Abstract

A large-field substitution procedure for making Rayleigh màtches was used to study the color matches of eight red-green dichromats and two extreme anomalous trichromats. Matches were made under three experimental conditions: (1) During the cone plateau period after a bleach; (2) after the rods had recovered from the bleach; and (3) on a blue background. Under conditions (1) and (3) rods were desensitized and appear to be unable to contribute to the color match. Seven of eight dichromats were still able to make unique matches with the rods desensitized. The matches of six of these seven dichromats were consistent with predicted matches for simple protanomalous and simple deuteranomalous trichromats. Matches made under condition (2) were typically more nearly consistent with matches predicted for the rods and the remaining normal cone mechanism, but there were also some individual differences in these matches. The matches of the two extreme anomalous trichromats were similar to the matches of the dichroats.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. A. Nagel, "Dichromatische fovea, Trichromatische peripherie," Z. Psychol. Physiol. Sinnesorgane 39, 93–101 (1905); "Neue Erfahrungen uber das Farbensehen der Dichromaten auf grossen Felde," Z. Sinnesphysiol. 41, 319–337 (1907); "Farbenumstimmung beim Dichromaten," ibid. 44, 5–17 (1910).
  2. V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, "Large-field trichromacy in protanopes and deuteranopes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 213–220 (1977).
  3. H. M. O. Scheibner and R. M. Boynton, "Residual red-green discrimination in dichromats," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1151–1158 (1969); A. L. Nagy and R. M. Boynton, "Large-field color naming of dichromats with rods bleached," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1259–1265 (1979).
  4. F. Frome, T. Piantanida, and D. H. Kelly, "Flicker thresholds reveal forbidden cones in dichromats," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 17, 197 (1978).
  5. T. Piantanida, F. Frome, and D. H. Kelly, "Spectral sensitivity of the forbidden cones in dichromats," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 17, 197–198 (1978).
  6. Alpern M. and T. Wake, "Cone pigmehts in human deutan color vision defects," J. Physiol. 266, 595–612 (1977).
  7. W. S. Stiles, "The basic data of colour-matching," Physical Society Yearbook (Physical Society, London, 1955), p. 44–65.
  8. This procedure is similar to one described by A. Linkz, An Essay on Color Vision and Clinical Color-Vision Test (Grune and Stratton, New York, 1964), Chap. 15. A substitution method for making color matches has previously been used by M. M. Bongard, M. C. Smirnov, and L. Friedrich, "The four-dimensional colour space of the extrafoveal retinal area of the human eye," in Visual Problems of Colour, Vol. 1, N. P. L. Symp. No. 8, (Her Majesty's Stationary Office, London, 1957), p. 325.
  9. The ping-pong ball arrangement was used to obtain a reasonably homogeneous bleach of the entire retina. It was suggested by T. R. Corwin and M. A. Green, "The Broca-Sulzer effect in a Ganzfield," Vision Res. 18, 1675–1678 (1978). The technique of determining a matching range as a function of time after the bleach appears to have been originated by H. D. Baker, "Single variable anomaloscope matches during recovery from artificial red blindness," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 686–689 (1966).
  10. C. J. Gosline, D. I. A. MacLeod, and W. A. H. Rushton, "The dark adaptation curve of rods measured by their afterimage," J. Physiol. 259, 491–499 (1976).
  11. G. Wyszedki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967), p. 581, suggest that background levels on the order of 2000–5000 scotopic trolands should be required to prevent the rods from contributing to a color match. Experiments in progress by D. I. A. MacLeod and A. L. Nagy suggest that a cone signal generated by a stimulus flash may have a masking effect on rod signals generated by the same flash. See, P. Gouras and K. Link, "Rod and cone interaction in dark-adapted monkey ganglion cells," J. Physiol. 184, 499–510 (1966), for evidence that cone signals may mask rod signals at the ganglion cell level in Rhesus monkeys. It is possible that such a masking effect is generated by the flashed stimuli used in this experiment. Such masking would aid the background in preventing the rods from contributing to the color match and may account for the low background levels required for protan and deutan observers here. This difference between the background levels may be due largely to the difference in the amount of the 546 primary required for a match. The rods are much more sensitive to the 546 primary than the 588 field or the 660 primary. The critical level of the background is likely to be determined by the amount of the 546 primary present and the sensitivity of rods to it. Deutan observers require nearly 0.6 log unit more of the 546 primary for a match than protan observers and therefore should require a more intense background to prevent the rods from detecting the 546 primary.
  12. V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and I. Katz, "Derivation of the photopigment absorption spectra in anomalous trichromats," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 232–237 (1971).
  13. M. Alpern, G. B. Lee, F. Masseidvaag, and S. S. Miller, "Colour vision in blue-cone 'monochromacy'," J. Physiol. 212, 211–233 (1971).
  14. See T. Piantanida for a recent discussion and references on this view. Am. J. Opt. Physiol. Opt. 53, 647–651 (1976).
  15. K. H. Ruddock, "Parafoveal color vision responses of four dichromats," Vision Res. 11, 143–156 (1971).
  16. D. I. A. MacLeod and P. Lennie, "Red-green blindness confined to one eye," Vision Res. 16, 691–702 (1976).
  17. J. Gordon and I. Abramov, "Color vision in the peripheral retina. II. Hue and Saturation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 202–206 (1977).
  18. See P. J. Waardenburg for a recent discussion, in Genetics and Ophthalmology, Vol. II, edited by P. J. Waardenburg, A. Franceschetti, and D. Klein (Thomas, Springfield, Ill., 1963), pp. 1441–1448.

1978 (3)

The ping-pong ball arrangement was used to obtain a reasonably homogeneous bleach of the entire retina. It was suggested by T. R. Corwin and M. A. Green, "The Broca-Sulzer effect in a Ganzfield," Vision Res. 18, 1675–1678 (1978). The technique of determining a matching range as a function of time after the bleach appears to have been originated by H. D. Baker, "Single variable anomaloscope matches during recovery from artificial red blindness," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 686–689 (1966).

F. Frome, T. Piantanida, and D. H. Kelly, "Flicker thresholds reveal forbidden cones in dichromats," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 17, 197 (1978).

T. Piantanida, F. Frome, and D. H. Kelly, "Spectral sensitivity of the forbidden cones in dichromats," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 17, 197–198 (1978).

1977 (3)

1976 (2)

D. I. A. MacLeod and P. Lennie, "Red-green blindness confined to one eye," Vision Res. 16, 691–702 (1976).

C. J. Gosline, D. I. A. MacLeod, and W. A. H. Rushton, "The dark adaptation curve of rods measured by their afterimage," J. Physiol. 259, 491–499 (1976).

1971 (3)

M. Alpern, G. B. Lee, F. Masseidvaag, and S. S. Miller, "Colour vision in blue-cone 'monochromacy'," J. Physiol. 212, 211–233 (1971).

K. H. Ruddock, "Parafoveal color vision responses of four dichromats," Vision Res. 11, 143–156 (1971).

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and I. Katz, "Derivation of the photopigment absorption spectra in anomalous trichromats," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 232–237 (1971).

1969 (1)

1905 (1)

W. A. Nagel, "Dichromatische fovea, Trichromatische peripherie," Z. Psychol. Physiol. Sinnesorgane 39, 93–101 (1905); "Neue Erfahrungen uber das Farbensehen der Dichromaten auf grossen Felde," Z. Sinnesphysiol. 41, 319–337 (1907); "Farbenumstimmung beim Dichromaten," ibid. 44, 5–17 (1910).

Abramov, I.

Alpern, M.

Alpern M. and T. Wake, "Cone pigmehts in human deutan color vision defects," J. Physiol. 266, 595–612 (1977).

M. Alpern, G. B. Lee, F. Masseidvaag, and S. S. Miller, "Colour vision in blue-cone 'monochromacy'," J. Physiol. 212, 211–233 (1971).

Boynton, R. M.

Corwin, T. R.

The ping-pong ball arrangement was used to obtain a reasonably homogeneous bleach of the entire retina. It was suggested by T. R. Corwin and M. A. Green, "The Broca-Sulzer effect in a Ganzfield," Vision Res. 18, 1675–1678 (1978). The technique of determining a matching range as a function of time after the bleach appears to have been originated by H. D. Baker, "Single variable anomaloscope matches during recovery from artificial red blindness," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 686–689 (1966).

Frome, F.

T. Piantanida, F. Frome, and D. H. Kelly, "Spectral sensitivity of the forbidden cones in dichromats," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 17, 197–198 (1978).

F. Frome, T. Piantanida, and D. H. Kelly, "Flicker thresholds reveal forbidden cones in dichromats," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 17, 197 (1978).

Gordon, J.

Gosline, C. J.

C. J. Gosline, D. I. A. MacLeod, and W. A. H. Rushton, "The dark adaptation curve of rods measured by their afterimage," J. Physiol. 259, 491–499 (1976).

Green, M. A.

The ping-pong ball arrangement was used to obtain a reasonably homogeneous bleach of the entire retina. It was suggested by T. R. Corwin and M. A. Green, "The Broca-Sulzer effect in a Ganzfield," Vision Res. 18, 1675–1678 (1978). The technique of determining a matching range as a function of time after the bleach appears to have been originated by H. D. Baker, "Single variable anomaloscope matches during recovery from artificial red blindness," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 686–689 (1966).

Katz, I.

Kelly, D. H.

F. Frome, T. Piantanida, and D. H. Kelly, "Flicker thresholds reveal forbidden cones in dichromats," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 17, 197 (1978).

T. Piantanida, F. Frome, and D. H. Kelly, "Spectral sensitivity of the forbidden cones in dichromats," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 17, 197–198 (1978).

Lee, G. B.

M. Alpern, G. B. Lee, F. Masseidvaag, and S. S. Miller, "Colour vision in blue-cone 'monochromacy'," J. Physiol. 212, 211–233 (1971).

Lennie, P.

D. I. A. MacLeod and P. Lennie, "Red-green blindness confined to one eye," Vision Res. 16, 691–702 (1976).

Linkz, A.

This procedure is similar to one described by A. Linkz, An Essay on Color Vision and Clinical Color-Vision Test (Grune and Stratton, New York, 1964), Chap. 15. A substitution method for making color matches has previously been used by M. M. Bongard, M. C. Smirnov, and L. Friedrich, "The four-dimensional colour space of the extrafoveal retinal area of the human eye," in Visual Problems of Colour, Vol. 1, N. P. L. Symp. No. 8, (Her Majesty's Stationary Office, London, 1957), p. 325.

MacLeod, D. I. A.

D. I. A. MacLeod and P. Lennie, "Red-green blindness confined to one eye," Vision Res. 16, 691–702 (1976).

C. J. Gosline, D. I. A. MacLeod, and W. A. H. Rushton, "The dark adaptation curve of rods measured by their afterimage," J. Physiol. 259, 491–499 (1976).

Masseidvaag, F.

M. Alpern, G. B. Lee, F. Masseidvaag, and S. S. Miller, "Colour vision in blue-cone 'monochromacy'," J. Physiol. 212, 211–233 (1971).

Miller, S. S.

M. Alpern, G. B. Lee, F. Masseidvaag, and S. S. Miller, "Colour vision in blue-cone 'monochromacy'," J. Physiol. 212, 211–233 (1971).

Nagel, W. A.

W. A. Nagel, "Dichromatische fovea, Trichromatische peripherie," Z. Psychol. Physiol. Sinnesorgane 39, 93–101 (1905); "Neue Erfahrungen uber das Farbensehen der Dichromaten auf grossen Felde," Z. Sinnesphysiol. 41, 319–337 (1907); "Farbenumstimmung beim Dichromaten," ibid. 44, 5–17 (1910).

Piantanida, T.

T. Piantanida, F. Frome, and D. H. Kelly, "Spectral sensitivity of the forbidden cones in dichromats," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 17, 197–198 (1978).

F. Frome, T. Piantanida, and D. H. Kelly, "Flicker thresholds reveal forbidden cones in dichromats," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 17, 197 (1978).

See T. Piantanida for a recent discussion and references on this view. Am. J. Opt. Physiol. Opt. 53, 647–651 (1976).

Pokorny, J.

Ruddock, K. H.

K. H. Ruddock, "Parafoveal color vision responses of four dichromats," Vision Res. 11, 143–156 (1971).

Rushton, W. A. H.

C. J. Gosline, D. I. A. MacLeod, and W. A. H. Rushton, "The dark adaptation curve of rods measured by their afterimage," J. Physiol. 259, 491–499 (1976).

Scheibner, H. M. O.

Smith, V. C.

Stiles, W. S.

G. Wyszedki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967), p. 581, suggest that background levels on the order of 2000–5000 scotopic trolands should be required to prevent the rods from contributing to a color match. Experiments in progress by D. I. A. MacLeod and A. L. Nagy suggest that a cone signal generated by a stimulus flash may have a masking effect on rod signals generated by the same flash. See, P. Gouras and K. Link, "Rod and cone interaction in dark-adapted monkey ganglion cells," J. Physiol. 184, 499–510 (1966), for evidence that cone signals may mask rod signals at the ganglion cell level in Rhesus monkeys. It is possible that such a masking effect is generated by the flashed stimuli used in this experiment. Such masking would aid the background in preventing the rods from contributing to the color match and may account for the low background levels required for protan and deutan observers here. This difference between the background levels may be due largely to the difference in the amount of the 546 primary required for a match. The rods are much more sensitive to the 546 primary than the 588 field or the 660 primary. The critical level of the background is likely to be determined by the amount of the 546 primary present and the sensitivity of rods to it. Deutan observers require nearly 0.6 log unit more of the 546 primary for a match than protan observers and therefore should require a more intense background to prevent the rods from detecting the 546 primary.

W. S. Stiles, "The basic data of colour-matching," Physical Society Yearbook (Physical Society, London, 1955), p. 44–65.

Waardenburg, P. J.

See P. J. Waardenburg for a recent discussion, in Genetics and Ophthalmology, Vol. II, edited by P. J. Waardenburg, A. Franceschetti, and D. Klein (Thomas, Springfield, Ill., 1963), pp. 1441–1448.

Wake, T.

Alpern M. and T. Wake, "Cone pigmehts in human deutan color vision defects," J. Physiol. 266, 595–612 (1977).

Wyszedki, G.

G. Wyszedki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967), p. 581, suggest that background levels on the order of 2000–5000 scotopic trolands should be required to prevent the rods from contributing to a color match. Experiments in progress by D. I. A. MacLeod and A. L. Nagy suggest that a cone signal generated by a stimulus flash may have a masking effect on rod signals generated by the same flash. See, P. Gouras and K. Link, "Rod and cone interaction in dark-adapted monkey ganglion cells," J. Physiol. 184, 499–510 (1966), for evidence that cone signals may mask rod signals at the ganglion cell level in Rhesus monkeys. It is possible that such a masking effect is generated by the flashed stimuli used in this experiment. Such masking would aid the background in preventing the rods from contributing to the color match and may account for the low background levels required for protan and deutan observers here. This difference between the background levels may be due largely to the difference in the amount of the 546 primary required for a match. The rods are much more sensitive to the 546 primary than the 588 field or the 660 primary. The critical level of the background is likely to be determined by the amount of the 546 primary present and the sensitivity of rods to it. Deutan observers require nearly 0.6 log unit more of the 546 primary for a match than protan observers and therefore should require a more intense background to prevent the rods from detecting the 546 primary.

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. (2)

F. Frome, T. Piantanida, and D. H. Kelly, "Flicker thresholds reveal forbidden cones in dichromats," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 17, 197 (1978).

T. Piantanida, F. Frome, and D. H. Kelly, "Spectral sensitivity of the forbidden cones in dichromats," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 17, 197–198 (1978).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (4)

J. Physiol. (3)

M. Alpern, G. B. Lee, F. Masseidvaag, and S. S. Miller, "Colour vision in blue-cone 'monochromacy'," J. Physiol. 212, 211–233 (1971).

C. J. Gosline, D. I. A. MacLeod, and W. A. H. Rushton, "The dark adaptation curve of rods measured by their afterimage," J. Physiol. 259, 491–499 (1976).

Alpern M. and T. Wake, "Cone pigmehts in human deutan color vision defects," J. Physiol. 266, 595–612 (1977).

Vision Res. (3)

The ping-pong ball arrangement was used to obtain a reasonably homogeneous bleach of the entire retina. It was suggested by T. R. Corwin and M. A. Green, "The Broca-Sulzer effect in a Ganzfield," Vision Res. 18, 1675–1678 (1978). The technique of determining a matching range as a function of time after the bleach appears to have been originated by H. D. Baker, "Single variable anomaloscope matches during recovery from artificial red blindness," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 686–689 (1966).

K. H. Ruddock, "Parafoveal color vision responses of four dichromats," Vision Res. 11, 143–156 (1971).

D. I. A. MacLeod and P. Lennie, "Red-green blindness confined to one eye," Vision Res. 16, 691–702 (1976).

Z. Psychol. Physiol. Sinnesorgane (1)

W. A. Nagel, "Dichromatische fovea, Trichromatische peripherie," Z. Psychol. Physiol. Sinnesorgane 39, 93–101 (1905); "Neue Erfahrungen uber das Farbensehen der Dichromaten auf grossen Felde," Z. Sinnesphysiol. 41, 319–337 (1907); "Farbenumstimmung beim Dichromaten," ibid. 44, 5–17 (1910).

Other (5)

W. S. Stiles, "The basic data of colour-matching," Physical Society Yearbook (Physical Society, London, 1955), p. 44–65.

This procedure is similar to one described by A. Linkz, An Essay on Color Vision and Clinical Color-Vision Test (Grune and Stratton, New York, 1964), Chap. 15. A substitution method for making color matches has previously been used by M. M. Bongard, M. C. Smirnov, and L. Friedrich, "The four-dimensional colour space of the extrafoveal retinal area of the human eye," in Visual Problems of Colour, Vol. 1, N. P. L. Symp. No. 8, (Her Majesty's Stationary Office, London, 1957), p. 325.

See P. J. Waardenburg for a recent discussion, in Genetics and Ophthalmology, Vol. II, edited by P. J. Waardenburg, A. Franceschetti, and D. Klein (Thomas, Springfield, Ill., 1963), pp. 1441–1448.

G. Wyszedki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967), p. 581, suggest that background levels on the order of 2000–5000 scotopic trolands should be required to prevent the rods from contributing to a color match. Experiments in progress by D. I. A. MacLeod and A. L. Nagy suggest that a cone signal generated by a stimulus flash may have a masking effect on rod signals generated by the same flash. See, P. Gouras and K. Link, "Rod and cone interaction in dark-adapted monkey ganglion cells," J. Physiol. 184, 499–510 (1966), for evidence that cone signals may mask rod signals at the ganglion cell level in Rhesus monkeys. It is possible that such a masking effect is generated by the flashed stimuli used in this experiment. Such masking would aid the background in preventing the rods from contributing to the color match and may account for the low background levels required for protan and deutan observers here. This difference between the background levels may be due largely to the difference in the amount of the 546 primary required for a match. The rods are much more sensitive to the 546 primary than the 588 field or the 660 primary. The critical level of the background is likely to be determined by the amount of the 546 primary present and the sensitivity of rods to it. Deutan observers require nearly 0.6 log unit more of the 546 primary for a match than protan observers and therefore should require a more intense background to prevent the rods from detecting the 546 primary.

See T. Piantanida for a recent discussion and references on this view. Am. J. Opt. Physiol. Opt. 53, 647–651 (1976).

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