Abstract

For the egocentric orientation of observers moving with respect to a plane (e.g., pilots and automobile drivers), the movement parallax field provides the main cue. The parallax field is split into a lamellar and a solenoidal part, and it is shown that the solenoidal part is purely propriospecific. For instance, it can be shown that this component can be completely canceled by an appropriate eye movement. Thus all exterospecific information is contained in the lamellar part, and this part is completely determined by the divergence of the parallax field. Thus the measure of expansion of the visual field as a function of direction of gaze is sufficient to provide all information available for egocentric orientation. It is further shown that the widely used focus of expansion, as introduced by Gibson, is not invariant against eye movements and does not (in general) correspond to extrema of the divergence.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. J. Gibson, P. Olum, and F. Rosenblatt, "Parallax and perspective during aircraft landings," Am. J. Psychol. 68, 372–385 (1958).
  2. D. A. Gordon, "Static and dynamic visual fields in human space perception," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1296–1303 (1965).
  3. J. J. Koenderink and A. J. van Doorn, "Local structure of movement parallax of the plane," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 717–723 (1976).
  4. J. J. Gibson, The Perception of the Visual World (Houghton Mifflin, Boston, Mass., 1950).
  5. G. A. Brecher et al., "Relation of optical and labyrinthean orientation," Opt. Acta 19, 467–471 (1972).
  6. D. Regan, K. Beverley, and M. Cynader, "The visual perception of motion in depth," Sci. Am. 241(1), 122–133 (1979).
  7. Ref. 4, Fig. 56.
  8. J. J. Koenderink and A. J. van Doorn, "Invariant properties of the motion parallax field due to the movement of rigid bodies relative to an observer," Opt. Acta 22, 773–791 (1975).
  9. F. Hoyle, The Black Cloud (Penguin, Harmondsworth, Middle-sex, 1960).
  10. D. N. Lee, "A theory of visual control of braking based on information about time-to-collision," Percept. 5, 437–459 (1976).

1979 (1)

D. Regan, K. Beverley, and M. Cynader, "The visual perception of motion in depth," Sci. Am. 241(1), 122–133 (1979).

1976 (2)

D. N. Lee, "A theory of visual control of braking based on information about time-to-collision," Percept. 5, 437–459 (1976).

J. J. Koenderink and A. J. van Doorn, "Local structure of movement parallax of the plane," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 717–723 (1976).

1975 (1)

J. J. Koenderink and A. J. van Doorn, "Invariant properties of the motion parallax field due to the movement of rigid bodies relative to an observer," Opt. Acta 22, 773–791 (1975).

1972 (1)

G. A. Brecher et al., "Relation of optical and labyrinthean orientation," Opt. Acta 19, 467–471 (1972).

1965 (1)

1958 (1)

J. J. Gibson, P. Olum, and F. Rosenblatt, "Parallax and perspective during aircraft landings," Am. J. Psychol. 68, 372–385 (1958).

Beverley, K.

D. Regan, K. Beverley, and M. Cynader, "The visual perception of motion in depth," Sci. Am. 241(1), 122–133 (1979).

Brecher, G. A.

G. A. Brecher et al., "Relation of optical and labyrinthean orientation," Opt. Acta 19, 467–471 (1972).

Cynader, M.

D. Regan, K. Beverley, and M. Cynader, "The visual perception of motion in depth," Sci. Am. 241(1), 122–133 (1979).

Gibson, J. J.

J. J. Gibson, P. Olum, and F. Rosenblatt, "Parallax and perspective during aircraft landings," Am. J. Psychol. 68, 372–385 (1958).

J. J. Gibson, The Perception of the Visual World (Houghton Mifflin, Boston, Mass., 1950).

Gordon, D. A.

Hoyle, F.

F. Hoyle, The Black Cloud (Penguin, Harmondsworth, Middle-sex, 1960).

Koenderink, J. J.

J. J. Koenderink and A. J. van Doorn, "Local structure of movement parallax of the plane," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 717–723 (1976).

J. J. Koenderink and A. J. van Doorn, "Invariant properties of the motion parallax field due to the movement of rigid bodies relative to an observer," Opt. Acta 22, 773–791 (1975).

Lee, D. N.

D. N. Lee, "A theory of visual control of braking based on information about time-to-collision," Percept. 5, 437–459 (1976).

Olum, P.

J. J. Gibson, P. Olum, and F. Rosenblatt, "Parallax and perspective during aircraft landings," Am. J. Psychol. 68, 372–385 (1958).

Regan, D.

D. Regan, K. Beverley, and M. Cynader, "The visual perception of motion in depth," Sci. Am. 241(1), 122–133 (1979).

Rosenblatt, F.

J. J. Gibson, P. Olum, and F. Rosenblatt, "Parallax and perspective during aircraft landings," Am. J. Psychol. 68, 372–385 (1958).

van Doorn, A. J.

J. J. Koenderink and A. J. van Doorn, "Local structure of movement parallax of the plane," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 717–723 (1976).

J. J. Koenderink and A. J. van Doorn, "Invariant properties of the motion parallax field due to the movement of rigid bodies relative to an observer," Opt. Acta 22, 773–791 (1975).

Am. J. Psychol. (1)

J. J. Gibson, P. Olum, and F. Rosenblatt, "Parallax and perspective during aircraft landings," Am. J. Psychol. 68, 372–385 (1958).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Opt. Acta (2)

G. A. Brecher et al., "Relation of optical and labyrinthean orientation," Opt. Acta 19, 467–471 (1972).

J. J. Koenderink and A. J. van Doorn, "Invariant properties of the motion parallax field due to the movement of rigid bodies relative to an observer," Opt. Acta 22, 773–791 (1975).

Percept. (1)

D. N. Lee, "A theory of visual control of braking based on information about time-to-collision," Percept. 5, 437–459 (1976).

Sci. Am. (1)

D. Regan, K. Beverley, and M. Cynader, "The visual perception of motion in depth," Sci. Am. 241(1), 122–133 (1979).

Other (3)

Ref. 4, Fig. 56.

F. Hoyle, The Black Cloud (Penguin, Harmondsworth, Middle-sex, 1960).

J. J. Gibson, The Perception of the Visual World (Houghton Mifflin, Boston, Mass., 1950).

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