Abstract

Using targets containing compounds of the elements cesium through lutetium, we studied the spectra of laser-produced plasmas in the grazing-incidence region from 40 to 200 Å. The spectra are characterized by strong regions of resonancelike emission extending typically over 9–18 eV. With increasing <i>Z</i>, the spectra show certain systematic variations in character and move monotonically toward shorter wavelengths. From a collisional-radiative plasma model, the ion stages responsible for the emission are identified as VIII through XVI. The resonances are attributed to 4<i>d</i>-4ƒ transitions that, because Δ<i>n</i> = 0, tend to overlap for different ion stages of the same element.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. K. Carroll and G. O'Sullivan, "Ground state configurations of ionic species Z = 57 through 74 and the interpretation of 4d-4ƒ emission resonances in laser-produced plasmas," to be published.
  2. P. K. Carroll, E. T. Kennedy, and G. O'Sullivan, "Laser-produced continua for absorption spectroscopy in the VUV and XUV,"Appl. Opt. 19, 1454–1462 (1980).
  3. D. Colombant and G. F. Tonon, "X-ray emission in laser-produced plasmas," J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3524–3537 (1973).
  4. C. E. Moore, Atomic Energy Levels, Vol. III (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1958); E. Alexander et al., "Classification of transitions in the EUV spectra of Y IX–XII, Zr X–XIV, Nb XI–XV and Mo XII–XVI," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 508–514 (1971); M. Evan-Zohar and B. S. Fraenkel, "A study of the EUV spectra of the fifth period," J. Phys. B 5, 1596–1613 (1972).
  5. S. Fraga, J. Kerwowski, and K. M. S. Saxena, Handbook of Atomic Data (Elsever, Amsterdam, New York, 1976).
  6. B. Edlén, "Atomic Spectra," in Handbuch der Physik, S. Flügge, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1964), Chap. XXVII, pp. 80–220.
  7. W. C. Martin, R. Zalubas, and L. Hagen, Atomic Energy Levels, The Rare Earth Elements, NSRDS-NBS 60 (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1978).
  8. J. Sugar, "Resonance lines in the Ag I and Pd I isoelectronic sequences: Cs IX through Sm XVI and Cs X through Nd XV," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1518–1521 (1977).
  9. R. D. Isler, R. V. Neidigh, and R. D. Cowan, "Tungsten radiation from Tokamak-produced plasmas," Phys. Lett. 63A, 295–297 (1977).
  10. E. R. Radke, "On the character of the intense 4d-4ƒ resonances in atomic La and Tm," J. Phys. B 12, L71–75; "Systematic comparison between the 4d spectra of lanthanide atoms and solids," L77–81 (1979).

1980 (1)

1977 (2)

J. Sugar, "Resonance lines in the Ag I and Pd I isoelectronic sequences: Cs IX through Sm XVI and Cs X through Nd XV," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1518–1521 (1977).

R. D. Isler, R. V. Neidigh, and R. D. Cowan, "Tungsten radiation from Tokamak-produced plasmas," Phys. Lett. 63A, 295–297 (1977).

1973 (1)

D. Colombant and G. F. Tonon, "X-ray emission in laser-produced plasmas," J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3524–3537 (1973).

Carroll, P. K.

P. K. Carroll, E. T. Kennedy, and G. O'Sullivan, "Laser-produced continua for absorption spectroscopy in the VUV and XUV,"Appl. Opt. 19, 1454–1462 (1980).

P. K. Carroll and G. O'Sullivan, "Ground state configurations of ionic species Z = 57 through 74 and the interpretation of 4d-4ƒ emission resonances in laser-produced plasmas," to be published.

Colombant, D.

D. Colombant and G. F. Tonon, "X-ray emission in laser-produced plasmas," J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3524–3537 (1973).

Cowan, R. D.

R. D. Isler, R. V. Neidigh, and R. D. Cowan, "Tungsten radiation from Tokamak-produced plasmas," Phys. Lett. 63A, 295–297 (1977).

Edlén, B.

B. Edlén, "Atomic Spectra," in Handbuch der Physik, S. Flügge, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1964), Chap. XXVII, pp. 80–220.

Fraga, S.

S. Fraga, J. Kerwowski, and K. M. S. Saxena, Handbook of Atomic Data (Elsever, Amsterdam, New York, 1976).

Hagen, L.

W. C. Martin, R. Zalubas, and L. Hagen, Atomic Energy Levels, The Rare Earth Elements, NSRDS-NBS 60 (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1978).

Isler, R. D.

R. D. Isler, R. V. Neidigh, and R. D. Cowan, "Tungsten radiation from Tokamak-produced plasmas," Phys. Lett. 63A, 295–297 (1977).

Kennedy, E. T.

Kerwowski, J.

S. Fraga, J. Kerwowski, and K. M. S. Saxena, Handbook of Atomic Data (Elsever, Amsterdam, New York, 1976).

Martin, W. C.

W. C. Martin, R. Zalubas, and L. Hagen, Atomic Energy Levels, The Rare Earth Elements, NSRDS-NBS 60 (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1978).

Moore, C. E.

C. E. Moore, Atomic Energy Levels, Vol. III (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1958); E. Alexander et al., "Classification of transitions in the EUV spectra of Y IX–XII, Zr X–XIV, Nb XI–XV and Mo XII–XVI," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 508–514 (1971); M. Evan-Zohar and B. S. Fraenkel, "A study of the EUV spectra of the fifth period," J. Phys. B 5, 1596–1613 (1972).

Neidigh, R. V.

R. D. Isler, R. V. Neidigh, and R. D. Cowan, "Tungsten radiation from Tokamak-produced plasmas," Phys. Lett. 63A, 295–297 (1977).

O’Sullivan, G.

P. K. Carroll, E. T. Kennedy, and G. O'Sullivan, "Laser-produced continua for absorption spectroscopy in the VUV and XUV,"Appl. Opt. 19, 1454–1462 (1980).

P. K. Carroll and G. O'Sullivan, "Ground state configurations of ionic species Z = 57 through 74 and the interpretation of 4d-4ƒ emission resonances in laser-produced plasmas," to be published.

Radke, E. R.

E. R. Radke, "On the character of the intense 4d-4ƒ resonances in atomic La and Tm," J. Phys. B 12, L71–75; "Systematic comparison between the 4d spectra of lanthanide atoms and solids," L77–81 (1979).

Saxena, K. M. S.

S. Fraga, J. Kerwowski, and K. M. S. Saxena, Handbook of Atomic Data (Elsever, Amsterdam, New York, 1976).

Sugar, J.

Tonon, G. F.

D. Colombant and G. F. Tonon, "X-ray emission in laser-produced plasmas," J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3524–3537 (1973).

Zalubas, R.

W. C. Martin, R. Zalubas, and L. Hagen, Atomic Energy Levels, The Rare Earth Elements, NSRDS-NBS 60 (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1978).

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Colombant and G. F. Tonon, "X-ray emission in laser-produced plasmas," J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3524–3537 (1973).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Phys. Lett. (1)

R. D. Isler, R. V. Neidigh, and R. D. Cowan, "Tungsten radiation from Tokamak-produced plasmas," Phys. Lett. 63A, 295–297 (1977).

Other (6)

E. R. Radke, "On the character of the intense 4d-4ƒ resonances in atomic La and Tm," J. Phys. B 12, L71–75; "Systematic comparison between the 4d spectra of lanthanide atoms and solids," L77–81 (1979).

C. E. Moore, Atomic Energy Levels, Vol. III (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1958); E. Alexander et al., "Classification of transitions in the EUV spectra of Y IX–XII, Zr X–XIV, Nb XI–XV and Mo XII–XVI," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 508–514 (1971); M. Evan-Zohar and B. S. Fraenkel, "A study of the EUV spectra of the fifth period," J. Phys. B 5, 1596–1613 (1972).

S. Fraga, J. Kerwowski, and K. M. S. Saxena, Handbook of Atomic Data (Elsever, Amsterdam, New York, 1976).

B. Edlén, "Atomic Spectra," in Handbuch der Physik, S. Flügge, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1964), Chap. XXVII, pp. 80–220.

W. C. Martin, R. Zalubas, and L. Hagen, Atomic Energy Levels, The Rare Earth Elements, NSRDS-NBS 60 (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1978).

P. K. Carroll and G. O'Sullivan, "Ground state configurations of ionic species Z = 57 through 74 and the interpretation of 4d-4ƒ emission resonances in laser-produced plasmas," to be published.

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