The theory of Bragg diffraction of finite beams by thick planar gratings is developed, using coupled-wave theory. Simple analytical expressions for the profiles of the transmitted and diffracted beams in the near field are obtained. Detailed diffraction characteristics for the important case of Gaussian-profile beams are presented. It is shown that the diffraction characteristics depend only on two normalized parameters, the grating strength, and a geometry parameter. The diffraction efficiency and the profiles of the transmitted and diffracted beams are calculated as functions of these two controlling parameters.
© 1980 Optical Society of America
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