Abstract

The spectra of elements Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Ru, Rh, Pd, and Ag in the 10–100-Å range were obtained from a high-power vacuum spark and a grazing-incidence high-resolution spectrograph. The transitions 3<i>d</i><sup>10</sup>-3<i>d</i><sup>9</sup>4<i>p</i>, 3<i>d</i><sup>10</sup>-3<i>d</i><sup>9</sup>4<i>f</i>, 3<i>d</i><sup>10</sup>-3<i>d</i><sup>9</sup>5<i>p</i>, and 3<i>d</i><sup>10</sup>-3<i>d</i><sup>9</sup>5<i>f</i> were identified. The agreement with <i>ab initio</i> relativistic calculations is good. The relevance of the <i>jj</i> coupling scheme for level labeling is discussed, as is the importance of relativistic effects, by comparing the scheme with other results on high-<i>Z</i> atoms (up to Pt).

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Zigler et al., "Identification of the spectra of Hf XLV, Ta XLVI, W XLVII and Re XLVIII in laser produced plasmas," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 129–132 (1980).
  2. A. Zigler et al., "Nickel-like spectrum of platinum emitted from a laser produced plasma," Phys. Lett. 75A, 343–344 (1980).
  3. P. G. Burkhalter, C. M. Dozier, and D. J. Nagel, "X-ray spectra from exploded-wire plasmas," Phys. Rev. A15, 700–717 (1977).
  4. B. Edlén, "Spectra of highly ionized atoms," Physica 13, 545–554 (1947).
  5. B. Edlén, in Handbuch der Physik, S. Flügge, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1964), Vol. XXVII, pp. 80–220.
  6. C. E. Moore, Atomic Energy Levels, Vol. II, NSRDS-NBS35 (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1971).
  7. E. Alexander et al., "Classification of transitions in the euv spectra of Y IX–XII, Zr X–XIV, Nb XI–XV, and Mo XII–XVI," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 508–514 (1971).
  8. M. Even-Zohar, "Some euv spectra from laser produced plasma of heavy elements," Rep. CEA-EURATOM, EUR-CEA-FC-786 (EURATOM, Fontenay-aux-Roses, France, 1975).
  9. J. L. Schwob et al., "Identification of Mo XV to Mo XXXIII in the soft x-ray spectrum of TFR Tokamak," Phys. Lett. 62A, 85–89 (1977).
  10. M. W. D. Mansfield et al., "The XUV spectra of highly ionized molybdenum," UKAEA preprint CLM-P506, Culham (1977); J. Phys. B 11, 1521–1544 (1978).
  11. P. G. Burkhalter, U. Feldman, and R. D. Cowan, "Transitions in highly ionized Sn spectra from a laser produced plasma," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1058–1062 (1974).
  12. P. G. Burkhalter, D. J. Nagel, and R. R. Whitlock, "Laser produced rare earths x-ray spectra," Phys. Rev. A 9, 2331–2336 (1974).
  13. V. A. Boiko, A. Ya. Faenov, and S. A. Pikuz, "X-ray spectroscopy of multicharged ions from laser plasma," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 19, 11–50 (1978).
  14. M. Klapisch et al., "Nickel-like spectra of Tm XLII and Yb XLIII in a laser produced plasma," Phys. Lett. 79A, 67 (1980).
  15. J. L. Schwob and B. S. Fraenkel, "Evidence for high temperature in minute plasma points from X-ray spectra of Fe Xxv and Fe XXVI," Phys. Lett. 40A, 81–83 (1972).
  16. A. Filler, J. L. Schwob, and B. S. Fraenkel, "Extreme grazing incidence spectrometer with interferometric adjustment for high resolution," in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on the Vacuum Ultraviolet and Radiation Physics, M. C. Caster, M. Pouey, and N. Pouey, eds. (CNRS, Paris, 1977), Vol. III, pp. 86–88.
  17. E. Luc-Koenig, "Fonctions d'ondes atomiques relativistes dans l'approximation du champ central," Physica 62, 393–408 (1972).
  18. M. Klapisch et al., "The ls–3pKβ-like spectra of highly ionized iron," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 148–155 (1977).
  19. M. Klapisch, Ph.D. thesis, Université de Paris-Orsay, Orsay, France, 1969; "Une nouvelle methode pour le calcul des fonctions d'onde et la classification des spectres atomiques," C. R. Acad. Sci. 265, 914–917 (1967).
  20. M. Klapisch, "A program for atomic wavefunction computations by the parametric potential method," Comput. Phys. Commun. 2, 239–260 (1971).
  21. This program was developed by M. Klapisch, E. Luc-Koenig, and A. Bar-Shalom and is available on request from M. Klapisch, Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel.
  22. I. P. Grant, "A program to calculate angular momentum coefficients in relativistic atomic structure—a revised version," Comput. Phys. Commun. 11, 397–405 (1976); 13, 429–430 (1978); 14, 312 (1978).
  23. J. J. Chang, "A program to evaluate the reduced matrix elements of one particle tensor operators for configurations in jj coupling," Comput. Phys. Commun. 7, 225–234 (1974).
  24. N. C. Pyper, I. P. Grant, and N. Beatham, "A new program for calculating matrix elements of one particle operators in jj coupling," Comput. Phys. Commun. 15, 387–400 (1978).
  25. R. D. Cowan, "Spectra of highly ionized atoms of Tokamak interest," report LA-6679 MS (Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, N.M., 1977).
  26. R. D. Cowan and D. C. Griffin, "Approximate relativistic corrections to atomic radial wavefunctions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1010–1013 (1976).
  27. M. Klapisch et al., "Identification of forbidden lines in the soft x-ray spectrum of the TFR Tokamak," Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 403–406 (1978).
  28. D. Layzer and J. Bahcall, "Relativistic Z-dependent theory of many electron atoms," Ann. Phys. N.Y. 17, 177–204 (1962).

1980 (3)

A. Zigler et al., "Nickel-like spectrum of platinum emitted from a laser produced plasma," Phys. Lett. 75A, 343–344 (1980).

M. Klapisch et al., "Nickel-like spectra of Tm XLII and Yb XLIII in a laser produced plasma," Phys. Lett. 79A, 67 (1980).

A. Zigler et al., "Identification of the spectra of Hf XLV, Ta XLVI, W XLVII and Re XLVIII in laser produced plasmas," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 129–132 (1980).

1978 (3)

V. A. Boiko, A. Ya. Faenov, and S. A. Pikuz, "X-ray spectroscopy of multicharged ions from laser plasma," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 19, 11–50 (1978).

N. C. Pyper, I. P. Grant, and N. Beatham, "A new program for calculating matrix elements of one particle operators in jj coupling," Comput. Phys. Commun. 15, 387–400 (1978).

M. Klapisch et al., "Identification of forbidden lines in the soft x-ray spectrum of the TFR Tokamak," Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 403–406 (1978).

1977 (4)

J. L. Schwob et al., "Identification of Mo XV to Mo XXXIII in the soft x-ray spectrum of TFR Tokamak," Phys. Lett. 62A, 85–89 (1977).

M. W. D. Mansfield et al., "The XUV spectra of highly ionized molybdenum," UKAEA preprint CLM-P506, Culham (1977); J. Phys. B 11, 1521–1544 (1978).

P. G. Burkhalter, C. M. Dozier, and D. J. Nagel, "X-ray spectra from exploded-wire plasmas," Phys. Rev. A15, 700–717 (1977).

M. Klapisch et al., "The ls–3pKβ-like spectra of highly ionized iron," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 148–155 (1977).

1976 (2)

R. D. Cowan and D. C. Griffin, "Approximate relativistic corrections to atomic radial wavefunctions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1010–1013 (1976).

I. P. Grant, "A program to calculate angular momentum coefficients in relativistic atomic structure—a revised version," Comput. Phys. Commun. 11, 397–405 (1976); 13, 429–430 (1978); 14, 312 (1978).

1974 (3)

J. J. Chang, "A program to evaluate the reduced matrix elements of one particle tensor operators for configurations in jj coupling," Comput. Phys. Commun. 7, 225–234 (1974).

P. G. Burkhalter, D. J. Nagel, and R. R. Whitlock, "Laser produced rare earths x-ray spectra," Phys. Rev. A 9, 2331–2336 (1974).

P. G. Burkhalter, U. Feldman, and R. D. Cowan, "Transitions in highly ionized Sn spectra from a laser produced plasma," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1058–1062 (1974).

1972 (2)

J. L. Schwob and B. S. Fraenkel, "Evidence for high temperature in minute plasma points from X-ray spectra of Fe Xxv and Fe XXVI," Phys. Lett. 40A, 81–83 (1972).

E. Luc-Koenig, "Fonctions d'ondes atomiques relativistes dans l'approximation du champ central," Physica 62, 393–408 (1972).

1971 (2)

M. Klapisch, "A program for atomic wavefunction computations by the parametric potential method," Comput. Phys. Commun. 2, 239–260 (1971).

E. Alexander et al., "Classification of transitions in the euv spectra of Y IX–XII, Zr X–XIV, Nb XI–XV, and Mo XII–XVI," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 508–514 (1971).

1969 (1)

M. Klapisch, Ph.D. thesis, Université de Paris-Orsay, Orsay, France, 1969; "Une nouvelle methode pour le calcul des fonctions d'onde et la classification des spectres atomiques," C. R. Acad. Sci. 265, 914–917 (1967).

1962 (1)

D. Layzer and J. Bahcall, "Relativistic Z-dependent theory of many electron atoms," Ann. Phys. N.Y. 17, 177–204 (1962).

1947 (1)

B. Edlén, "Spectra of highly ionized atoms," Physica 13, 545–554 (1947).

Alexander, E.

Bahcall, J.

D. Layzer and J. Bahcall, "Relativistic Z-dependent theory of many electron atoms," Ann. Phys. N.Y. 17, 177–204 (1962).

Beatham, N.

N. C. Pyper, I. P. Grant, and N. Beatham, "A new program for calculating matrix elements of one particle operators in jj coupling," Comput. Phys. Commun. 15, 387–400 (1978).

Boiko, V. A.

V. A. Boiko, A. Ya. Faenov, and S. A. Pikuz, "X-ray spectroscopy of multicharged ions from laser plasma," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 19, 11–50 (1978).

Burkhalter, P. G.

P. G. Burkhalter, C. M. Dozier, and D. J. Nagel, "X-ray spectra from exploded-wire plasmas," Phys. Rev. A15, 700–717 (1977).

P. G. Burkhalter, D. J. Nagel, and R. R. Whitlock, "Laser produced rare earths x-ray spectra," Phys. Rev. A 9, 2331–2336 (1974).

P. G. Burkhalter, U. Feldman, and R. D. Cowan, "Transitions in highly ionized Sn spectra from a laser produced plasma," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1058–1062 (1974).

Chang, J. J.

J. J. Chang, "A program to evaluate the reduced matrix elements of one particle tensor operators for configurations in jj coupling," Comput. Phys. Commun. 7, 225–234 (1974).

Cowan, R. D.

Dozier, C. M.

P. G. Burkhalter, C. M. Dozier, and D. J. Nagel, "X-ray spectra from exploded-wire plasmas," Phys. Rev. A15, 700–717 (1977).

Edlén, B.

B. Edlén, "Spectra of highly ionized atoms," Physica 13, 545–554 (1947).

Even-Zohar, M.

M. Even-Zohar, "Some euv spectra from laser produced plasma of heavy elements," Rep. CEA-EURATOM, EUR-CEA-FC-786 (EURATOM, Fontenay-aux-Roses, France, 1975).

Faenov, A. Ya.

V. A. Boiko, A. Ya. Faenov, and S. A. Pikuz, "X-ray spectroscopy of multicharged ions from laser plasma," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 19, 11–50 (1978).

Feldman, U.

Filler, A.

A. Filler, J. L. Schwob, and B. S. Fraenkel, "Extreme grazing incidence spectrometer with interferometric adjustment for high resolution," in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on the Vacuum Ultraviolet and Radiation Physics, M. C. Caster, M. Pouey, and N. Pouey, eds. (CNRS, Paris, 1977), Vol. III, pp. 86–88.

Fraenkel, B. S.

J. L. Schwob and B. S. Fraenkel, "Evidence for high temperature in minute plasma points from X-ray spectra of Fe Xxv and Fe XXVI," Phys. Lett. 40A, 81–83 (1972).

A. Filler, J. L. Schwob, and B. S. Fraenkel, "Extreme grazing incidence spectrometer with interferometric adjustment for high resolution," in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on the Vacuum Ultraviolet and Radiation Physics, M. C. Caster, M. Pouey, and N. Pouey, eds. (CNRS, Paris, 1977), Vol. III, pp. 86–88.

Grant, I. P.

N. C. Pyper, I. P. Grant, and N. Beatham, "A new program for calculating matrix elements of one particle operators in jj coupling," Comput. Phys. Commun. 15, 387–400 (1978).

I. P. Grant, "A program to calculate angular momentum coefficients in relativistic atomic structure—a revised version," Comput. Phys. Commun. 11, 397–405 (1976); 13, 429–430 (1978); 14, 312 (1978).

Griffin, D. C.

Klapisch, M.

M. Klapisch et al., "Nickel-like spectra of Tm XLII and Yb XLIII in a laser produced plasma," Phys. Lett. 79A, 67 (1980).

M. Klapisch et al., "Identification of forbidden lines in the soft x-ray spectrum of the TFR Tokamak," Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 403–406 (1978).

M. Klapisch et al., "The ls–3pKβ-like spectra of highly ionized iron," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 148–155 (1977).

M. Klapisch, "A program for atomic wavefunction computations by the parametric potential method," Comput. Phys. Commun. 2, 239–260 (1971).

M. Klapisch, Ph.D. thesis, Université de Paris-Orsay, Orsay, France, 1969; "Une nouvelle methode pour le calcul des fonctions d'onde et la classification des spectres atomiques," C. R. Acad. Sci. 265, 914–917 (1967).

Layzer, D.

D. Layzer and J. Bahcall, "Relativistic Z-dependent theory of many electron atoms," Ann. Phys. N.Y. 17, 177–204 (1962).

Luc-Koenig, E.

E. Luc-Koenig, "Fonctions d'ondes atomiques relativistes dans l'approximation du champ central," Physica 62, 393–408 (1972).

Mansfield, M. W. D.

M. W. D. Mansfield et al., "The XUV spectra of highly ionized molybdenum," UKAEA preprint CLM-P506, Culham (1977); J. Phys. B 11, 1521–1544 (1978).

Moore, C. E.

C. E. Moore, Atomic Energy Levels, Vol. II, NSRDS-NBS35 (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1971).

Nagel, D. J.

P. G. Burkhalter, C. M. Dozier, and D. J. Nagel, "X-ray spectra from exploded-wire plasmas," Phys. Rev. A15, 700–717 (1977).

P. G. Burkhalter, D. J. Nagel, and R. R. Whitlock, "Laser produced rare earths x-ray spectra," Phys. Rev. A 9, 2331–2336 (1974).

Pikuz, S. A.

V. A. Boiko, A. Ya. Faenov, and S. A. Pikuz, "X-ray spectroscopy of multicharged ions from laser plasma," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 19, 11–50 (1978).

Pyper, N. C.

N. C. Pyper, I. P. Grant, and N. Beatham, "A new program for calculating matrix elements of one particle operators in jj coupling," Comput. Phys. Commun. 15, 387–400 (1978).

Schwob, J. L.

J. L. Schwob et al., "Identification of Mo XV to Mo XXXIII in the soft x-ray spectrum of TFR Tokamak," Phys. Lett. 62A, 85–89 (1977).

J. L. Schwob and B. S. Fraenkel, "Evidence for high temperature in minute plasma points from X-ray spectra of Fe Xxv and Fe XXVI," Phys. Lett. 40A, 81–83 (1972).

A. Filler, J. L. Schwob, and B. S. Fraenkel, "Extreme grazing incidence spectrometer with interferometric adjustment for high resolution," in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on the Vacuum Ultraviolet and Radiation Physics, M. C. Caster, M. Pouey, and N. Pouey, eds. (CNRS, Paris, 1977), Vol. III, pp. 86–88.

Whitlock, R. R.

P. G. Burkhalter, D. J. Nagel, and R. R. Whitlock, "Laser produced rare earths x-ray spectra," Phys. Rev. A 9, 2331–2336 (1974).

Zigler, A.

A. Zigler et al., "Nickel-like spectrum of platinum emitted from a laser produced plasma," Phys. Lett. 75A, 343–344 (1980).

A. Zigler et al., "Identification of the spectra of Hf XLV, Ta XLVI, W XLVII and Re XLVIII in laser produced plasmas," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 129–132 (1980).

Ann. Phys. N.Y. (1)

D. Layzer and J. Bahcall, "Relativistic Z-dependent theory of many electron atoms," Ann. Phys. N.Y. 17, 177–204 (1962).

C. R. Acad. Sci. (1)

M. Klapisch, Ph.D. thesis, Université de Paris-Orsay, Orsay, France, 1969; "Une nouvelle methode pour le calcul des fonctions d'onde et la classification des spectres atomiques," C. R. Acad. Sci. 265, 914–917 (1967).

Comput. Phys. Commun. (4)

M. Klapisch, "A program for atomic wavefunction computations by the parametric potential method," Comput. Phys. Commun. 2, 239–260 (1971).

I. P. Grant, "A program to calculate angular momentum coefficients in relativistic atomic structure—a revised version," Comput. Phys. Commun. 11, 397–405 (1976); 13, 429–430 (1978); 14, 312 (1978).

J. J. Chang, "A program to evaluate the reduced matrix elements of one particle tensor operators for configurations in jj coupling," Comput. Phys. Commun. 7, 225–234 (1974).

N. C. Pyper, I. P. Grant, and N. Beatham, "A new program for calculating matrix elements of one particle operators in jj coupling," Comput. Phys. Commun. 15, 387–400 (1978).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (5)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

V. A. Boiko, A. Ya. Faenov, and S. A. Pikuz, "X-ray spectroscopy of multicharged ions from laser plasma," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 19, 11–50 (1978).

Phys. Lett. (4)

M. Klapisch et al., "Nickel-like spectra of Tm XLII and Yb XLIII in a laser produced plasma," Phys. Lett. 79A, 67 (1980).

J. L. Schwob and B. S. Fraenkel, "Evidence for high temperature in minute plasma points from X-ray spectra of Fe Xxv and Fe XXVI," Phys. Lett. 40A, 81–83 (1972).

J. L. Schwob et al., "Identification of Mo XV to Mo XXXIII in the soft x-ray spectrum of TFR Tokamak," Phys. Lett. 62A, 85–89 (1977).

A. Zigler et al., "Nickel-like spectrum of platinum emitted from a laser produced plasma," Phys. Lett. 75A, 343–344 (1980).

Phys. Rev. (2)

P. G. Burkhalter, C. M. Dozier, and D. J. Nagel, "X-ray spectra from exploded-wire plasmas," Phys. Rev. A15, 700–717 (1977).

P. G. Burkhalter, D. J. Nagel, and R. R. Whitlock, "Laser produced rare earths x-ray spectra," Phys. Rev. A 9, 2331–2336 (1974).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Klapisch et al., "Identification of forbidden lines in the soft x-ray spectrum of the TFR Tokamak," Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 403–406 (1978).

Physica (2)

E. Luc-Koenig, "Fonctions d'ondes atomiques relativistes dans l'approximation du champ central," Physica 62, 393–408 (1972).

B. Edlén, "Spectra of highly ionized atoms," Physica 13, 545–554 (1947).

Other (7)

B. Edlén, in Handbuch der Physik, S. Flügge, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1964), Vol. XXVII, pp. 80–220.

C. E. Moore, Atomic Energy Levels, Vol. II, NSRDS-NBS35 (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1971).

M. Even-Zohar, "Some euv spectra from laser produced plasma of heavy elements," Rep. CEA-EURATOM, EUR-CEA-FC-786 (EURATOM, Fontenay-aux-Roses, France, 1975).

M. W. D. Mansfield et al., "The XUV spectra of highly ionized molybdenum," UKAEA preprint CLM-P506, Culham (1977); J. Phys. B 11, 1521–1544 (1978).

This program was developed by M. Klapisch, E. Luc-Koenig, and A. Bar-Shalom and is available on request from M. Klapisch, Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel.

A. Filler, J. L. Schwob, and B. S. Fraenkel, "Extreme grazing incidence spectrometer with interferometric adjustment for high resolution," in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on the Vacuum Ultraviolet and Radiation Physics, M. C. Caster, M. Pouey, and N. Pouey, eds. (CNRS, Paris, 1977), Vol. III, pp. 86–88.

R. D. Cowan, "Spectra of highly ionized atoms of Tokamak interest," report LA-6679 MS (Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, N.M., 1977).

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