J. J. Mezrich, C. R. Carlson, and R. W. Cohen, "Image descriptors for displays," Rep. no. PRRL-77-CR-7, RCA Laboratories, Princeton, N.J. (February 1977).

Cobb, P. W.

P. W. Cobb and F. K. Moss, "The four variables of the visual threshold," J. Franklin Inst. 205, 831–847 (1928).

Cohen, R. W.

J. J. Mezrich, C. R. Carlson, and R. W. Cohen, "Image descriptors for displays," Rep. no. PRRL-77-CR-7, RCA Laboratories, Princeton, N.J. (February 1977).

C. R. Carlson and R. W. Cohen, "Visibility of displayed information, Rep. no. PRRL-78-CR-34, RCA Laboratories, Princeton, N.J. (July 1978).

Cornsweet, T. N.

T. N. Cornsweet, "The staircase method in psychophysics," Am. J. Psychol. 75, 485–491 (1962).

Crawford, B. H.

B. H. Crawford, Physical Photometry, National Physical Laboratory Notes on Applied Science no. 29 (H. M. Stationery Office, London, 1962).

Gershler, R.

K. J. Rosenbruck and R. Gershler, "Die Bedeutung der Phasenübertragungsfunktion und der Modulationsübertragungsfunktion bei der Benutzung der OTF als Bildgüterkriterium," Optik 55, 173–182 (1980).

Gonzalez, R. C.

R. C. Gonzalez and P. Wintz, Digital Image Processing (Addison-Wesley, London, 1977).

Hauske, G.

G. Hauske, W. Wolf, and U. Lupp, "Matched filters in human vision," Biol. Cybernetics 22, 181–188 (1976).

Kelly, D. H.

D. H. Kelly and R. E. Savoie, "A study of sine-wave contrast sensitivity by two psychophysical methods," Percep. Psychophys. 14, 313–318 (1973).

Kulikowski, J. J.

J. J. Kulikowski, "Effective contrast constancy and linearity of contrast sensation," Vision Res. 16, 1419–1431 (1976).

Lupp, U.

G. Hauske, W. Wolf, and U. Lupp, "Matched filters in human vision," Biol. Cybernetics 22, 181–188 (1976).

Martin, L. C.

L. C. Martin, Technical Optics. Vol. II (Pitman, London, 1960).

Mezrich, J. J.

J. J. Mezrich, C. R. Carlson, and R. W. Cohen, "Image descriptors for displays," Rep. no. PRRL-77-CR-7, RCA Laboratories, Princeton, N.J. (February 1977).

Moss, F. K.

P. W. Cobb and F. K. Moss, "The four variables of the visual threshold," J. Franklin Inst. 205, 831–847 (1928).

Nachmias, J.

Overington, I.

I. Overington, Vision and Acquisition (Pentech, London, 1976).

Robson, J. G.

M. B. Sachs, J. Nachmias, and J. G. Robson, "Spatial-frequency channels in human vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1176–1186 (1971).

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, "Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings," J. Physiol. London 197, 551–566 (1965).

Rosenbruck, K. J.

K. J. Rosenbruck and R. Gershler, "Die Bedeutung der Phasenübertragungsfunktion und der Modulationsübertragungsfunktion bei der Benutzung der OTF als Bildgüterkriterium," Optik 55, 173–182 (1980).

Sachs, M. B.

Sansbury, R. V.

J. Nachmias and R. V. Sansbury, "Grating contrast: discrimination may be better than detection," Vision Res. 14, 1039–1042 (1974).

Savoie, R. E.

D. H. Kelly and R. E. Savoie, "A study of sine-wave contrast sensitivity by two psychophysical methods," Percep. Psychophys. 14, 313–318 (1973).

Westheimer, G.

G. Westheimer, "Spatial phase sensitivity for sinusoidal grating targets," Vision Res. 18, 1073–1074 (1978).

Wintz, P.

R. C. Gonzalez and P. Wintz, Digital Image Processing (Addison-Wesley, London, 1977).

Wolf, W.

G. Hauske, W. Wolf, and U. Lupp, "Matched filters in human vision," Biol. Cybernetics 22, 181–188 (1976).

Am. J. Psychol. (1)

T. N. Cornsweet, "The staircase method in psychophysics," Am. J. Psychol. 75, 485–491 (1962).

Biol. Cybernetics (2)

G. J. Burton, "Contrast discrimination by the human visual system," Biol. Cybernetics 40, 27–38 (1981).

G. Hauske, W. Wolf, and U. Lupp, "Matched filters in human vision," Biol. Cybernetics 22, 181–188 (1976).

J. Franklin Inst. (1)

P. W. Cobb and F. K. Moss, "The four variables of the visual threshold," J. Franklin Inst. 205, 831–847 (1928).

J. Opt .Soc. Am. (1)

H. R. Blackwell, "Contrast thresholds of the human eye," J. Opt .Soc. Am. 36, 624–643 (1946).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Physiol. London (1)

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, "Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings," J. Physiol. London 197, 551–566 (1965).

Optik (1)

K. J. Rosenbruck and R. Gershler, "Die Bedeutung der Phasenübertragungsfunktion und der Modulationsübertragungsfunktion bei der Benutzung der OTF als Bildgüterkriterium," Optik 55, 173–182 (1980).

Percep. Psychophys. (1)

D. H. Kelly and R. E. Savoie, "A study of sine-wave contrast sensitivity by two psychophysical methods," Percep. Psychophys. 14, 313–318 (1973).

Vision Res. (4)

G. Westheimer, "Spatial phase sensitivity for sinusoidal grating targets," Vision Res. 18, 1073–1074 (1978).

D. Burr, "Sensitivity to spatial phase," Vision Res. 20, 391–396 (1980).

J. Nachmias and R. V. Sansbury, "Grating contrast: discrimination may be better than detection," Vision Res. 14, 1039–1042 (1974).

J. J. Kulikowski, "Effective contrast constancy and linearity of contrast sensation," Vision Res. 16, 1419–1431 (1976).

Other (7)

C. R. Carlson and R. W. Cohen, "Visibility of displayed information, Rep. no. PRRL-78-CR-34, RCA Laboratories, Princeton, N.J. (July 1978).

R. C. Gonzalez and P. Wintz, Digital Image Processing (Addison-Wesley, London, 1977).

B. H. Crawford, Physical Photometry, National Physical Laboratory Notes on Applied Science no. 29 (H. M. Stationery Office, London, 1962).

J. J. Mezrich, C. R. Carlson, and R. W. Cohen, "Image descriptors for displays," Rep. no. PRRL-77-CR-7, RCA Laboratories, Princeton, N.J. (February 1977).

I. Overington, Vision and Acquisition (Pentech, London, 1976).

L. C. Martin, Technical Optics. Vol. II (Pitman, London, 1960).

G. J. Burton, "Visual detection model for static targets," presented at Symposium on Visual Modelling for Operational Research, Royal Military College of Science, Shrivenham, Wilts, United Kingdom, January, 1978.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.