Abstract

Siegman’s theorem is used to express the heterodyne signal from incoherent backscatter lidar in terms of fields in the target plane. It is then shown directly that, contrary to some previously documented predictions, the mean return from a matched transceiver lidar is, as a consequence of its self-adaptive properties, invariably degraded less by turbulence than is that of a bistatic system; established results for the irradiance statistics of beams propagating in the turbulent atmosphere enable beam centroid and scintillation wander tracking to be distinguished as contributing to this result. A combination of the two systems can give rise to near-field transceiver returns that are greater than returns for free-space propagation of untruncated Gaussian beams. Target-plane expressions for signal variance display the dependence of signal statistics on antenna geometry, and application of these results to returnpower estimation is briefly discussed.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Thomson and M. F. Dorian, "Heterodyne detection of monochromatic light scattered from a cloud of moving particles," Rep. GDC-ERR-AN-1090 (General Dynamics Convair Division, San Diego, Calif., 1967).
  2. S. S. R. Murty, "Laser Doppler systems in atmospheric turbulence," NASA Tech. Memo TMX-73354 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1976).
  3. R. L. Fante, "Electromagnetic beam propagation in turbulent media," Proc. IEEE 63, 1669–1691 (1975).
  4. H. T. Yura, "Signal-to-noise ratio of heterodyne lidar systems in the presence of atmospheric turbulence," in Surveillance of Environmental Pollution and Resources by Electromagnetic Waves, T. Lund, ed. (Reidel, London, 1978), pp. 67–93.
  5. A. E. Siegman, "The antenna properties of optical heterodyne receivers," Appl. Opt. 5, 1588–1594 (1966); Proc. IEEE 54, 1350–1356 (1966).
  6. D. L. Fried and H. T. Yura, "Telescope-performance reciprocity for propagation in a turbulent medium," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 600–602 (1972).
  7. T. S. Chu, "On coherent detection of scattered light," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-15, 703–704 (1967).
  8. J. J. Degnan, "Design considerations for optical heterodyne receivers. a review," presented at NASA Heterodyne Systems Technology Conference, Williamsburg, Virginia, March 1980.
  9. J. H. Shapiro, "Reciprocity of the turbulent atmosphere," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 492–495 (1971).
  10. M. H. Lee, J. F. Holmes, and J. R. Kerr, "Generalized spherical wave mutual coherence function," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1279–1281 (1977).
  11. S. F. Clifford et al., "Study of a pulsed lidar for cross-wind sensing," NOAA Tech. Memo ERL WPL-48. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1980).
  12. D. L. Fried, "Statistics of a geometric representation of wavefront distortion," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1427–1435 (1965).
  13. S. M. Wandzura, "Meaning of quadratic structure functions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 745–747 (1980).
  14. Computations of 〈I2(0)〉 using the extended Huygens-Fresnel equations in the phase-only approximation, i.e. (in the present context), of the integrand 〈IT(0)IL(0)〉 using Eqs. (7)–(9) for the matched transceiver geometry, where IT = IL, have been made in the course of calculating the long-term scintillation index [σI2(0)]LT by V. A. Banekh et al., "Focused laser beam scintillations in the turbulent atmosphere," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 516–518 (1974) and by M. H. Lee et al., "Variance of irradiance for saturated scintillations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1389–1392 (1976).
  15. S. F. Clifford and S. M. Wandzura, "The effect of the turbulent atmosphere on monostatic heterodyne lidar performance," Appl. Opt. (submitted for publication).
  16. J. R. Dunphy and J. R. Kerr, "Turbulence effects on target illumination by laser sources: phenomenological analysis and experimental results," Appl. Opt. 16, 1345–1358 (1977).
  17. M. Tur and M. J. Beran, "Propagation of a finite beam through a random medium," Opt. Lett. 5, 306–308 (1980).
  18. B. J. Rye, "Antenna parameters for incoherent backscatter heterodyne lidar," Appl. Opt. 18, 1390–1398 (1979).

1980 (2)

1979 (1)

1977 (2)

1972 (1)

1971 (1)

1967 (1)

T. S. Chu, "On coherent detection of scattered light," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-15, 703–704 (1967).

1965 (1)

Beran, M. J.

Chu, T. S.

T. S. Chu, "On coherent detection of scattered light," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-15, 703–704 (1967).

Clifford, S. F.

S. F. Clifford et al., "Study of a pulsed lidar for cross-wind sensing," NOAA Tech. Memo ERL WPL-48. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1980).

S. F. Clifford and S. M. Wandzura, "The effect of the turbulent atmosphere on monostatic heterodyne lidar performance," Appl. Opt. (submitted for publication).

Degnan, J. J.

J. J. Degnan, "Design considerations for optical heterodyne receivers. a review," presented at NASA Heterodyne Systems Technology Conference, Williamsburg, Virginia, March 1980.

Dorian, M. F.

A. Thomson and M. F. Dorian, "Heterodyne detection of monochromatic light scattered from a cloud of moving particles," Rep. GDC-ERR-AN-1090 (General Dynamics Convair Division, San Diego, Calif., 1967).

Dunphy, J. R.

Fante, R. L.

R. L. Fante, "Electromagnetic beam propagation in turbulent media," Proc. IEEE 63, 1669–1691 (1975).

Fried, D. L.

Holmes, J. F.

Kerr, J. R.

Lee, M. H.

Murty, S. S. R.

S. S. R. Murty, "Laser Doppler systems in atmospheric turbulence," NASA Tech. Memo TMX-73354 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1976).

Rye, B. J.

Shapiro, J. H.

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, "The antenna properties of optical heterodyne receivers," Appl. Opt. 5, 1588–1594 (1966); Proc. IEEE 54, 1350–1356 (1966).

Thomson, A.

A. Thomson and M. F. Dorian, "Heterodyne detection of monochromatic light scattered from a cloud of moving particles," Rep. GDC-ERR-AN-1090 (General Dynamics Convair Division, San Diego, Calif., 1967).

Tur, M.

Wandzura, S. M.

S. M. Wandzura, "Meaning of quadratic structure functions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 745–747 (1980).

S. F. Clifford and S. M. Wandzura, "The effect of the turbulent atmosphere on monostatic heterodyne lidar performance," Appl. Opt. (submitted for publication).

Yura, H. T.

D. L. Fried and H. T. Yura, "Telescope-performance reciprocity for propagation in a turbulent medium," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 600–602 (1972).

H. T. Yura, "Signal-to-noise ratio of heterodyne lidar systems in the presence of atmospheric turbulence," in Surveillance of Environmental Pollution and Resources by Electromagnetic Waves, T. Lund, ed. (Reidel, London, 1978), pp. 67–93.

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

T. S. Chu, "On coherent detection of scattered light," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-15, 703–704 (1967).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (9)

Computations of 〈I2(0)〉 using the extended Huygens-Fresnel equations in the phase-only approximation, i.e. (in the present context), of the integrand 〈IT(0)IL(0)〉 using Eqs. (7)–(9) for the matched transceiver geometry, where IT = IL, have been made in the course of calculating the long-term scintillation index [σI2(0)]LT by V. A. Banekh et al., "Focused laser beam scintillations in the turbulent atmosphere," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 516–518 (1974) and by M. H. Lee et al., "Variance of irradiance for saturated scintillations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1389–1392 (1976).

S. F. Clifford and S. M. Wandzura, "The effect of the turbulent atmosphere on monostatic heterodyne lidar performance," Appl. Opt. (submitted for publication).

S. F. Clifford et al., "Study of a pulsed lidar for cross-wind sensing," NOAA Tech. Memo ERL WPL-48. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1980).

J. J. Degnan, "Design considerations for optical heterodyne receivers. a review," presented at NASA Heterodyne Systems Technology Conference, Williamsburg, Virginia, March 1980.

A. Thomson and M. F. Dorian, "Heterodyne detection of monochromatic light scattered from a cloud of moving particles," Rep. GDC-ERR-AN-1090 (General Dynamics Convair Division, San Diego, Calif., 1967).

S. S. R. Murty, "Laser Doppler systems in atmospheric turbulence," NASA Tech. Memo TMX-73354 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1976).

R. L. Fante, "Electromagnetic beam propagation in turbulent media," Proc. IEEE 63, 1669–1691 (1975).

H. T. Yura, "Signal-to-noise ratio of heterodyne lidar systems in the presence of atmospheric turbulence," in Surveillance of Environmental Pollution and Resources by Electromagnetic Waves, T. Lund, ed. (Reidel, London, 1978), pp. 67–93.

A. E. Siegman, "The antenna properties of optical heterodyne receivers," Appl. Opt. 5, 1588–1594 (1966); Proc. IEEE 54, 1350–1356 (1966).

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