Abstract

The level of reflectance of pigmented surfaces observed in daylight affects saturation growth in different ways, depending on the wavelength of the samples. Numerical and matching judgments collected in previous experiments were replotted in families of monochromatic (constant hue) saturation power functions for blue, green, yellow, and red. For each hue the set of functions intersected at a point at which the calorimetric purity and saturation were invariant with reflectance. The points of intersection were: blues, 0.081 colorimetric purity (P<sub>c</sub>) and 2.7 cromes; greens, 0.257 P<sub>c</sub> and 4.6 cromes; yellows, 0.694 P<sub>c</sub> and 8.3 cromes; and reds, 0.144 P<sub>c</sub> and 3.6 cromes. A straight line fitted to these four intersecting points makes it possible to interpolate other intersecting points for other hues. Two additional experiments were designed to compare a function of saturation with a function of lightness for a set of different hues (heterochromatic functions). Observers judged saturation in one experiment and lightness in the other. Lightness grows linearly with reflectance, and saturation increases as the 0.5 power of P<sub>c</sub>, suggesting a different perceptual discrimination for the two dimensions. The relation between changes in quantity and percentage of color perceived was tested in an additional experiment. Observers assigned the following saturation values to the samples with P<sub>c</sub> close to the converging points: 13% of color for blues, 20% for reds, 25% for greens, and 40% for yellows.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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  2. T. Indow and S. S. Stevens, "Scaling of saturation and hue," Percept. Psychophys. 1, 253–271 (1966).
  3. M. Guirao and M. L. F. de Mattiello, "Equal saturation contours for surface colors," in AIC Color 77, F. W. Billmayer, Jr. and G. Wyszecki, eds. (Hilger, Bristol, 1978), pp. 348–350.
  4. M. L. F. de Mattiello and R. A. Arizaga, "Delimitation of saturation in CIE systems," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1400–1401(A) (1978).
  5. M. L. F. de Mattiello, "On the estimation of saturation in pigmented surfaces and the DIN and Munsell colour order systems," Die Farbe 29, 3–6 (1980).
  6. J. W. Onley et al., "Quantitative estimates of saturation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 487–493 (1963).
  7. D. W. Panek and S. S. Stevens, "Saturation of red: a prothetic continuum," Percept. Psychophys. 2, 59–66 (1966).
  8. J. C. Stevens and S. S. Stevens, "Brightness function: effects of adaptation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 375–385 (1963).
  9. M. L. F. de Mattiello and M. Guirao, "Direct estimation of lightness of surface colors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 206–209 (1974).
  10. S. S. Stevens, "On the psychophysical law," Psychol. Rev. 64, 153–181 (1957).
  11. L. C. Martin, F. L. Warburton, and W. J. Morgan, "The determination of the sensitiveness of the eye to differences in the saturation of colours," G. B. Med. Res. Counc., Spec. Rep. Ser. 188, 5–42 (1933).
  12. J. H. Nelson, "The colour-vision characteristics of a trichromat," Proc. Phys. Soc. London 49, 332–337 (1937).
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  25. W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (Henry Kimpton, London, 1946).

1980

M. L. F. de Mattiello, "On the estimation of saturation in pigmented surfaces and the DIN and Munsell colour order systems," Die Farbe 29, 3–6 (1980).

1978

M. L. F. de Mattiello and R. A. Arizaga, "Delimitation of saturation in CIE systems," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1400–1401(A) (1978).

1977

1974

M. L. F. de Mattiello and M. Guirao, "Direct estimation of lightness of surface colors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 206–209 (1974).

M. Guirao and M. L. F. de Mattiello, "Saturation scales for surface colors," Vision Res. 14, 487–493 (1974).

1970

J. C. Stevens and L. L. Rubin, "Psychophysical scales of apparent heaviness and the size-weight illusion," Percept Psychophys. 8, 225–230 (1970).

1967

S. S. Stevens and M. Guirao, "Loudness functions under inhibition," Percept Psychophys. 2, 459–465 (1967).

R. M. Evans and B. K. Swenholt, "Chromatic strength of colors. I. Dominant wavelength and purity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1319–1324 (1967).

1966

S. S. Stevens, "Power-group transformation under glare, masking, and recruitment," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 39, 725–735 (1966).

D. W. Panek and S. S. Stevens, "Saturation of red: a prothetic continuum," Percept. Psychophys. 2, 59–66 (1966).

T. Indow and S. S. Stevens, "Scaling of saturation and hue," Percept. Psychophys. 1, 253–271 (1966).

1965

S. S. Stevens and A. L. Diamond, "Effect of glare angle on the brightness function for a small target," Vision Res. 5, 649–659 (1965).

1963

1957

S. S. Stevens, "On the psychophysical law," Psychol. Rev. 64, 153–181 (1957).

1955

1938

1937

J. H. Nelson, "The colour-vision characteristics of a trichromat," Proc. Phys. Soc. London 49, 332–337 (1937).

W. D. Wright and F. G. H. Pitt, "The saturation discrimination of two trichromats," Proc. Phys. Soc. London 49, 329–331 (1937).

1933

L. C. Martin, F. L. Warburton, and W. J. Morgan, "The determination of the sensitiveness of the eye to differences in the saturation of colours," G. B. Med. Res. Counc., Spec. Rep. Ser. 188, 5–42 (1933).

1923

1916

L. T. Troland, "Apparent brightness; its conditions and properties," Trans. Ilium. Eng. Soc. 11, 947–966 (1916).

de Mattiello, M. L. F.

M. L. F. de Mattiello, "On the estimation of saturation in pigmented surfaces and the DIN and Munsell colour order systems," Die Farbe 29, 3–6 (1980).

M. Guirao and M. L. F. de Mattiello, "Saturation of colored samples at various levels of reflectance," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 647–651 (1977).

M. L. F. de Mattiello and M. Guirao, "Direct estimation of lightness of surface colors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 206–209 (1974).

M. Guirao and M. L. F. de Mattiello, "Saturation scales for surface colors," Vision Res. 14, 487–493 (1974).

M. Guirao and M. L. F. de Mattiello, "Equal saturation contours for surface colors," in AIC Color 77, F. W. Billmayer, Jr. and G. Wyszecki, eds. (Hilger, Bristol, 1978), pp. 348–350.

Diamond, A. L.

S. S. Stevens and A. L. Diamond, "Effect of glare angle on the brightness function for a small target," Vision Res. 5, 649–659 (1965).

Evans, R. M.

Guirao, M.

M. Guirao and M. L. F. de Mattiello, "Saturation of colored samples at various levels of reflectance," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 647–651 (1977).

M. L. F. de Mattiello and M. Guirao, "Direct estimation of lightness of surface colors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 206–209 (1974).

M. Guirao and M. L. F. de Mattiello, "Saturation scales for surface colors," Vision Res. 14, 487–493 (1974).

S. S. Stevens and M. Guirao, "Loudness functions under inhibition," Percept Psychophys. 2, 459–465 (1967).

M. Guirao and M. L. F. de Mattiello, "Equal saturation contours for surface colors," in AIC Color 77, F. W. Billmayer, Jr. and G. Wyszecki, eds. (Hilger, Bristol, 1978), pp. 348–350.

Hurvich, L.

Indow, T.

T. Indow and S. S. Stevens, "Scaling of saturation and hue," Percept. Psychophys. 1, 253–271 (1966).

Jameson, D.

MacAdam, D. L.

Martin, L. C.

L. C. Martin, F. L. Warburton, and W. J. Morgan, "The determination of the sensitiveness of the eye to differences in the saturation of colours," G. B. Med. Res. Counc., Spec. Rep. Ser. 188, 5–42 (1933).

Morgan, W. J.

L. C. Martin, F. L. Warburton, and W. J. Morgan, "The determination of the sensitiveness of the eye to differences in the saturation of colours," G. B. Med. Res. Counc., Spec. Rep. Ser. 188, 5–42 (1933).

Nelson, J. H.

J. H. Nelson, "The colour-vision characteristics of a trichromat," Proc. Phys. Soc. London 49, 332–337 (1937).

Onley, J. W.

Panek, D. W.

D. W. Panek and S. S. Stevens, "Saturation of red: a prothetic continuum," Percept. Psychophys. 2, 59–66 (1966).

Pitt, F. G. H.

W. D. Wright and F. G. H. Pitt, "The saturation discrimination of two trichromats," Proc. Phys. Soc. London 49, 329–331 (1937).

Rubin, L. L.

J. C. Stevens and L. L. Rubin, "Psychophysical scales of apparent heaviness and the size-weight illusion," Percept Psychophys. 8, 225–230 (1970).

Sinden, R. H.

Stevens, J. C.

J. C. Stevens and L. L. Rubin, "Psychophysical scales of apparent heaviness and the size-weight illusion," Percept Psychophys. 8, 225–230 (1970).

J. C. Stevens and S. S. Stevens, "Brightness function: effects of adaptation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 375–385 (1963).

J. C. Stevens, "Families of converging power functions in psychophysics," in Sensation and Measurement, H. Moskowitz, B. Sharf, and J. C. Stevens, eds. (Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1974), pp. 157–165.

Stevens, S. S.

S. S. Stevens and M. Guirao, "Loudness functions under inhibition," Percept Psychophys. 2, 459–465 (1967).

S. S. Stevens, "Power-group transformation under glare, masking, and recruitment," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 39, 725–735 (1966).

D. W. Panek and S. S. Stevens, "Saturation of red: a prothetic continuum," Percept. Psychophys. 2, 59–66 (1966).

T. Indow and S. S. Stevens, "Scaling of saturation and hue," Percept. Psychophys. 1, 253–271 (1966).

S. S. Stevens and A. L. Diamond, "Effect of glare angle on the brightness function for a small target," Vision Res. 5, 649–659 (1965).

J. C. Stevens and S. S. Stevens, "Brightness function: effects of adaptation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 375–385 (1963).

S. S. Stevens, "On the psychophysical law," Psychol. Rev. 64, 153–181 (1957).

Swenholt, B. K.

Troland, L. T.

L. T. Troland, "Apparent brightness; its conditions and properties," Trans. Ilium. Eng. Soc. 11, 947–966 (1916).

Warburton, F. L.

L. C. Martin, F. L. Warburton, and W. J. Morgan, "The determination of the sensitiveness of the eye to differences in the saturation of colours," G. B. Med. Res. Counc., Spec. Rep. Ser. 188, 5–42 (1933).

Wright, W. D.

W. D. Wright and F. G. H. Pitt, "The saturation discrimination of two trichromats," Proc. Phys. Soc. London 49, 329–331 (1937).

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (Henry Kimpton, London, 1946).

Die Farbe

M. L. F. de Mattiello, "On the estimation of saturation in pigmented surfaces and the DIN and Munsell colour order systems," Die Farbe 29, 3–6 (1980).

J. Acoust. Soc. Am.

S. S. Stevens, "Power-group transformation under glare, masking, and recruitment," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 39, 725–735 (1966).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Percept Psychophys.

J. C. Stevens and L. L. Rubin, "Psychophysical scales of apparent heaviness and the size-weight illusion," Percept Psychophys. 8, 225–230 (1970).

S. S. Stevens and M. Guirao, "Loudness functions under inhibition," Percept Psychophys. 2, 459–465 (1967).

Percept. Psychophys.

T. Indow and S. S. Stevens, "Scaling of saturation and hue," Percept. Psychophys. 1, 253–271 (1966).

D. W. Panek and S. S. Stevens, "Saturation of red: a prothetic continuum," Percept. Psychophys. 2, 59–66 (1966).

Proc. Phys. Soc. London

J. H. Nelson, "The colour-vision characteristics of a trichromat," Proc. Phys. Soc. London 49, 332–337 (1937).

W. D. Wright and F. G. H. Pitt, "The saturation discrimination of two trichromats," Proc. Phys. Soc. London 49, 329–331 (1937).

Psychol. Rev.

S. S. Stevens, "On the psychophysical law," Psychol. Rev. 64, 153–181 (1957).

Spec. Rep. Ser.

L. C. Martin, F. L. Warburton, and W. J. Morgan, "The determination of the sensitiveness of the eye to differences in the saturation of colours," G. B. Med. Res. Counc., Spec. Rep. Ser. 188, 5–42 (1933).

Trans. Ilium. Eng. Soc.

L. T. Troland, "Apparent brightness; its conditions and properties," Trans. Ilium. Eng. Soc. 11, 947–966 (1916).

Vision Res.

M. Guirao and M. L. F. de Mattiello, "Saturation scales for surface colors," Vision Res. 14, 487–493 (1974).

S. S. Stevens and A. L. Diamond, "Effect of glare angle on the brightness function for a small target," Vision Res. 5, 649–659 (1965).

Other

J. C. Stevens, "Families of converging power functions in psychophysics," in Sensation and Measurement, H. Moskowitz, B. Sharf, and J. C. Stevens, eds. (Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1974), pp. 157–165.

M. Guirao and M. L. F. de Mattiello, "Equal saturation contours for surface colors," in AIC Color 77, F. W. Billmayer, Jr. and G. Wyszecki, eds. (Hilger, Bristol, 1978), pp. 348–350.

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (Henry Kimpton, London, 1946).

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