Abstract

A rigorous coupled-wave approach is used to analyze diffraction by general planar gratings bounded by two different media. The grating fringes may have any orientation (slanted or unslanted) with respect to the grating surfaces. The analysis is based on a state-variables representation and results in a unifying, easily computer-implementable matrix formulation of the general planar-grating diffraction problem. Accurate diffraction characteristics are presented for the first time to the authors’ knowledge for general slanted gratings. This present rigorous formulation is compared with rigorous modal theory, approximate two-wave modal theory, approximate multiwave coupled-wave theory, and approximate two-wave coupled-wave theory. Typical errors in the diffraction characteristics introduced by these various approximate theories are evaluated for transmission, slanted, and reflection gratings. Inclusion of higher-order waves in a theory is important for obtaining accurate predictions when forward-diffracted orders are dominant (transmission-grating behavior). Conversely, when backward-diffracted orders dominate (reflection-grating behavior), second derivatives of the field amplitudes and boundary diffraction need to be included to produce accurate results.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Coupled-wave analysis of reflection gratings

M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord
Appl. Opt. 20(2) 240-244 (1981)

Algorithm for the rigorous coupled-wave analysis of grating diffraction

Nicolas Chateau and Jean-Paul Hugonin
J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11(4) 1321-1331 (1994)

Rigorous coupled-wave analysis of grating diffraction— E-mode polarization and losses

M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord
J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73(4) 451-455 (1983)

References

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Citation lists with outbound citation links are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Cited By

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Cited by links are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Figures (10)

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Figure files are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Equations (24)

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Equations are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription