Abstract

The study of the statistical effects of atmospheric turbulence on coherent radiation scattered from a diffuse target is extended, both theoretically and experimentally, to include the effects of target glint. Theoretically, expressions are developed for the first- and second-order moments of irradiance for targets containing multiple glints. The expression for the normalized variance of irradiance for a diffuse target with a single glint illuminated by a coherent source over a horizontal atmospheric path is evaluated numerically for comparison with experimental results. Experimental measurements of both the variance and covariance of irradiance for a coherent source illuminating a diffuse target containing a single glint are presented.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. F. Holmes, Myung H. Lee, and J. R. Kerr, "Effect of the log-amplitude covariance function on the statistics of speckle propagation through the turbulent atmosphere," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 355–360 (1980).
  2. R. F. Lutomirski and H. T. Yura, "Propagation of a finite optical beam in an inhomogeneous medium," Appl. Opt. 10, 1652–1658 (1971).
  3. H. T. Yura, "Mutual coherence function of a finite cross section optical beam propagating in a turbulent medium," Appl. Opt. 11, 1399–1406 (1972).
  4. Myung H. Lee, J. F. Holmes, and J. R. Kerr, "Statistics of speckle propagation through the turbulent atmosphere," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1164–1172 (1976).
  5. J. C. Leader,Atmospheric propagation of partially coherent radiation J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 175–185 (1978).
  6. J. L. Bufton, R. S. Iyer, and L. S. Taylor, "Scintillation statistics caused by atmospheric turbulence and speckle in satellite laser ranging," Appl. Opt. 16, 2408–2413 (1977).
  7. H. M. Pedersen, "Second-order statistics of light diffracted from Gaussian, rouigh surfaces with applications to the roughness dependence of speckles," Opt. Acta 22, 523–535 (1975).
  8. R. F. Lutomirski and R. E. Warren, "Atmospheric distortions in a retroreflected laser signal," Appl. Opt. 14, 840–846 (1975).
  9. Myung H. Lee, J. F. Holmes, and J. R. Kerr, "Generalized spherical wave mutual coherence function," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1279–1281 (1977).
  10. J. R. Kerr, R. A. Elliott, M. E. Fossey, J. F. Holmes, Myung H. Lee, and P. A. Pincus, "Propagation of multi-wavelength laser radiation through atmospheric turbulence," Rome Air Development Center report RADC-TR-77-18, Air Force Systems Command, Griffiss Air Force Base, New York 13441 (unpublished).
  11. J. R. Dunphy and J. R. Kerr, "Turbulence effects on target illumination by laser sources: phenomenological analysis and experimental results," Appl. Opt. 16, 1345–1358 (1977).
  12. J. W. Goodman, "Statistical properties of laser speckle patterns," in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, edited by J. C. Dainty (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1975), pp. 9–75.
  13. C. M. McIntyre, J. R. Kerr, Myung H. Lee, and J. H. Churnside, "Enhanced variance of irradiance from target glint," Appl. Opt. 18, 3211–3212 (1979).
  14. R. S. Lawrence and J. W. Strohbehn, "A survey of clear-air propagation effects relevant to optical communications," Proc. IEEE 58, 1523–1545 (1970).

1980 (1)

1979 (1)

1978 (1)

1977 (3)

1976 (1)

1975 (2)

R. F. Lutomirski and R. E. Warren, "Atmospheric distortions in a retroreflected laser signal," Appl. Opt. 14, 840–846 (1975).

H. M. Pedersen, "Second-order statistics of light diffracted from Gaussian, rouigh surfaces with applications to the roughness dependence of speckles," Opt. Acta 22, 523–535 (1975).

1972 (1)

1971 (1)

Bufton, J. L.

Churnside, J. H.

Dunphy, J. R.

Elliott, R. A.

J. R. Kerr, R. A. Elliott, M. E. Fossey, J. F. Holmes, Myung H. Lee, and P. A. Pincus, "Propagation of multi-wavelength laser radiation through atmospheric turbulence," Rome Air Development Center report RADC-TR-77-18, Air Force Systems Command, Griffiss Air Force Base, New York 13441 (unpublished).

Fossey, M. E.

J. R. Kerr, R. A. Elliott, M. E. Fossey, J. F. Holmes, Myung H. Lee, and P. A. Pincus, "Propagation of multi-wavelength laser radiation through atmospheric turbulence," Rome Air Development Center report RADC-TR-77-18, Air Force Systems Command, Griffiss Air Force Base, New York 13441 (unpublished).

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, "Statistical properties of laser speckle patterns," in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, edited by J. C. Dainty (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1975), pp. 9–75.

Holmes, J. F.

Iyer, R. S.

Kerr, J. R.

Lawrence, R. S.

R. S. Lawrence and J. W. Strohbehn, "A survey of clear-air propagation effects relevant to optical communications," Proc. IEEE 58, 1523–1545 (1970).

Leader, J. C.

Lee, Myung H.

Lutomirski, R. F.

McIntyre, C. M.

Pedersen, H. M.

H. M. Pedersen, "Second-order statistics of light diffracted from Gaussian, rouigh surfaces with applications to the roughness dependence of speckles," Opt. Acta 22, 523–535 (1975).

Pincus, P. A.

J. R. Kerr, R. A. Elliott, M. E. Fossey, J. F. Holmes, Myung H. Lee, and P. A. Pincus, "Propagation of multi-wavelength laser radiation through atmospheric turbulence," Rome Air Development Center report RADC-TR-77-18, Air Force Systems Command, Griffiss Air Force Base, New York 13441 (unpublished).

Strohbehn, J. W.

R. S. Lawrence and J. W. Strohbehn, "A survey of clear-air propagation effects relevant to optical communications," Proc. IEEE 58, 1523–1545 (1970).

Taylor, L. S.

Warren, R. E.

Yura, H. T.

Appl. Opt. (6)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (4)

Opt. Acta (1)

H. M. Pedersen, "Second-order statistics of light diffracted from Gaussian, rouigh surfaces with applications to the roughness dependence of speckles," Opt. Acta 22, 523–535 (1975).

Other (3)

J. R. Kerr, R. A. Elliott, M. E. Fossey, J. F. Holmes, Myung H. Lee, and P. A. Pincus, "Propagation of multi-wavelength laser radiation through atmospheric turbulence," Rome Air Development Center report RADC-TR-77-18, Air Force Systems Command, Griffiss Air Force Base, New York 13441 (unpublished).

R. S. Lawrence and J. W. Strohbehn, "A survey of clear-air propagation effects relevant to optical communications," Proc. IEEE 58, 1523–1545 (1970).

J. W. Goodman, "Statistical properties of laser speckle patterns," in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, edited by J. C. Dainty (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1975), pp. 9–75.

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