Abstract

The use of the photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) technique to measure nonradiative lifetimes in either the frequency or time-domain mode is discussed. Expressions are presented for the dependence of the cell pressure upon the lifetime, and the modifications introduced by the microphone transfer function are discussed. It is shown that in both measurement modes thermally and optically thick specimens are preferred. Other sample types have contributions to the measured phase or time delay arising from the optical absorption depth and sample cell parameters. The model presented suggests that the PAS technique is suitable for the measurement of lifetimes in the range between 10<sup>-5</sup> and 10 <sup>1</sup> s, with the limits arising from the microphone transfer function, the finite sound velocity, and thermal transport velocity in the transducer gas.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. D. Merkle and R. C. Powell, "PAS Investigation of Radiationless Transitions in Eu2+ Ions in KCI Crystals," Chem. Phys. Lett. 46, 303–306 (1977).
  2. L. D. Merkle, R. C. Powell, and T. M. Wilson, "Radiationless processes in KCl:Eu2+," J. Phys. C 11, 3103–3119 (1978).
  3. R. G. Peterson and R. C. Powell, "PAS Investigation of Radiationless Relaxation Processes of Cr3+ in Crystals," Chem. Phys. Lett. 53, 366–368 (1978).
  4. W. R. Harshbarger and M. B. Robin, "The Opto-acoustic Effect: Revival of an Old Technique for Molecular Spectroscopy," Acc. Chem. Res. 6, 329–334 (1973).
  5. A. Mandelis, Y. C. Teng, and B. S. H. Royce, "Phase measurements in frequency domain PAS of solids," J. Appl. Phys. 50, 7138–7146 (1979).
  6. L. C. Aamodt and J. C. Murphy, "Size considerations in the design of cells for photoacoustic spectroscopy. II. Pulsed excitation response," J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3036–3045 (1978).
  7. A. Mandelis and B. S. H. Royce, "Time domain PAS of solids," J. Appl. Phys. 50, 4330–4338 (1979).
  8. A. Rosencwaig and A. Gersho, "Theory of the photoacoustic effect with solids," J. Appl. Phys. 47, 64–69 (1976).
  9. C. L. Cesar, H. Vargas, J. A. Meyer, and L. C. M. Miranda, "Photoacoustic effect in solids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1570–1572 (1979).
  10. A. Mandelis and B. S. H. Royce, "Nonradiative lifetime measurements in time domain PAS of condensed phases," J. Appl. Phys. 51, 610–615 (1980).
  11. J. C. Roark, R. A. Palmer, and J. S. Hutchison, "Quantitative Absorption Spectra via Photoacoustic Phase Angle Spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 60, 112–116 (1978).
  12. D. G. Schultz and J. L. Melsa, State Functions and Linear Control Systems (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1967).

1980 (1)

A. Mandelis and B. S. H. Royce, "Nonradiative lifetime measurements in time domain PAS of condensed phases," J. Appl. Phys. 51, 610–615 (1980).

1979 (3)

A. Mandelis, Y. C. Teng, and B. S. H. Royce, "Phase measurements in frequency domain PAS of solids," J. Appl. Phys. 50, 7138–7146 (1979).

A. Mandelis and B. S. H. Royce, "Time domain PAS of solids," J. Appl. Phys. 50, 4330–4338 (1979).

C. L. Cesar, H. Vargas, J. A. Meyer, and L. C. M. Miranda, "Photoacoustic effect in solids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1570–1572 (1979).

1978 (4)

L. C. Aamodt and J. C. Murphy, "Size considerations in the design of cells for photoacoustic spectroscopy. II. Pulsed excitation response," J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3036–3045 (1978).

L. D. Merkle, R. C. Powell, and T. M. Wilson, "Radiationless processes in KCl:Eu2+," J. Phys. C 11, 3103–3119 (1978).

R. G. Peterson and R. C. Powell, "PAS Investigation of Radiationless Relaxation Processes of Cr3+ in Crystals," Chem. Phys. Lett. 53, 366–368 (1978).

J. C. Roark, R. A. Palmer, and J. S. Hutchison, "Quantitative Absorption Spectra via Photoacoustic Phase Angle Spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 60, 112–116 (1978).

1977 (1)

L. D. Merkle and R. C. Powell, "PAS Investigation of Radiationless Transitions in Eu2+ Ions in KCI Crystals," Chem. Phys. Lett. 46, 303–306 (1977).

1976 (1)

A. Rosencwaig and A. Gersho, "Theory of the photoacoustic effect with solids," J. Appl. Phys. 47, 64–69 (1976).

1973 (1)

W. R. Harshbarger and M. B. Robin, "The Opto-acoustic Effect: Revival of an Old Technique for Molecular Spectroscopy," Acc. Chem. Res. 6, 329–334 (1973).

Aamodt, L. C.

L. C. Aamodt and J. C. Murphy, "Size considerations in the design of cells for photoacoustic spectroscopy. II. Pulsed excitation response," J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3036–3045 (1978).

Cesar, C. L.

C. L. Cesar, H. Vargas, J. A. Meyer, and L. C. M. Miranda, "Photoacoustic effect in solids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1570–1572 (1979).

Gersho, A.

A. Rosencwaig and A. Gersho, "Theory of the photoacoustic effect with solids," J. Appl. Phys. 47, 64–69 (1976).

Harshbarger, W. R.

W. R. Harshbarger and M. B. Robin, "The Opto-acoustic Effect: Revival of an Old Technique for Molecular Spectroscopy," Acc. Chem. Res. 6, 329–334 (1973).

Hutchison, J. S.

J. C. Roark, R. A. Palmer, and J. S. Hutchison, "Quantitative Absorption Spectra via Photoacoustic Phase Angle Spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 60, 112–116 (1978).

Mandelis, A.

A. Mandelis and B. S. H. Royce, "Nonradiative lifetime measurements in time domain PAS of condensed phases," J. Appl. Phys. 51, 610–615 (1980).

A. Mandelis and B. S. H. Royce, "Time domain PAS of solids," J. Appl. Phys. 50, 4330–4338 (1979).

A. Mandelis, Y. C. Teng, and B. S. H. Royce, "Phase measurements in frequency domain PAS of solids," J. Appl. Phys. 50, 7138–7146 (1979).

Melsa, J. L.

D. G. Schultz and J. L. Melsa, State Functions and Linear Control Systems (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1967).

Merkle, L. D.

L. D. Merkle, R. C. Powell, and T. M. Wilson, "Radiationless processes in KCl:Eu2+," J. Phys. C 11, 3103–3119 (1978).

L. D. Merkle and R. C. Powell, "PAS Investigation of Radiationless Transitions in Eu2+ Ions in KCI Crystals," Chem. Phys. Lett. 46, 303–306 (1977).

Meyer, J. A.

C. L. Cesar, H. Vargas, J. A. Meyer, and L. C. M. Miranda, "Photoacoustic effect in solids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1570–1572 (1979).

Miranda, L. C. M.

C. L. Cesar, H. Vargas, J. A. Meyer, and L. C. M. Miranda, "Photoacoustic effect in solids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1570–1572 (1979).

Murphy, J. C.

L. C. Aamodt and J. C. Murphy, "Size considerations in the design of cells for photoacoustic spectroscopy. II. Pulsed excitation response," J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3036–3045 (1978).

Palmer, R. A.

J. C. Roark, R. A. Palmer, and J. S. Hutchison, "Quantitative Absorption Spectra via Photoacoustic Phase Angle Spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 60, 112–116 (1978).

Peterson, R. G.

R. G. Peterson and R. C. Powell, "PAS Investigation of Radiationless Relaxation Processes of Cr3+ in Crystals," Chem. Phys. Lett. 53, 366–368 (1978).

Powell, R. C.

R. G. Peterson and R. C. Powell, "PAS Investigation of Radiationless Relaxation Processes of Cr3+ in Crystals," Chem. Phys. Lett. 53, 366–368 (1978).

L. D. Merkle, R. C. Powell, and T. M. Wilson, "Radiationless processes in KCl:Eu2+," J. Phys. C 11, 3103–3119 (1978).

L. D. Merkle and R. C. Powell, "PAS Investigation of Radiationless Transitions in Eu2+ Ions in KCI Crystals," Chem. Phys. Lett. 46, 303–306 (1977).

Roark, J. C.

J. C. Roark, R. A. Palmer, and J. S. Hutchison, "Quantitative Absorption Spectra via Photoacoustic Phase Angle Spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 60, 112–116 (1978).

Robin, M. B.

W. R. Harshbarger and M. B. Robin, "The Opto-acoustic Effect: Revival of an Old Technique for Molecular Spectroscopy," Acc. Chem. Res. 6, 329–334 (1973).

Rosencwaig, A.

A. Rosencwaig and A. Gersho, "Theory of the photoacoustic effect with solids," J. Appl. Phys. 47, 64–69 (1976).

Royce, B. S. H.

A. Mandelis and B. S. H. Royce, "Nonradiative lifetime measurements in time domain PAS of condensed phases," J. Appl. Phys. 51, 610–615 (1980).

A. Mandelis, Y. C. Teng, and B. S. H. Royce, "Phase measurements in frequency domain PAS of solids," J. Appl. Phys. 50, 7138–7146 (1979).

A. Mandelis and B. S. H. Royce, "Time domain PAS of solids," J. Appl. Phys. 50, 4330–4338 (1979).

Schultz, D. G.

D. G. Schultz and J. L. Melsa, State Functions and Linear Control Systems (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1967).

Teng, Y. C.

A. Mandelis, Y. C. Teng, and B. S. H. Royce, "Phase measurements in frequency domain PAS of solids," J. Appl. Phys. 50, 7138–7146 (1979).

Vargas, H.

C. L. Cesar, H. Vargas, J. A. Meyer, and L. C. M. Miranda, "Photoacoustic effect in solids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1570–1572 (1979).

Wilson, T. M.

L. D. Merkle, R. C. Powell, and T. M. Wilson, "Radiationless processes in KCl:Eu2+," J. Phys. C 11, 3103–3119 (1978).

Acc. Chem. Res. (1)

W. R. Harshbarger and M. B. Robin, "The Opto-acoustic Effect: Revival of an Old Technique for Molecular Spectroscopy," Acc. Chem. Res. 6, 329–334 (1973).

Chem. Phys. Lett. (3)

L. D. Merkle and R. C. Powell, "PAS Investigation of Radiationless Transitions in Eu2+ Ions in KCI Crystals," Chem. Phys. Lett. 46, 303–306 (1977).

R. G. Peterson and R. C. Powell, "PAS Investigation of Radiationless Relaxation Processes of Cr3+ in Crystals," Chem. Phys. Lett. 53, 366–368 (1978).

J. C. Roark, R. A. Palmer, and J. S. Hutchison, "Quantitative Absorption Spectra via Photoacoustic Phase Angle Spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 60, 112–116 (1978).

J. Appl. Phys. (5)

A. Mandelis and B. S. H. Royce, "Nonradiative lifetime measurements in time domain PAS of condensed phases," J. Appl. Phys. 51, 610–615 (1980).

A. Mandelis, Y. C. Teng, and B. S. H. Royce, "Phase measurements in frequency domain PAS of solids," J. Appl. Phys. 50, 7138–7146 (1979).

L. C. Aamodt and J. C. Murphy, "Size considerations in the design of cells for photoacoustic spectroscopy. II. Pulsed excitation response," J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3036–3045 (1978).

A. Mandelis and B. S. H. Royce, "Time domain PAS of solids," J. Appl. Phys. 50, 4330–4338 (1979).

A. Rosencwaig and A. Gersho, "Theory of the photoacoustic effect with solids," J. Appl. Phys. 47, 64–69 (1976).

J. Phys. C (1)

L. D. Merkle, R. C. Powell, and T. M. Wilson, "Radiationless processes in KCl:Eu2+," J. Phys. C 11, 3103–3119 (1978).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

C. L. Cesar, H. Vargas, J. A. Meyer, and L. C. M. Miranda, "Photoacoustic effect in solids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1570–1572 (1979).

Other (1)

D. G. Schultz and J. L. Melsa, State Functions and Linear Control Systems (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1967).

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