Abstract

Correction for empty-field myopia produces an appreciable improvement in contrast thresholds only for small (less than about 8 min arc) stimuli. The amount of improvement that can be expected varies with the magnitude of the observer’s myopia.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. C. D. Whiteside, “Accommodation of the human eye in a bright and empty visual field,” J. Physiol. (London) 118, 65–66 (1952).
  2. G. Westheimer, “Accommodation measurements in empty visual fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 714–718 (1957).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. R. H. Brown, “Empty-field myopia and visibility of distant objects at high altitudes,” Am. J. Psych. 70, 376–385 (1957).
    [Crossref]
  4. H. W. Leibowitz and D. A. Owens, “Night myopia and the intermediate dark focus of accommodation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1121–1128 (1975).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. H. W. Leibowitz and D. A. Owens, “Anomalous myopias and the intermediate dark focus of accommodation,” Science 189, 646–648 (1975).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. H. W. Leibowitz and D. A. Owens, “New evidence for the intermediate position of relaxed accommodation,” Doc. Ophthal. 46, 133–147 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. S. Crawford, C. Shagass, and T. J. Pashby, “Relationship between visual acuity and refractive error of myopia,” Am.J. Ophthal. 28, 1220–1225 (1945).
  8. T. C. D. Whiteside and D. G. Gronow, “Vision in an empty visual field. The effect of empty-field myopia upon the minimum visual angle.” FPRC Report No. 872, RAF Institute of Aviation Medicine, Farnborough, Hampshire, England, 1954 (unpublished).
  9. K. N. Ogle, “Blurring of the retinal image and contrast thresholds in the fovea,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 307–315 (1960).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. F. Fankhauser and J. M. Enoch, “The effects of blur upon perimetric thresholds,” Arch. Ophthal. 68, 240–251 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  11. S. M. Luria, “Stereoscopic and resolution acuity with various fields of view,” Science 164, 452–453 (1969).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. S. M. Luria, “Peripheral stimuli and stereoacuity under water,” Percept. Psychophys. 11, 437–440 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  13. M. L. Matthews, R. G. Angus, and D. G. Pearce, “Effectiveness of accommodative aids in reducing empty field myopia in visual search,” Hum. Fact. 20, 733–740 (1978).
  14. R. B. Post, R. L. Owens, D. A. Owens, and H. W. Leibowitz, “Correction of empty-field myopia on the basis of the dark focus of accommodation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 89–92 (1979).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. K. N. Ogle, “Foveal contrast thresholds with blurring of the retinal image and increasing size of test stimulus,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 862–869 (1961).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. K. N. Ogle, “Peripheral contrast thresholds and blurring of the retinal image for a point light source,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1265–1268 (1961).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, “Optical and retinal factors affecting visual resolution,” J. Physiol.(London) 181, 576–593 (1965).
  18. R. T. Hennessy and H. W. Leibowitz, “Laser optometer incorporating the Badal principle,” Behav. Res. Meth. Instrum. 4, 237–239 (1972).
    [Crossref]

1979 (1)

1978 (2)

M. L. Matthews, R. G. Angus, and D. G. Pearce, “Effectiveness of accommodative aids in reducing empty field myopia in visual search,” Hum. Fact. 20, 733–740 (1978).

H. W. Leibowitz and D. A. Owens, “New evidence for the intermediate position of relaxed accommodation,” Doc. Ophthal. 46, 133–147 (1978).
[Crossref]

1975 (2)

H. W. Leibowitz and D. A. Owens, “Anomalous myopias and the intermediate dark focus of accommodation,” Science 189, 646–648 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. W. Leibowitz and D. A. Owens, “Night myopia and the intermediate dark focus of accommodation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1121–1128 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1972 (2)

S. M. Luria, “Peripheral stimuli and stereoacuity under water,” Percept. Psychophys. 11, 437–440 (1972).
[Crossref]

R. T. Hennessy and H. W. Leibowitz, “Laser optometer incorporating the Badal principle,” Behav. Res. Meth. Instrum. 4, 237–239 (1972).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

S. M. Luria, “Stereoscopic and resolution acuity with various fields of view,” Science 164, 452–453 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1965 (1)

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, “Optical and retinal factors affecting visual resolution,” J. Physiol.(London) 181, 576–593 (1965).

1962 (1)

F. Fankhauser and J. M. Enoch, “The effects of blur upon perimetric thresholds,” Arch. Ophthal. 68, 240–251 (1962).
[Crossref]

1961 (2)

1960 (1)

1957 (2)

G. Westheimer, “Accommodation measurements in empty visual fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 714–718 (1957).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. H. Brown, “Empty-field myopia and visibility of distant objects at high altitudes,” Am. J. Psych. 70, 376–385 (1957).
[Crossref]

1952 (1)

T. C. D. Whiteside, “Accommodation of the human eye in a bright and empty visual field,” J. Physiol. (London) 118, 65–66 (1952).

1945 (1)

J. S. Crawford, C. Shagass, and T. J. Pashby, “Relationship between visual acuity and refractive error of myopia,” Am.J. Ophthal. 28, 1220–1225 (1945).

Angus, R. G.

M. L. Matthews, R. G. Angus, and D. G. Pearce, “Effectiveness of accommodative aids in reducing empty field myopia in visual search,” Hum. Fact. 20, 733–740 (1978).

Brown, R. H.

R. H. Brown, “Empty-field myopia and visibility of distant objects at high altitudes,” Am. J. Psych. 70, 376–385 (1957).
[Crossref]

Campbell, F. W.

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, “Optical and retinal factors affecting visual resolution,” J. Physiol.(London) 181, 576–593 (1965).

Crawford, J. S.

J. S. Crawford, C. Shagass, and T. J. Pashby, “Relationship between visual acuity and refractive error of myopia,” Am.J. Ophthal. 28, 1220–1225 (1945).

Enoch, J. M.

F. Fankhauser and J. M. Enoch, “The effects of blur upon perimetric thresholds,” Arch. Ophthal. 68, 240–251 (1962).
[Crossref]

Fankhauser, F.

F. Fankhauser and J. M. Enoch, “The effects of blur upon perimetric thresholds,” Arch. Ophthal. 68, 240–251 (1962).
[Crossref]

Green, D. G.

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, “Optical and retinal factors affecting visual resolution,” J. Physiol.(London) 181, 576–593 (1965).

Gronow, D. G.

T. C. D. Whiteside and D. G. Gronow, “Vision in an empty visual field. The effect of empty-field myopia upon the minimum visual angle.” FPRC Report No. 872, RAF Institute of Aviation Medicine, Farnborough, Hampshire, England, 1954 (unpublished).

Hennessy, R. T.

R. T. Hennessy and H. W. Leibowitz, “Laser optometer incorporating the Badal principle,” Behav. Res. Meth. Instrum. 4, 237–239 (1972).
[Crossref]

Leibowitz, H. W.

R. B. Post, R. L. Owens, D. A. Owens, and H. W. Leibowitz, “Correction of empty-field myopia on the basis of the dark focus of accommodation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 89–92 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. W. Leibowitz and D. A. Owens, “New evidence for the intermediate position of relaxed accommodation,” Doc. Ophthal. 46, 133–147 (1978).
[Crossref]

H. W. Leibowitz and D. A. Owens, “Anomalous myopias and the intermediate dark focus of accommodation,” Science 189, 646–648 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. W. Leibowitz and D. A. Owens, “Night myopia and the intermediate dark focus of accommodation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1121–1128 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. T. Hennessy and H. W. Leibowitz, “Laser optometer incorporating the Badal principle,” Behav. Res. Meth. Instrum. 4, 237–239 (1972).
[Crossref]

Luria, S. M.

S. M. Luria, “Peripheral stimuli and stereoacuity under water,” Percept. Psychophys. 11, 437–440 (1972).
[Crossref]

S. M. Luria, “Stereoscopic and resolution acuity with various fields of view,” Science 164, 452–453 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matthews, M. L.

M. L. Matthews, R. G. Angus, and D. G. Pearce, “Effectiveness of accommodative aids in reducing empty field myopia in visual search,” Hum. Fact. 20, 733–740 (1978).

Ogle, K. N.

Owens, D. A.

R. B. Post, R. L. Owens, D. A. Owens, and H. W. Leibowitz, “Correction of empty-field myopia on the basis of the dark focus of accommodation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 89–92 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. W. Leibowitz and D. A. Owens, “New evidence for the intermediate position of relaxed accommodation,” Doc. Ophthal. 46, 133–147 (1978).
[Crossref]

H. W. Leibowitz and D. A. Owens, “Anomalous myopias and the intermediate dark focus of accommodation,” Science 189, 646–648 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. W. Leibowitz and D. A. Owens, “Night myopia and the intermediate dark focus of accommodation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1121–1128 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Owens, R. L.

Pashby, T. J.

J. S. Crawford, C. Shagass, and T. J. Pashby, “Relationship between visual acuity and refractive error of myopia,” Am.J. Ophthal. 28, 1220–1225 (1945).

Pearce, D. G.

M. L. Matthews, R. G. Angus, and D. G. Pearce, “Effectiveness of accommodative aids in reducing empty field myopia in visual search,” Hum. Fact. 20, 733–740 (1978).

Post, R. B.

Shagass, C.

J. S. Crawford, C. Shagass, and T. J. Pashby, “Relationship between visual acuity and refractive error of myopia,” Am.J. Ophthal. 28, 1220–1225 (1945).

Westheimer, G.

Whiteside, T. C. D.

T. C. D. Whiteside, “Accommodation of the human eye in a bright and empty visual field,” J. Physiol. (London) 118, 65–66 (1952).

T. C. D. Whiteside and D. G. Gronow, “Vision in an empty visual field. The effect of empty-field myopia upon the minimum visual angle.” FPRC Report No. 872, RAF Institute of Aviation Medicine, Farnborough, Hampshire, England, 1954 (unpublished).

Am. J. Psych. (1)

R. H. Brown, “Empty-field myopia and visibility of distant objects at high altitudes,” Am. J. Psych. 70, 376–385 (1957).
[Crossref]

Am.J. Ophthal. (1)

J. S. Crawford, C. Shagass, and T. J. Pashby, “Relationship between visual acuity and refractive error of myopia,” Am.J. Ophthal. 28, 1220–1225 (1945).

Arch. Ophthal. (1)

F. Fankhauser and J. M. Enoch, “The effects of blur upon perimetric thresholds,” Arch. Ophthal. 68, 240–251 (1962).
[Crossref]

Behav. Res. Meth. Instrum. (1)

R. T. Hennessy and H. W. Leibowitz, “Laser optometer incorporating the Badal principle,” Behav. Res. Meth. Instrum. 4, 237–239 (1972).
[Crossref]

Doc. Ophthal. (1)

H. W. Leibowitz and D. A. Owens, “New evidence for the intermediate position of relaxed accommodation,” Doc. Ophthal. 46, 133–147 (1978).
[Crossref]

Hum. Fact. (1)

M. L. Matthews, R. G. Angus, and D. G. Pearce, “Effectiveness of accommodative aids in reducing empty field myopia in visual search,” Hum. Fact. 20, 733–740 (1978).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (6)

J. Physiol. (London) (1)

T. C. D. Whiteside, “Accommodation of the human eye in a bright and empty visual field,” J. Physiol. (London) 118, 65–66 (1952).

J. Physiol.(London) (1)

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, “Optical and retinal factors affecting visual resolution,” J. Physiol.(London) 181, 576–593 (1965).

Percept. Psychophys. (1)

S. M. Luria, “Peripheral stimuli and stereoacuity under water,” Percept. Psychophys. 11, 437–440 (1972).
[Crossref]

Science (2)

S. M. Luria, “Stereoscopic and resolution acuity with various fields of view,” Science 164, 452–453 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. W. Leibowitz and D. A. Owens, “Anomalous myopias and the intermediate dark focus of accommodation,” Science 189, 646–648 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

T. C. D. Whiteside and D. G. Gronow, “Vision in an empty visual field. The effect of empty-field myopia upon the minimum visual angle.” FPRC Report No. 872, RAF Institute of Aviation Medicine, Farnborough, Hampshire, England, 1954 (unpublished).

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Figures (2)

FIG. 1
FIG. 1

Ratios of contrast thresholds in fc for subjects uncorrected for empty-field myopia to their thresholds when appropriately corrected. The line through each point is the standard deviation.

FIG. 2
FIG. 2

Ratios of contrast thresholds for the four targets whose diameters ranged from 1 to 7.5 min arc for four subjects uncorrected and corrected for empty-field myopia, as a function of the magnitude of myopia exhibited by each subject. The line through each point is its standard deviation.