Abstract

The detectability of a sinusoidal grating was measured in a standard two-interval forced-choice experiment against backgrounds of noise gratings of the same orientation as the signal. The noise gratings were either spatially high-pass or low-pass filtered and were either unchanged in each observation interval (static) or flickering at a rate that depended on their cutoff frequency (dynamic). Spatial-frequency-selective mechanisms are inferred from the data and their characteristics shown to depend on assumptions concerning the detection process thought to follow the spatial-frequency-selective device.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, "Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of grating," J. Physiol. London 197, 551–556 (1968).
  2. L. Maffei, "Spatial frequency channels: neural mechanisms," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, R. Held, H. W. Leibowitz, and H. L. Teuber, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978), Chap. VIII.
  3. R. De Valois, "Spatial processing of luminance and colour," Invest Ophthamol. 17, 834–835 (1978).
  4. J. A. Movshon, I. D. Thompson, and D. J. Tolhurst, "Spatial summation in the receptive fields of simple cells in the cat's striate cortex," J. Physiol. London 283, 53–78 (1978).
  5. H. L. F. Helmholtz, The Sensations of Tone, A. J. Ellis, trans. (Dover, New York, 1954).
  6. C. Blakernore and F. W. Campbell, "Adaptation to spatial stimuli," J. Physiol. London 200, 11P–13P (1967).
  7. M. B. Sachs, J. Nachmias, and J. Robson, "Spatial-frequency channels in human vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1176–1186 (1971).
  8. C. F. Stromeyer III and B. Julesz, "Spatial-frequency masking in vision: critical bands and the spread of masking," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1221–1232 (1972).
  9. R. D. Patterson and G. B. Henning, "Stimulus variability and auditory filter shape," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 649–664 (1977).
  10. R. D. Patterson, "Auditory filter shape," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 55, 802–809 (1974).
  11. U. Greis and R. Röhler, "Untersuchung der subjectiven Detailerkennbarkeit mit Hilfe der Ortsfrequenzfilterung," Opt. Acta 17, 515–526 (1970).
  12. B. G. Hertz and G. B. Henning.
  13. F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, "Optical and retinal factors affecting visual resolution," J. Physiol. London 181, 576–593 (1965).
  14. G. B. Henning, B. G. Hertz, and D. E. Broadbent, "Some experiments bearing on the hypothesis that the visual system analyses spatial patterns in independent bands of spatial frequency," Vision Res. 15, 887–897 (1975).
  15. Stromeyer and Julesz kept the product of the square of the noise contrast and the bandwidth of their masking noise constant when changing cutoff frequencies.17 If we assume that masking is proportional to noise-contrast density, then we might adjust the data in Fig. 6 to show the contrast elevation that would have occurred had Stomeyer and Julesz kept their noise-contrast density constant. The correction steepens the low-frequency side from about 0.35-log-unit change of contrast per halving of spatial frequency to 0.52 log unit per halving. The steepening of the high-frequency side is negligible when the correction is applied on the basis of the bandwidths used by Stromeyer and Julesz.
  16. C. F. Stromeyer III, Division of Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 02138, personal communication.
  17. D. G. Pelli, Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 55455, personal communication (1980).
  18. We are unable to reject the hypothesis that our data are linear on semilogarithmic coordinates. The more extensive adjusted data16 of Stromeyer and Julesz are more nearly linear on double-logarithmic coordinates.
  19. R. D. Patterson, "Auditory filter shapes derived with noise stimuli," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 59, 640–654 (1976).
  20. D. G. Pelli, "Channel properties revealed by noise masking," Invest. Ophthalmol. 19, Suppl. 44A (1980).
  21. J. Nachmias, "Signal detection theory and its application to problems in vision," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972), Chap. VIII/4.
  22. W. B. Davenport, Jr. and W. L. Root, Random Signals and Noise (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1958).
  23. B. E. Carter and G. B. Henning, "The detection of gratings in narrow-band visual noise," J. Physiol. London 219, 355–365 (1971).
  24. F. W. Campbell, R. H. Carpenter, and J. Z. Levinson, "Visibility of aperiodic patterns compared with that of sinusoidal grating," J. Physiol. London 204, 283–298 (1969).
  25. G. B. Henning, "Effect of interaural phase on frequency and amplitude discrimination," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 54, 1160–1178 (1973).
  26. G. B. Henning, "A model of auditory discrimination and detection," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 41, 774–777 (1967).
  27. J. G. Robson, "Spatial and temporal contrast sensitivity functions of the visual system," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1141–1142 (1966).
  28. D. H. Kelly, "Flickering patterns and lateral inhibition," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 1361–1369 (1969).
  29. J. L. Hinton and G. B. Henning.
  30. P. Lennie, Laboratory of Experimental Psychology, University of Sussex, Brighton, Sussex, U.K., personal communication (1979).

1980 (1)

D. G. Pelli, "Channel properties revealed by noise masking," Invest. Ophthalmol. 19, Suppl. 44A (1980).

1978 (2)

R. De Valois, "Spatial processing of luminance and colour," Invest Ophthamol. 17, 834–835 (1978).

J. A. Movshon, I. D. Thompson, and D. J. Tolhurst, "Spatial summation in the receptive fields of simple cells in the cat's striate cortex," J. Physiol. London 283, 53–78 (1978).

1977 (1)

R. D. Patterson and G. B. Henning, "Stimulus variability and auditory filter shape," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 649–664 (1977).

1976 (1)

R. D. Patterson, "Auditory filter shapes derived with noise stimuli," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 59, 640–654 (1976).

1975 (1)

G. B. Henning, B. G. Hertz, and D. E. Broadbent, "Some experiments bearing on the hypothesis that the visual system analyses spatial patterns in independent bands of spatial frequency," Vision Res. 15, 887–897 (1975).

1974 (1)

R. D. Patterson, "Auditory filter shape," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 55, 802–809 (1974).

1973 (1)

G. B. Henning, "Effect of interaural phase on frequency and amplitude discrimination," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 54, 1160–1178 (1973).

1972 (1)

1971 (2)

B. E. Carter and G. B. Henning, "The detection of gratings in narrow-band visual noise," J. Physiol. London 219, 355–365 (1971).

M. B. Sachs, J. Nachmias, and J. Robson, "Spatial-frequency channels in human vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1176–1186 (1971).

1970 (1)

U. Greis and R. Röhler, "Untersuchung der subjectiven Detailerkennbarkeit mit Hilfe der Ortsfrequenzfilterung," Opt. Acta 17, 515–526 (1970).

1969 (2)

F. W. Campbell, R. H. Carpenter, and J. Z. Levinson, "Visibility of aperiodic patterns compared with that of sinusoidal grating," J. Physiol. London 204, 283–298 (1969).

D. H. Kelly, "Flickering patterns and lateral inhibition," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 1361–1369 (1969).

1968 (1)

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, "Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of grating," J. Physiol. London 197, 551–556 (1968).

1967 (2)

C. Blakernore and F. W. Campbell, "Adaptation to spatial stimuli," J. Physiol. London 200, 11P–13P (1967).

G. B. Henning, "A model of auditory discrimination and detection," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 41, 774–777 (1967).

1966 (1)

1965 (1)

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, "Optical and retinal factors affecting visual resolution," J. Physiol. London 181, 576–593 (1965).

Blakernore, C.

C. Blakernore and F. W. Campbell, "Adaptation to spatial stimuli," J. Physiol. London 200, 11P–13P (1967).

Broadbent, D. E.

G. B. Henning, B. G. Hertz, and D. E. Broadbent, "Some experiments bearing on the hypothesis that the visual system analyses spatial patterns in independent bands of spatial frequency," Vision Res. 15, 887–897 (1975).

Campbell, F. W.

F. W. Campbell, R. H. Carpenter, and J. Z. Levinson, "Visibility of aperiodic patterns compared with that of sinusoidal grating," J. Physiol. London 204, 283–298 (1969).

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, "Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of grating," J. Physiol. London 197, 551–556 (1968).

C. Blakernore and F. W. Campbell, "Adaptation to spatial stimuli," J. Physiol. London 200, 11P–13P (1967).

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, "Optical and retinal factors affecting visual resolution," J. Physiol. London 181, 576–593 (1965).

Carpenter, R. H.

F. W. Campbell, R. H. Carpenter, and J. Z. Levinson, "Visibility of aperiodic patterns compared with that of sinusoidal grating," J. Physiol. London 204, 283–298 (1969).

Carter, B. E.

B. E. Carter and G. B. Henning, "The detection of gratings in narrow-band visual noise," J. Physiol. London 219, 355–365 (1971).

Davenport, Jr., W. B.

W. B. Davenport, Jr. and W. L. Root, Random Signals and Noise (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1958).

De Valois, R.

R. De Valois, "Spatial processing of luminance and colour," Invest Ophthamol. 17, 834–835 (1978).

Green, D. G.

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, "Optical and retinal factors affecting visual resolution," J. Physiol. London 181, 576–593 (1965).

Greis, U.

U. Greis and R. Röhler, "Untersuchung der subjectiven Detailerkennbarkeit mit Hilfe der Ortsfrequenzfilterung," Opt. Acta 17, 515–526 (1970).

Helmholtz, H. L. F.

H. L. F. Helmholtz, The Sensations of Tone, A. J. Ellis, trans. (Dover, New York, 1954).

Henning, G. B.

R. D. Patterson and G. B. Henning, "Stimulus variability and auditory filter shape," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 649–664 (1977).

G. B. Henning, B. G. Hertz, and D. E. Broadbent, "Some experiments bearing on the hypothesis that the visual system analyses spatial patterns in independent bands of spatial frequency," Vision Res. 15, 887–897 (1975).

G. B. Henning, "Effect of interaural phase on frequency and amplitude discrimination," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 54, 1160–1178 (1973).

B. E. Carter and G. B. Henning, "The detection of gratings in narrow-band visual noise," J. Physiol. London 219, 355–365 (1971).

G. B. Henning, "A model of auditory discrimination and detection," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 41, 774–777 (1967).

B. G. Hertz and G. B. Henning.

J. L. Hinton and G. B. Henning.

Hertz, B. G.

G. B. Henning, B. G. Hertz, and D. E. Broadbent, "Some experiments bearing on the hypothesis that the visual system analyses spatial patterns in independent bands of spatial frequency," Vision Res. 15, 887–897 (1975).

B. G. Hertz and G. B. Henning.

Hinton, J. L.

J. L. Hinton and G. B. Henning.

Julesz, B.

Kelly, D. H.

Lennie, P.

P. Lennie, Laboratory of Experimental Psychology, University of Sussex, Brighton, Sussex, U.K., personal communication (1979).

Levinson, J. Z.

F. W. Campbell, R. H. Carpenter, and J. Z. Levinson, "Visibility of aperiodic patterns compared with that of sinusoidal grating," J. Physiol. London 204, 283–298 (1969).

Maffei, L.

L. Maffei, "Spatial frequency channels: neural mechanisms," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, R. Held, H. W. Leibowitz, and H. L. Teuber, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978), Chap. VIII.

Movshon, J. A.

J. A. Movshon, I. D. Thompson, and D. J. Tolhurst, "Spatial summation in the receptive fields of simple cells in the cat's striate cortex," J. Physiol. London 283, 53–78 (1978).

Nachmias, J.

M. B. Sachs, J. Nachmias, and J. Robson, "Spatial-frequency channels in human vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1176–1186 (1971).

J. Nachmias, "Signal detection theory and its application to problems in vision," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972), Chap. VIII/4.

Patterson, R. D.

R. D. Patterson and G. B. Henning, "Stimulus variability and auditory filter shape," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 649–664 (1977).

R. D. Patterson, "Auditory filter shapes derived with noise stimuli," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 59, 640–654 (1976).

R. D. Patterson, "Auditory filter shape," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 55, 802–809 (1974).

Pelli, D. G.

D. G. Pelli, "Channel properties revealed by noise masking," Invest. Ophthalmol. 19, Suppl. 44A (1980).

D. G. Pelli, Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 55455, personal communication (1980).

Robson, J.

Robson, J. G.

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, "Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of grating," J. Physiol. London 197, 551–556 (1968).

J. G. Robson, "Spatial and temporal contrast sensitivity functions of the visual system," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1141–1142 (1966).

Röhler, R.

U. Greis and R. Röhler, "Untersuchung der subjectiven Detailerkennbarkeit mit Hilfe der Ortsfrequenzfilterung," Opt. Acta 17, 515–526 (1970).

Root, W. L.

W. B. Davenport, Jr. and W. L. Root, Random Signals and Noise (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1958).

Sachs, M. B.

Stromeyer III, C. F.

C. F. Stromeyer III and B. Julesz, "Spatial-frequency masking in vision: critical bands and the spread of masking," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1221–1232 (1972).

C. F. Stromeyer III, Division of Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 02138, personal communication.

Thompson, I. D.

J. A. Movshon, I. D. Thompson, and D. J. Tolhurst, "Spatial summation in the receptive fields of simple cells in the cat's striate cortex," J. Physiol. London 283, 53–78 (1978).

Tolhurst, D. J.

J. A. Movshon, I. D. Thompson, and D. J. Tolhurst, "Spatial summation in the receptive fields of simple cells in the cat's striate cortex," J. Physiol. London 283, 53–78 (1978).

Invest Ophthamol. (1)

R. De Valois, "Spatial processing of luminance and colour," Invest Ophthamol. 17, 834–835 (1978).

Invest. Ophthalmol. (1)

D. G. Pelli, "Channel properties revealed by noise masking," Invest. Ophthalmol. 19, Suppl. 44A (1980).

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (5)

G. B. Henning, "Effect of interaural phase on frequency and amplitude discrimination," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 54, 1160–1178 (1973).

G. B. Henning, "A model of auditory discrimination and detection," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 41, 774–777 (1967).

R. D. Patterson and G. B. Henning, "Stimulus variability and auditory filter shape," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 649–664 (1977).

R. D. Patterson, "Auditory filter shape," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 55, 802–809 (1974).

R. D. Patterson, "Auditory filter shapes derived with noise stimuli," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 59, 640–654 (1976).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (4)

J. Physiol. London (6)

B. E. Carter and G. B. Henning, "The detection of gratings in narrow-band visual noise," J. Physiol. London 219, 355–365 (1971).

F. W. Campbell, R. H. Carpenter, and J. Z. Levinson, "Visibility of aperiodic patterns compared with that of sinusoidal grating," J. Physiol. London 204, 283–298 (1969).

C. Blakernore and F. W. Campbell, "Adaptation to spatial stimuli," J. Physiol. London 200, 11P–13P (1967).

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, "Optical and retinal factors affecting visual resolution," J. Physiol. London 181, 576–593 (1965).

J. A. Movshon, I. D. Thompson, and D. J. Tolhurst, "Spatial summation in the receptive fields of simple cells in the cat's striate cortex," J. Physiol. London 283, 53–78 (1978).

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, "Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of grating," J. Physiol. London 197, 551–556 (1968).

Opt. Acta (1)

U. Greis and R. Röhler, "Untersuchung der subjectiven Detailerkennbarkeit mit Hilfe der Ortsfrequenzfilterung," Opt. Acta 17, 515–526 (1970).

Vision Res. (1)

G. B. Henning, B. G. Hertz, and D. E. Broadbent, "Some experiments bearing on the hypothesis that the visual system analyses spatial patterns in independent bands of spatial frequency," Vision Res. 15, 887–897 (1975).

Other (11)

Stromeyer and Julesz kept the product of the square of the noise contrast and the bandwidth of their masking noise constant when changing cutoff frequencies.17 If we assume that masking is proportional to noise-contrast density, then we might adjust the data in Fig. 6 to show the contrast elevation that would have occurred had Stomeyer and Julesz kept their noise-contrast density constant. The correction steepens the low-frequency side from about 0.35-log-unit change of contrast per halving of spatial frequency to 0.52 log unit per halving. The steepening of the high-frequency side is negligible when the correction is applied on the basis of the bandwidths used by Stromeyer and Julesz.

C. F. Stromeyer III, Division of Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 02138, personal communication.

D. G. Pelli, Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 55455, personal communication (1980).

We are unable to reject the hypothesis that our data are linear on semilogarithmic coordinates. The more extensive adjusted data16 of Stromeyer and Julesz are more nearly linear on double-logarithmic coordinates.

B. G. Hertz and G. B. Henning.

L. Maffei, "Spatial frequency channels: neural mechanisms," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, R. Held, H. W. Leibowitz, and H. L. Teuber, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978), Chap. VIII.

H. L. F. Helmholtz, The Sensations of Tone, A. J. Ellis, trans. (Dover, New York, 1954).

J. Nachmias, "Signal detection theory and its application to problems in vision," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972), Chap. VIII/4.

W. B. Davenport, Jr. and W. L. Root, Random Signals and Noise (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1958).

J. L. Hinton and G. B. Henning.

P. Lennie, Laboratory of Experimental Psychology, University of Sussex, Brighton, Sussex, U.K., personal communication (1979).

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