Abstract

Vertical sinusoidal gratings of slightly differing spatial frequencies presented to each eye lead to the perception of a slanted plane. If a complex pattern is created by presenting two different frequencies to one eye, while the other eye views an increment of one of those frequencies and a decrement of the other, then the stimulus is equivalent to two superimposed vertical planes slanted in opposite directions. Yet the observer generally sees only a single surface at a slant intermediate to the possible extremes. As the relative spatial-frequency content of the two opposing planes is varied, the observed slant is a measure of the strengths of the connecting interactions of the underlying stereomechanisms. From these data the bandwidth of the monocular input channels for the binocular slant mechanism can be estimated and is found to be about two octaves.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. K. N. Ogle, Researches in Binocular Vision (Hafner, New York, 1950); "The optical space sense," in The Eye, H. Davidson, ed. (Academic, London, 1964), Vol. 4, pp. 209–417.
  2. B. Gillam, "Changes in the direction of induced aniseikonic slant as a function of distance," Vision Res. 7, 777–783 (1967).
  3. C. Blakemore, "A new kind of stereoscopic vision," Vision Res. 10, 1181–1199 (1970).
  4. A. Fiorentini and L. Maffei, "Binocular depth perception with geometrical cues," Vision Res. 11, 1299–1305 (1971).
  5. H. R. Wilson, "The significance of frequency gradients in binocular grating perception," Vision Res. 16, 983–989 (1979).
  6. H. C. van der Meer, "Linear combinations of stereoscopic depth effects in dichoptic perception of gratings," Vision Res. 18, 707–714 (1978).
  7. C. W. Tyler and E. E. Sutter, "Depth from spatial frequency difference: an old kind of stereopsis?" Vision Res. 16, 859–965 (1979).
  8. D. Marr and E. Hildreth, "Theory of edge detection," Proc. R. Soc. Lon. B 207, 187–217 (1980).
  9. E. Levinson and R. Blake, "Stereopsis by harmonic analysis," Vision Res. 19, 73–78 (1979).
  10. B. Julesz and J. E. Miller, "Independent spatial-frequency tuned channels in binocular fusion and rivalry," Percept. 4, 125–143 (1975).
  11. C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, "On the existence of neurons in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images," J. Physiol. 203, 237–260 (1969).
  12. L. Kaufman, J. Bacon, and F. Barroso, "Stereopsis without image segregation," Vision Res. 13, 137–147 (1973).
  13. J. M. Foley, "Binocular depth mixture," Vision Res. 16, 1263–1267 (1976).
  14. J. M. Foley and W. Richards, "Binocular depth mixtures with non-symmetric disparities," Vision Res. 18, 251–256 (1978).
  15. D. J. Tolhurst, "Adaptation to square-wave gratings: inhibition between spatial frequency channels in the human visual system," J. Physiol. Lon. 226, 231–248 (1972).
  16. K. K. DeVelois, "Spatial frequency adaptation can enhance contrast sensitivity," Vision Res. 17, 1057–1065 (1977).
  17. The fact that the descending portion of WR's curves in Fig. 3 does not fall below the 1.0 line suggests that the negative side lobes may occur only on the low frequency side of the channel.

1980

D. Marr and E. Hildreth, "Theory of edge detection," Proc. R. Soc. Lon. B 207, 187–217 (1980).

1979

E. Levinson and R. Blake, "Stereopsis by harmonic analysis," Vision Res. 19, 73–78 (1979).

H. R. Wilson, "The significance of frequency gradients in binocular grating perception," Vision Res. 16, 983–989 (1979).

C. W. Tyler and E. E. Sutter, "Depth from spatial frequency difference: an old kind of stereopsis?" Vision Res. 16, 859–965 (1979).

1978

J. M. Foley and W. Richards, "Binocular depth mixtures with non-symmetric disparities," Vision Res. 18, 251–256 (1978).

H. C. van der Meer, "Linear combinations of stereoscopic depth effects in dichoptic perception of gratings," Vision Res. 18, 707–714 (1978).

1977

K. K. DeVelois, "Spatial frequency adaptation can enhance contrast sensitivity," Vision Res. 17, 1057–1065 (1977).

1976

J. M. Foley, "Binocular depth mixture," Vision Res. 16, 1263–1267 (1976).

1975

B. Julesz and J. E. Miller, "Independent spatial-frequency tuned channels in binocular fusion and rivalry," Percept. 4, 125–143 (1975).

1973

L. Kaufman, J. Bacon, and F. Barroso, "Stereopsis without image segregation," Vision Res. 13, 137–147 (1973).

1972

D. J. Tolhurst, "Adaptation to square-wave gratings: inhibition between spatial frequency channels in the human visual system," J. Physiol. Lon. 226, 231–248 (1972).

1971

A. Fiorentini and L. Maffei, "Binocular depth perception with geometrical cues," Vision Res. 11, 1299–1305 (1971).

1970

C. Blakemore, "A new kind of stereoscopic vision," Vision Res. 10, 1181–1199 (1970).

1969

C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, "On the existence of neurons in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images," J. Physiol. 203, 237–260 (1969).

1967

B. Gillam, "Changes in the direction of induced aniseikonic slant as a function of distance," Vision Res. 7, 777–783 (1967).

Bacon, J.

L. Kaufman, J. Bacon, and F. Barroso, "Stereopsis without image segregation," Vision Res. 13, 137–147 (1973).

Barroso, F.

L. Kaufman, J. Bacon, and F. Barroso, "Stereopsis without image segregation," Vision Res. 13, 137–147 (1973).

Blake, R.

E. Levinson and R. Blake, "Stereopsis by harmonic analysis," Vision Res. 19, 73–78 (1979).

Blakemore, C.

C. Blakemore, "A new kind of stereoscopic vision," Vision Res. 10, 1181–1199 (1970).

C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, "On the existence of neurons in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images," J. Physiol. 203, 237–260 (1969).

Campbell, F. W.

C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, "On the existence of neurons in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images," J. Physiol. 203, 237–260 (1969).

DeVelois, K. K.

K. K. DeVelois, "Spatial frequency adaptation can enhance contrast sensitivity," Vision Res. 17, 1057–1065 (1977).

Fiorentini, A.

A. Fiorentini and L. Maffei, "Binocular depth perception with geometrical cues," Vision Res. 11, 1299–1305 (1971).

Foley, J. M.

J. M. Foley and W. Richards, "Binocular depth mixtures with non-symmetric disparities," Vision Res. 18, 251–256 (1978).

J. M. Foley, "Binocular depth mixture," Vision Res. 16, 1263–1267 (1976).

Gillam, B.

B. Gillam, "Changes in the direction of induced aniseikonic slant as a function of distance," Vision Res. 7, 777–783 (1967).

Hildreth, E.

D. Marr and E. Hildreth, "Theory of edge detection," Proc. R. Soc. Lon. B 207, 187–217 (1980).

Julesz, B.

B. Julesz and J. E. Miller, "Independent spatial-frequency tuned channels in binocular fusion and rivalry," Percept. 4, 125–143 (1975).

Kaufman, L.

L. Kaufman, J. Bacon, and F. Barroso, "Stereopsis without image segregation," Vision Res. 13, 137–147 (1973).

Levinson, E.

E. Levinson and R. Blake, "Stereopsis by harmonic analysis," Vision Res. 19, 73–78 (1979).

Maffei, L.

A. Fiorentini and L. Maffei, "Binocular depth perception with geometrical cues," Vision Res. 11, 1299–1305 (1971).

Marr, D.

D. Marr and E. Hildreth, "Theory of edge detection," Proc. R. Soc. Lon. B 207, 187–217 (1980).

Miller, J. E.

B. Julesz and J. E. Miller, "Independent spatial-frequency tuned channels in binocular fusion and rivalry," Percept. 4, 125–143 (1975).

Ogle, K. N.

K. N. Ogle, Researches in Binocular Vision (Hafner, New York, 1950); "The optical space sense," in The Eye, H. Davidson, ed. (Academic, London, 1964), Vol. 4, pp. 209–417.

Richards, W.

J. M. Foley and W. Richards, "Binocular depth mixtures with non-symmetric disparities," Vision Res. 18, 251–256 (1978).

Sutter, E. E.

C. W. Tyler and E. E. Sutter, "Depth from spatial frequency difference: an old kind of stereopsis?" Vision Res. 16, 859–965 (1979).

Tolhurst, D. J.

D. J. Tolhurst, "Adaptation to square-wave gratings: inhibition between spatial frequency channels in the human visual system," J. Physiol. Lon. 226, 231–248 (1972).

Tyler, C. W.

C. W. Tyler and E. E. Sutter, "Depth from spatial frequency difference: an old kind of stereopsis?" Vision Res. 16, 859–965 (1979).

van der Meer, H. C.

H. C. van der Meer, "Linear combinations of stereoscopic depth effects in dichoptic perception of gratings," Vision Res. 18, 707–714 (1978).

Wilson, H. R.

H. R. Wilson, "The significance of frequency gradients in binocular grating perception," Vision Res. 16, 983–989 (1979).

J. Physiol.

C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, "On the existence of neurons in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images," J. Physiol. 203, 237–260 (1969).

J. Physiol. Lon.

D. J. Tolhurst, "Adaptation to square-wave gratings: inhibition between spatial frequency channels in the human visual system," J. Physiol. Lon. 226, 231–248 (1972).

Percept.

B. Julesz and J. E. Miller, "Independent spatial-frequency tuned channels in binocular fusion and rivalry," Percept. 4, 125–143 (1975).

Proc. R. Soc. Lon. B

D. Marr and E. Hildreth, "Theory of edge detection," Proc. R. Soc. Lon. B 207, 187–217 (1980).

Vision Res.

E. Levinson and R. Blake, "Stereopsis by harmonic analysis," Vision Res. 19, 73–78 (1979).

B. Gillam, "Changes in the direction of induced aniseikonic slant as a function of distance," Vision Res. 7, 777–783 (1967).

C. Blakemore, "A new kind of stereoscopic vision," Vision Res. 10, 1181–1199 (1970).

A. Fiorentini and L. Maffei, "Binocular depth perception with geometrical cues," Vision Res. 11, 1299–1305 (1971).

H. R. Wilson, "The significance of frequency gradients in binocular grating perception," Vision Res. 16, 983–989 (1979).

H. C. van der Meer, "Linear combinations of stereoscopic depth effects in dichoptic perception of gratings," Vision Res. 18, 707–714 (1978).

C. W. Tyler and E. E. Sutter, "Depth from spatial frequency difference: an old kind of stereopsis?" Vision Res. 16, 859–965 (1979).

K. K. DeVelois, "Spatial frequency adaptation can enhance contrast sensitivity," Vision Res. 17, 1057–1065 (1977).

L. Kaufman, J. Bacon, and F. Barroso, "Stereopsis without image segregation," Vision Res. 13, 137–147 (1973).

J. M. Foley, "Binocular depth mixture," Vision Res. 16, 1263–1267 (1976).

J. M. Foley and W. Richards, "Binocular depth mixtures with non-symmetric disparities," Vision Res. 18, 251–256 (1978).

Other

The fact that the descending portion of WR's curves in Fig. 3 does not fall below the 1.0 line suggests that the negative side lobes may occur only on the low frequency side of the channel.

K. N. Ogle, Researches in Binocular Vision (Hafner, New York, 1950); "The optical space sense," in The Eye, H. Davidson, ed. (Academic, London, 1964), Vol. 4, pp. 209–417.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.