Abstract

Uncertainty, the inability to know or to make use of information regarding the parameters of a luminance stimulus to be detected, is herein shown by simulation to (1) steepen the frequency-of-seeing curve and (2) cause psychophysical estimates of quantum efficiency to be too low.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, and M. P. Pirenne, “Energy quanta and vision,” J. Gen. Physiol. 25, 819–840 (1942).
  2. H. B. Barlow, “Retinal noise and absolute threshold,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 634–639 (1956).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. H. B. Barlow, “Intrinsic noise of cones,” in Proceedings of National Physical Laboratory Symposium No. 8 on Visual Problems of Colour (H. M. Stationery Office, London, 1958), pp. 617–630.
  4. B. Sakitt, “Counting every quantum,” J. Physiol. 233, 131–150 (1972).
  5. G. S. Brindley, “The order of coincidence required for visual threshold,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London Sect. B,  67, 673–676 (1954).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. H. Pirenne and F. H. C. Marriott, “Absolute threshold and frequency-of-seeing curves,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 909–912 (1955).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. G. S. Brindley, “The relation of frequency of detection to intensity of stimulus for a system of many independent detectors each of which is stimulated by a m-quantum coincidence,” J. Physiol. 169, 412–415 (1963).
  8. W. P. Tanner and R. Clark Jones, “The ideal sensor system as approached through SDT and TSD,” in Visual Search Problems, A. Morris and E. P. Horne, eds. (National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1960).
  9. T. E. Cohn, “A new hypothesis to explain why the increment threshold exceeds the decrement threshold,” Vision Res. 14, 1277–1279 (1974).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. L. N. Thibos, W. R. Levick, and T. E. Cohn, “Receiver operating characteristic curves for Poisson signals,” Biol. Cybernet. 33, 57–61 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  11. T. E. Cohn, L. N. Thibos, and R. N. Kleinstein, “Detectability of a luminance increment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1321–1327 (1974).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. T. E. Cohn, “Detection of 1-of-M orthogonal signals: asymptotic equivalence of likelihood ratio and multiband models,” Opt. Lett. 3, 22–23 (1978).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. J. Nachmias and E. C. Kocher, “Visual detection and discrimination of luminance increments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 382–389 (1970).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. B. Sakitt, “Canonical ratings,” Percept. Psychophys. 16, 478–488 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  15. W. S. Stiles, “Increment thresholds and the mechanisms of colour vision,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 138–163 (1949).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. E. Baumgardt and S. W. Smith, “Facilitation effect of background light on target detection: a test of theories of absolute threshold,” Vision Res. 5, 299–312 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  17. J. Nachmias, “Photosensitization and intrinsic noise in the visual system,” Vision Res. 6, 113–115 (1966).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. E. Baumgardt, “Absolute Schwelle und differential Schwellen,” in Symposium: The Visual System: Neurophysiology and Psychophysics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1961), pp. 400–410.
  19. H. A. Van der Velden, “The number of quanta necessary for perception of light of the human eye,” Ophthalmologica 111, 321–330 (1946).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. T. E. Cohn and D. J. Lasley, “Detectability of a luminance increment: effect of spatial uncertainty,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1715–1719 (1974).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. D. J. Lasley and T. E. Cohn, “Detection of a luminance increment: effect of temporal uncertainty,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.71(to be published, July1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. D. M. Green, “Psychoacoustics and detection theory,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 32, 1189–1203 (1960).
    [Crossref]
  23. W. P. Tanner, “Physiological implications of psychophysical data,” Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 89, 752–765 (1961).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. D. M. Green and J. A. Swets, Signal Detection Theory and Psychophysics (Kreiger, New York, 1974), p. 125.
  25. H. B. Barlow, “Retinal and central factors in human vision limited by noise,” in Vertebrate Photoreception, H. B. Barlow and P. Fatt, eds. (Academic, New York, 1977), Chap. 19.

1979 (1)

L. N. Thibos, W. R. Levick, and T. E. Cohn, “Receiver operating characteristic curves for Poisson signals,” Biol. Cybernet. 33, 57–61 (1979).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

1974 (4)

1972 (1)

B. Sakitt, “Counting every quantum,” J. Physiol. 233, 131–150 (1972).

1970 (1)

1966 (1)

J. Nachmias, “Photosensitization and intrinsic noise in the visual system,” Vision Res. 6, 113–115 (1966).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1965 (1)

E. Baumgardt and S. W. Smith, “Facilitation effect of background light on target detection: a test of theories of absolute threshold,” Vision Res. 5, 299–312 (1965).
[Crossref]

1963 (1)

G. S. Brindley, “The relation of frequency of detection to intensity of stimulus for a system of many independent detectors each of which is stimulated by a m-quantum coincidence,” J. Physiol. 169, 412–415 (1963).

1961 (1)

W. P. Tanner, “Physiological implications of psychophysical data,” Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 89, 752–765 (1961).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1960 (1)

D. M. Green, “Psychoacoustics and detection theory,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 32, 1189–1203 (1960).
[Crossref]

1956 (1)

1955 (1)

1954 (1)

G. S. Brindley, “The order of coincidence required for visual threshold,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London Sect. B,  67, 673–676 (1954).
[Crossref]

1949 (1)

W. S. Stiles, “Increment thresholds and the mechanisms of colour vision,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 138–163 (1949).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1946 (1)

H. A. Van der Velden, “The number of quanta necessary for perception of light of the human eye,” Ophthalmologica 111, 321–330 (1946).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1942 (1)

S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, and M. P. Pirenne, “Energy quanta and vision,” J. Gen. Physiol. 25, 819–840 (1942).

Barlow, H. B.

H. B. Barlow, “Retinal noise and absolute threshold,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 634–639 (1956).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. B. Barlow, “Retinal and central factors in human vision limited by noise,” in Vertebrate Photoreception, H. B. Barlow and P. Fatt, eds. (Academic, New York, 1977), Chap. 19.

H. B. Barlow, “Intrinsic noise of cones,” in Proceedings of National Physical Laboratory Symposium No. 8 on Visual Problems of Colour (H. M. Stationery Office, London, 1958), pp. 617–630.

Baumgardt, E.

E. Baumgardt and S. W. Smith, “Facilitation effect of background light on target detection: a test of theories of absolute threshold,” Vision Res. 5, 299–312 (1965).
[Crossref]

E. Baumgardt, “Absolute Schwelle und differential Schwellen,” in Symposium: The Visual System: Neurophysiology and Psychophysics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1961), pp. 400–410.

Brindley, G. S.

G. S. Brindley, “The relation of frequency of detection to intensity of stimulus for a system of many independent detectors each of which is stimulated by a m-quantum coincidence,” J. Physiol. 169, 412–415 (1963).

G. S. Brindley, “The order of coincidence required for visual threshold,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London Sect. B,  67, 673–676 (1954).
[Crossref]

Clark Jones, R.

W. P. Tanner and R. Clark Jones, “The ideal sensor system as approached through SDT and TSD,” in Visual Search Problems, A. Morris and E. P. Horne, eds. (National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1960).

Cohn, T. E.

L. N. Thibos, W. R. Levick, and T. E. Cohn, “Receiver operating characteristic curves for Poisson signals,” Biol. Cybernet. 33, 57–61 (1979).
[Crossref]

T. E. Cohn, “Detection of 1-of-M orthogonal signals: asymptotic equivalence of likelihood ratio and multiband models,” Opt. Lett. 3, 22–23 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. E. Cohn, L. N. Thibos, and R. N. Kleinstein, “Detectability of a luminance increment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1321–1327 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. E. Cohn, “A new hypothesis to explain why the increment threshold exceeds the decrement threshold,” Vision Res. 14, 1277–1279 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. E. Cohn and D. J. Lasley, “Detectability of a luminance increment: effect of spatial uncertainty,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1715–1719 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Lasley and T. E. Cohn, “Detection of a luminance increment: effect of temporal uncertainty,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.71(to be published, July1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Green, D. M.

D. M. Green, “Psychoacoustics and detection theory,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 32, 1189–1203 (1960).
[Crossref]

D. M. Green and J. A. Swets, Signal Detection Theory and Psychophysics (Kreiger, New York, 1974), p. 125.

Hecht, S.

S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, and M. P. Pirenne, “Energy quanta and vision,” J. Gen. Physiol. 25, 819–840 (1942).

Kleinstein, R. N.

Kocher, E. C.

Lasley, D. J.

T. E. Cohn and D. J. Lasley, “Detectability of a luminance increment: effect of spatial uncertainty,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1715–1719 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Lasley and T. E. Cohn, “Detection of a luminance increment: effect of temporal uncertainty,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.71(to be published, July1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levick, W. R.

L. N. Thibos, W. R. Levick, and T. E. Cohn, “Receiver operating characteristic curves for Poisson signals,” Biol. Cybernet. 33, 57–61 (1979).
[Crossref]

Marriott, F. H. C.

Nachmias, J.

Pirenne, M. H.

Pirenne, M. P.

S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, and M. P. Pirenne, “Energy quanta and vision,” J. Gen. Physiol. 25, 819–840 (1942).

Sakitt, B.

B. Sakitt, “Canonical ratings,” Percept. Psychophys. 16, 478–488 (1974).
[Crossref]

B. Sakitt, “Counting every quantum,” J. Physiol. 233, 131–150 (1972).

Shlaer, S.

S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, and M. P. Pirenne, “Energy quanta and vision,” J. Gen. Physiol. 25, 819–840 (1942).

Smith, S. W.

E. Baumgardt and S. W. Smith, “Facilitation effect of background light on target detection: a test of theories of absolute threshold,” Vision Res. 5, 299–312 (1965).
[Crossref]

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles, “Increment thresholds and the mechanisms of colour vision,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 138–163 (1949).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swets, J. A.

D. M. Green and J. A. Swets, Signal Detection Theory and Psychophysics (Kreiger, New York, 1974), p. 125.

Tanner, W. P.

W. P. Tanner, “Physiological implications of psychophysical data,” Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 89, 752–765 (1961).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. P. Tanner and R. Clark Jones, “The ideal sensor system as approached through SDT and TSD,” in Visual Search Problems, A. Morris and E. P. Horne, eds. (National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1960).

Thibos, L. N.

L. N. Thibos, W. R. Levick, and T. E. Cohn, “Receiver operating characteristic curves for Poisson signals,” Biol. Cybernet. 33, 57–61 (1979).
[Crossref]

T. E. Cohn, L. N. Thibos, and R. N. Kleinstein, “Detectability of a luminance increment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1321–1327 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van der Velden, H. A.

H. A. Van der Velden, “The number of quanta necessary for perception of light of the human eye,” Ophthalmologica 111, 321–330 (1946).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. (1)

W. P. Tanner, “Physiological implications of psychophysical data,” Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 89, 752–765 (1961).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biol. Cybernet. (1)

L. N. Thibos, W. R. Levick, and T. E. Cohn, “Receiver operating characteristic curves for Poisson signals,” Biol. Cybernet. 33, 57–61 (1979).
[Crossref]

Doc. Ophthalmol. (1)

W. S. Stiles, “Increment thresholds and the mechanisms of colour vision,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 138–163 (1949).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (1)

D. M. Green, “Psychoacoustics and detection theory,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 32, 1189–1203 (1960).
[Crossref]

J. Gen. Physiol. (1)

S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, and M. P. Pirenne, “Energy quanta and vision,” J. Gen. Physiol. 25, 819–840 (1942).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (5)

J. Physiol. (2)

G. S. Brindley, “The relation of frequency of detection to intensity of stimulus for a system of many independent detectors each of which is stimulated by a m-quantum coincidence,” J. Physiol. 169, 412–415 (1963).

B. Sakitt, “Counting every quantum,” J. Physiol. 233, 131–150 (1972).

Ophthalmologica (1)

H. A. Van der Velden, “The number of quanta necessary for perception of light of the human eye,” Ophthalmologica 111, 321–330 (1946).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Percept. Psychophys. (1)

B. Sakitt, “Canonical ratings,” Percept. Psychophys. 16, 478–488 (1974).
[Crossref]

Proc. Phys. Soc. London Sect. B (1)

G. S. Brindley, “The order of coincidence required for visual threshold,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London Sect. B,  67, 673–676 (1954).
[Crossref]

Vision Res. (3)

T. E. Cohn, “A new hypothesis to explain why the increment threshold exceeds the decrement threshold,” Vision Res. 14, 1277–1279 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Baumgardt and S. W. Smith, “Facilitation effect of background light on target detection: a test of theories of absolute threshold,” Vision Res. 5, 299–312 (1965).
[Crossref]

J. Nachmias, “Photosensitization and intrinsic noise in the visual system,” Vision Res. 6, 113–115 (1966).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (6)

E. Baumgardt, “Absolute Schwelle und differential Schwellen,” in Symposium: The Visual System: Neurophysiology and Psychophysics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1961), pp. 400–410.

H. B. Barlow, “Intrinsic noise of cones,” in Proceedings of National Physical Laboratory Symposium No. 8 on Visual Problems of Colour (H. M. Stationery Office, London, 1958), pp. 617–630.

W. P. Tanner and R. Clark Jones, “The ideal sensor system as approached through SDT and TSD,” in Visual Search Problems, A. Morris and E. P. Horne, eds. (National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1960).

D. J. Lasley and T. E. Cohn, “Detection of a luminance increment: effect of temporal uncertainty,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.71(to be published, July1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. M. Green and J. A. Swets, Signal Detection Theory and Psychophysics (Kreiger, New York, 1974), p. 125.

H. B. Barlow, “Retinal and central factors in human vision limited by noise,” in Vertebrate Photoreception, H. B. Barlow and P. Fatt, eds. (Academic, New York, 1977), Chap. 19.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (1)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Ordinate: Frequency-of-seeing interpolated from ROC curve at false-alarm rate of 0.1. Abscissa: Mean number of photons in simulated signal flash on logarithmic scale. Points obtained from simulation runs involving 1000 trials per condition. Dark-light mean, QD, set at one event per stimulus interval. M, the uncertainty parameter, is the number of equally likely nonoverlapping signal loci. Curve through filled circles is performance of multiband detector for M = 10. It has been demonstrated analytically12 that the multiband and likelihood ratio detectors are asymptotically equivalent at low signal levels.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

l ( x ) = f s ( x ) f n ( x ) = ( E + Q D ) x e - ( E + Q D ) X ! ÷ Q D x e - ( Q D ) X ! = ( E + Q D Q D ) x e - E ,