Abstract

Asymptotically exact calculations (with <i>n</i> → ∞) for the positions of the Rydberg states 4ƒ<sup>14</sup>6<i>s</i><sub>1/2</sub><i>nl</i><sub><i>j</i></sub> of Yb have been carried out. The calculations have been performed by using the relativistic-perturbation theory with a model zeroth-order approximation. The proposed approach is more universal than the usually applied quantum-defect method, and, in contrast to the latter, it does not require the availability of experimental data about the low-lying states of the considered Rydberg series. It is shown that singlet-triplet splitting increases with increasing nuclear charge, and, for sufficiently heavy atoms, this splitting may exceed the distance between adjacent Rydberg states of the same series. The results have made it possible to change the accepted interpretation of the experimental spectrum. The difference between the theoretical and experimental quantum-defect spectrum monotonically decreases as <i>n</i> increases and is about 0.2 for <i>n</i> = 45.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. F. Stebbings et al., "Studies of xenon atoms in high Rydberg states,"Phys. Rev. A12, 1453–1458 (1975); S. Liberman and J. Pinard, "Experimental studies of high-lying Rydberg states in atomic rubidium," Phys. Rev. A20, 507–518 (1979).
  2. J. J. Wynne and J. A. Armstrong, "Systematic behavior in alkaline earth spectra: A multichannel quantum defect analysis," IBM J. Res. Dev. 23, 490–503 (1979).
  3. G. I. Bekov et al., "Multistep laser spectroscopy of high-lying triplet states of ytterbium atoms," Opt. Spectros. USSR 48, 435–439 (1980).
  4. P. Camus, A. Debarre, and C. Morillon, "Highly excited levels of neutral ytterbium I. Two-photon and two-step spectroscopy of even spectra," J. Phys. B 13, 1073–1987 (1980).
  5. L. N. Ivanov and V. S. Letokhov, "Selective ionization of atoms by light and electric field," Quantum Electron. USSR 2, 585–590 (1975); R. V. Ambartzumjan et al., "Dye-laser-excitation of high-lying states of sodium atoms and autoionization by electric field," JETP Lett. 21, 595–598 (1975).
  6. U. Fano, "Quantum defect theory of 1 uncoupling in H2 as an example of channel-interaction treatment," Phys. Rev. A 2, 353–365 (1970).
  7. K. T. Lu, "Spectroscopy and collision theory. The Xe absorption spectrum," Phys. Rev. A 4, 579–596 (1971).
  8. K. T. Lu, "Quantum-defect analysis of the effects of np2 terms on the singlet terms of alkaline earths and of their isoelectronics sequences," J. Opt. Soc. Aim. 64, 706–711 (1974).
  9. E. P. Vidolova-Angelova, E. P. Ivanova, and L. N. Ivanov, "Energies and autoionization widths of low-lying resonances of ytterbium atoms," Opt. Spectrosc. USSR 50, 243–250 (1981).
  10. C. M. Lee, "Spectroscopy and collision theory III. Atomic eigenchannel calculation by a Hartree-Fock-Roothaan method," Phys. Rev. A 10, 584–600 (1974).
  11. W. C. Martin, R. Zalubas, and L. Hagan, Atomic Energy Levels. The Rare-Earth Elements (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1978).
  12. L. N. Ivanov and L. I. Podobedova, "Formally exact perturbation theory with a model potential as a zeroth approximation I. Transition energies in Fe ions including effects of inner-shell electrons," J. Phys. B. 10, 1001–1013 (1977).

1981

E. P. Vidolova-Angelova, E. P. Ivanova, and L. N. Ivanov, "Energies and autoionization widths of low-lying resonances of ytterbium atoms," Opt. Spectrosc. USSR 50, 243–250 (1981).

1980

G. I. Bekov et al., "Multistep laser spectroscopy of high-lying triplet states of ytterbium atoms," Opt. Spectros. USSR 48, 435–439 (1980).

P. Camus, A. Debarre, and C. Morillon, "Highly excited levels of neutral ytterbium I. Two-photon and two-step spectroscopy of even spectra," J. Phys. B 13, 1073–1987 (1980).

1979

J. J. Wynne and J. A. Armstrong, "Systematic behavior in alkaline earth spectra: A multichannel quantum defect analysis," IBM J. Res. Dev. 23, 490–503 (1979).

1977

L. N. Ivanov and L. I. Podobedova, "Formally exact perturbation theory with a model potential as a zeroth approximation I. Transition energies in Fe ions including effects of inner-shell electrons," J. Phys. B. 10, 1001–1013 (1977).

1975

R. F. Stebbings et al., "Studies of xenon atoms in high Rydberg states,"Phys. Rev. A12, 1453–1458 (1975); S. Liberman and J. Pinard, "Experimental studies of high-lying Rydberg states in atomic rubidium," Phys. Rev. A20, 507–518 (1979).

L. N. Ivanov and V. S. Letokhov, "Selective ionization of atoms by light and electric field," Quantum Electron. USSR 2, 585–590 (1975); R. V. Ambartzumjan et al., "Dye-laser-excitation of high-lying states of sodium atoms and autoionization by electric field," JETP Lett. 21, 595–598 (1975).

1974

K. T. Lu, "Quantum-defect analysis of the effects of np2 terms on the singlet terms of alkaline earths and of their isoelectronics sequences," J. Opt. Soc. Aim. 64, 706–711 (1974).

C. M. Lee, "Spectroscopy and collision theory III. Atomic eigenchannel calculation by a Hartree-Fock-Roothaan method," Phys. Rev. A 10, 584–600 (1974).

1971

K. T. Lu, "Spectroscopy and collision theory. The Xe absorption spectrum," Phys. Rev. A 4, 579–596 (1971).

1970

U. Fano, "Quantum defect theory of 1 uncoupling in H2 as an example of channel-interaction treatment," Phys. Rev. A 2, 353–365 (1970).

Armstrong, J. A.

J. J. Wynne and J. A. Armstrong, "Systematic behavior in alkaline earth spectra: A multichannel quantum defect analysis," IBM J. Res. Dev. 23, 490–503 (1979).

Bekov, G. I.

G. I. Bekov et al., "Multistep laser spectroscopy of high-lying triplet states of ytterbium atoms," Opt. Spectros. USSR 48, 435–439 (1980).

Camus, P.

P. Camus, A. Debarre, and C. Morillon, "Highly excited levels of neutral ytterbium I. Two-photon and two-step spectroscopy of even spectra," J. Phys. B 13, 1073–1987 (1980).

Debarre, A.

P. Camus, A. Debarre, and C. Morillon, "Highly excited levels of neutral ytterbium I. Two-photon and two-step spectroscopy of even spectra," J. Phys. B 13, 1073–1987 (1980).

Fano, U.

U. Fano, "Quantum defect theory of 1 uncoupling in H2 as an example of channel-interaction treatment," Phys. Rev. A 2, 353–365 (1970).

Hagan, L.

W. C. Martin, R. Zalubas, and L. Hagan, Atomic Energy Levels. The Rare-Earth Elements (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1978).

Ivanov, L. N.

E. P. Vidolova-Angelova, E. P. Ivanova, and L. N. Ivanov, "Energies and autoionization widths of low-lying resonances of ytterbium atoms," Opt. Spectrosc. USSR 50, 243–250 (1981).

L. N. Ivanov and L. I. Podobedova, "Formally exact perturbation theory with a model potential as a zeroth approximation I. Transition energies in Fe ions including effects of inner-shell electrons," J. Phys. B. 10, 1001–1013 (1977).

L. N. Ivanov and V. S. Letokhov, "Selective ionization of atoms by light and electric field," Quantum Electron. USSR 2, 585–590 (1975); R. V. Ambartzumjan et al., "Dye-laser-excitation of high-lying states of sodium atoms and autoionization by electric field," JETP Lett. 21, 595–598 (1975).

Ivanova, E. P.

E. P. Vidolova-Angelova, E. P. Ivanova, and L. N. Ivanov, "Energies and autoionization widths of low-lying resonances of ytterbium atoms," Opt. Spectrosc. USSR 50, 243–250 (1981).

Lee, C. M.

C. M. Lee, "Spectroscopy and collision theory III. Atomic eigenchannel calculation by a Hartree-Fock-Roothaan method," Phys. Rev. A 10, 584–600 (1974).

Letokhov, V. S.

L. N. Ivanov and V. S. Letokhov, "Selective ionization of atoms by light and electric field," Quantum Electron. USSR 2, 585–590 (1975); R. V. Ambartzumjan et al., "Dye-laser-excitation of high-lying states of sodium atoms and autoionization by electric field," JETP Lett. 21, 595–598 (1975).

Lu, K. T.

K. T. Lu, "Quantum-defect analysis of the effects of np2 terms on the singlet terms of alkaline earths and of their isoelectronics sequences," J. Opt. Soc. Aim. 64, 706–711 (1974).

K. T. Lu, "Spectroscopy and collision theory. The Xe absorption spectrum," Phys. Rev. A 4, 579–596 (1971).

Martin, W. C.

W. C. Martin, R. Zalubas, and L. Hagan, Atomic Energy Levels. The Rare-Earth Elements (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1978).

Morillon, C.

P. Camus, A. Debarre, and C. Morillon, "Highly excited levels of neutral ytterbium I. Two-photon and two-step spectroscopy of even spectra," J. Phys. B 13, 1073–1987 (1980).

Podobedova, L. I.

L. N. Ivanov and L. I. Podobedova, "Formally exact perturbation theory with a model potential as a zeroth approximation I. Transition energies in Fe ions including effects of inner-shell electrons," J. Phys. B. 10, 1001–1013 (1977).

Stebbings, R. F.

R. F. Stebbings et al., "Studies of xenon atoms in high Rydberg states,"Phys. Rev. A12, 1453–1458 (1975); S. Liberman and J. Pinard, "Experimental studies of high-lying Rydberg states in atomic rubidium," Phys. Rev. A20, 507–518 (1979).

Vidolova-Angelova, E. P.

E. P. Vidolova-Angelova, E. P. Ivanova, and L. N. Ivanov, "Energies and autoionization widths of low-lying resonances of ytterbium atoms," Opt. Spectrosc. USSR 50, 243–250 (1981).

Wynne, J. J.

J. J. Wynne and J. A. Armstrong, "Systematic behavior in alkaline earth spectra: A multichannel quantum defect analysis," IBM J. Res. Dev. 23, 490–503 (1979).

Zalubas, R.

W. C. Martin, R. Zalubas, and L. Hagan, Atomic Energy Levels. The Rare-Earth Elements (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1978).

IBM J. Res. Dev.

J. J. Wynne and J. A. Armstrong, "Systematic behavior in alkaline earth spectra: A multichannel quantum defect analysis," IBM J. Res. Dev. 23, 490–503 (1979).

J. Opt. Soc. Aim.

K. T. Lu, "Quantum-defect analysis of the effects of np2 terms on the singlet terms of alkaline earths and of their isoelectronics sequences," J. Opt. Soc. Aim. 64, 706–711 (1974).

J. Phys. B

P. Camus, A. Debarre, and C. Morillon, "Highly excited levels of neutral ytterbium I. Two-photon and two-step spectroscopy of even spectra," J. Phys. B 13, 1073–1987 (1980).

J. Phys. B.

L. N. Ivanov and L. I. Podobedova, "Formally exact perturbation theory with a model potential as a zeroth approximation I. Transition energies in Fe ions including effects of inner-shell electrons," J. Phys. B. 10, 1001–1013 (1977).

Opt. Spectros. USSR

G. I. Bekov et al., "Multistep laser spectroscopy of high-lying triplet states of ytterbium atoms," Opt. Spectros. USSR 48, 435–439 (1980).

Opt. Spectrosc. USSR

E. P. Vidolova-Angelova, E. P. Ivanova, and L. N. Ivanov, "Energies and autoionization widths of low-lying resonances of ytterbium atoms," Opt. Spectrosc. USSR 50, 243–250 (1981).

Phys. Rev.

R. F. Stebbings et al., "Studies of xenon atoms in high Rydberg states,"Phys. Rev. A12, 1453–1458 (1975); S. Liberman and J. Pinard, "Experimental studies of high-lying Rydberg states in atomic rubidium," Phys. Rev. A20, 507–518 (1979).

Phys. Rev. A

U. Fano, "Quantum defect theory of 1 uncoupling in H2 as an example of channel-interaction treatment," Phys. Rev. A 2, 353–365 (1970).

K. T. Lu, "Spectroscopy and collision theory. The Xe absorption spectrum," Phys. Rev. A 4, 579–596 (1971).

C. M. Lee, "Spectroscopy and collision theory III. Atomic eigenchannel calculation by a Hartree-Fock-Roothaan method," Phys. Rev. A 10, 584–600 (1974).

Quantum Electron. USSR

L. N. Ivanov and V. S. Letokhov, "Selective ionization of atoms by light and electric field," Quantum Electron. USSR 2, 585–590 (1975); R. V. Ambartzumjan et al., "Dye-laser-excitation of high-lying states of sodium atoms and autoionization by electric field," JETP Lett. 21, 595–598 (1975).

Other

W. C. Martin, R. Zalubas, and L. Hagan, Atomic Energy Levels. The Rare-Earth Elements (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1978).

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