Abstract

In the low-spatial-frequency region (below 2 c/deg) contrast sensitivity to sinusoids does not depend on spatial frequency, but does depend on the number of cycles of sinusoid. Contrast sensitivity to sinusoids can vary from 14 to 60 depending on the amount of average-luminance area or flank adjacent to the sinusoid. The influence of average-luminance flanks does not depend on the width of the flank, but does depend on the equivalent number of cycles of flank.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. J. McCann, R. L. Savoy, and J. A. Hall, Jr., "Visibility of low-frequency sine-wave targets: dependence on number of cycles and surround parameters," Vision Res. 18, 891–894 (1978).
  2. B. H. Crawford, "The effect of field size and pattern on the change of visual sensitivity with time," Proc. R. Soc. (Lond) B 129, 94–106 (1940).
  3. G. Westheimer, "Spatial interaction in human cone vision," J. Physiol. (London) 190, 139–154 (1967).
  4. R. L. Savoy and J. J. McCann, "Visibility of low-spatial-frequency sine-wave targets: dependence on number of cycles," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 343–350 (1975).
  5. The Fourier spectra of these targets cannot be inferred from the nominal spatial frequencies of the sinusoid-wave portions. The Fourier spectra of such targets with a black surround are dominated by the black-to-average-luminance edge. For a discussion of this problem see R. L. Savoy, "Visibility of low-spatial frequency targets: Dependence on number of cycles and implications for spatial frequency channels," M. S. Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Ref. 6.
  6. J. J. McCann, R. L. Savoy, J. A. Hall, Jr., and J. J. Scarpetti, "Visibility of continuous luminance gradients," Vision Res. 14, 917–927 (1974).
  7. J. J. McCann, "Visibility of gradients and low spatial frequency sinusoids: evidence for a distance constancy mechanism," Photogr. Sci. Eng. 22, 64–68 (1978).
  8. John J. McCann, Robert L. Savoy, and John Á. Hall, Jr., "Visibility of low-spatial-frequency sine-wave targets: dependence on number of cycles," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 1297– (1973).
  9. J. Hoekstra, D. P. J. van der Goot, G. van den Brink, and F. A. Bilsen, "The influence of number of cycles upon the visual contrast threshold for spatial sine patterns," Vision Res. 14, 365–368 (1974).
  10. O. Estevez and C. R. Cavonius, "Attenuation in detection of gratings: sorting out the artefacts," Vision Res. 16, 497–500 (1976).
  11. R. Cohen, C. R. Carlson, and G. Cody, "Image descriptors for displays," ONR Tech. Report, Contract No. N000-74-C-0184 (1976).
  12. R. L. Savoy, "Low spatial frequencies and low number of cycles at low luminances," Photogr. Sci. Eng. 22, 76–79 (1978).
  13. J. J. Koenderink, M. A. Bouman, A. E. Bueno de Mequita, and S. Slappendel, "Perimetry of contrast detection thresholds of moving spatial sine wave patterns. III. The target extent as a sensitivity controlling parameter," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 854–860 (1978).

1978

J. J. McCann, R. L. Savoy, and J. A. Hall, Jr., "Visibility of low-frequency sine-wave targets: dependence on number of cycles and surround parameters," Vision Res. 18, 891–894 (1978).

J. J. McCann, "Visibility of gradients and low spatial frequency sinusoids: evidence for a distance constancy mechanism," Photogr. Sci. Eng. 22, 64–68 (1978).

R. L. Savoy, "Low spatial frequencies and low number of cycles at low luminances," Photogr. Sci. Eng. 22, 76–79 (1978).

J. J. Koenderink, M. A. Bouman, A. E. Bueno de Mequita, and S. Slappendel, "Perimetry of contrast detection thresholds of moving spatial sine wave patterns. III. The target extent as a sensitivity controlling parameter," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 854–860 (1978).

1976

O. Estevez and C. R. Cavonius, "Attenuation in detection of gratings: sorting out the artefacts," Vision Res. 16, 497–500 (1976).

1975

1974

J. Hoekstra, D. P. J. van der Goot, G. van den Brink, and F. A. Bilsen, "The influence of number of cycles upon the visual contrast threshold for spatial sine patterns," Vision Res. 14, 365–368 (1974).

J. J. McCann, R. L. Savoy, J. A. Hall, Jr., and J. J. Scarpetti, "Visibility of continuous luminance gradients," Vision Res. 14, 917–927 (1974).

1973

John J. McCann, Robert L. Savoy, and John Á. Hall, Jr., "Visibility of low-spatial-frequency sine-wave targets: dependence on number of cycles," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 1297– (1973).

1967

G. Westheimer, "Spatial interaction in human cone vision," J. Physiol. (London) 190, 139–154 (1967).

1940

B. H. Crawford, "The effect of field size and pattern on the change of visual sensitivity with time," Proc. R. Soc. (Lond) B 129, 94–106 (1940).

Bilsen, F. A.

J. Hoekstra, D. P. J. van der Goot, G. van den Brink, and F. A. Bilsen, "The influence of number of cycles upon the visual contrast threshold for spatial sine patterns," Vision Res. 14, 365–368 (1974).

Bouman, M. A.

Carlson, C. R.

R. Cohen, C. R. Carlson, and G. Cody, "Image descriptors for displays," ONR Tech. Report, Contract No. N000-74-C-0184 (1976).

Cavonius, C. R.

O. Estevez and C. R. Cavonius, "Attenuation in detection of gratings: sorting out the artefacts," Vision Res. 16, 497–500 (1976).

Cody, G.

R. Cohen, C. R. Carlson, and G. Cody, "Image descriptors for displays," ONR Tech. Report, Contract No. N000-74-C-0184 (1976).

Cohen, R.

R. Cohen, C. R. Carlson, and G. Cody, "Image descriptors for displays," ONR Tech. Report, Contract No. N000-74-C-0184 (1976).

Crawford, B. H.

B. H. Crawford, "The effect of field size and pattern on the change of visual sensitivity with time," Proc. R. Soc. (Lond) B 129, 94–106 (1940).

de Mequita, A. E. Bueno

Estevez, O.

O. Estevez and C. R. Cavonius, "Attenuation in detection of gratings: sorting out the artefacts," Vision Res. 16, 497–500 (1976).

Hall, Jr., J. A.

J. J. McCann, R. L. Savoy, and J. A. Hall, Jr., "Visibility of low-frequency sine-wave targets: dependence on number of cycles and surround parameters," Vision Res. 18, 891–894 (1978).

J. J. McCann, R. L. Savoy, J. A. Hall, Jr., and J. J. Scarpetti, "Visibility of continuous luminance gradients," Vision Res. 14, 917–927 (1974).

Hall, Jr., John Á.

John J. McCann, Robert L. Savoy, and John Á. Hall, Jr., "Visibility of low-spatial-frequency sine-wave targets: dependence on number of cycles," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 1297– (1973).

Hoekstra, J.

J. Hoekstra, D. P. J. van der Goot, G. van den Brink, and F. A. Bilsen, "The influence of number of cycles upon the visual contrast threshold for spatial sine patterns," Vision Res. 14, 365–368 (1974).

Koenderink, J. J.

McCann, J. J.

J. J. McCann, "Visibility of gradients and low spatial frequency sinusoids: evidence for a distance constancy mechanism," Photogr. Sci. Eng. 22, 64–68 (1978).

J. J. McCann, R. L. Savoy, and J. A. Hall, Jr., "Visibility of low-frequency sine-wave targets: dependence on number of cycles and surround parameters," Vision Res. 18, 891–894 (1978).

R. L. Savoy and J. J. McCann, "Visibility of low-spatial-frequency sine-wave targets: dependence on number of cycles," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 343–350 (1975).

J. J. McCann, R. L. Savoy, J. A. Hall, Jr., and J. J. Scarpetti, "Visibility of continuous luminance gradients," Vision Res. 14, 917–927 (1974).

McCann, John J.

John J. McCann, Robert L. Savoy, and John Á. Hall, Jr., "Visibility of low-spatial-frequency sine-wave targets: dependence on number of cycles," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 1297– (1973).

Savoy, R. L.

J. J. McCann, R. L. Savoy, and J. A. Hall, Jr., "Visibility of low-frequency sine-wave targets: dependence on number of cycles and surround parameters," Vision Res. 18, 891–894 (1978).

R. L. Savoy, "Low spatial frequencies and low number of cycles at low luminances," Photogr. Sci. Eng. 22, 76–79 (1978).

R. L. Savoy and J. J. McCann, "Visibility of low-spatial-frequency sine-wave targets: dependence on number of cycles," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 343–350 (1975).

J. J. McCann, R. L. Savoy, J. A. Hall, Jr., and J. J. Scarpetti, "Visibility of continuous luminance gradients," Vision Res. 14, 917–927 (1974).

Savoy, Robert L.

John J. McCann, Robert L. Savoy, and John Á. Hall, Jr., "Visibility of low-spatial-frequency sine-wave targets: dependence on number of cycles," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 1297– (1973).

Scarpetti, J. J.

J. J. McCann, R. L. Savoy, J. A. Hall, Jr., and J. J. Scarpetti, "Visibility of continuous luminance gradients," Vision Res. 14, 917–927 (1974).

Slappendel, S.

van den Brink, G.

J. Hoekstra, D. P. J. van der Goot, G. van den Brink, and F. A. Bilsen, "The influence of number of cycles upon the visual contrast threshold for spatial sine patterns," Vision Res. 14, 365–368 (1974).

van der Goot, D. P. J.

J. Hoekstra, D. P. J. van der Goot, G. van den Brink, and F. A. Bilsen, "The influence of number of cycles upon the visual contrast threshold for spatial sine patterns," Vision Res. 14, 365–368 (1974).

Westheimer, G.

G. Westheimer, "Spatial interaction in human cone vision," J. Physiol. (London) 190, 139–154 (1967).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Physiol.

G. Westheimer, "Spatial interaction in human cone vision," J. Physiol. (London) 190, 139–154 (1967).

Photogr. Sci. Eng.

J. J. McCann, "Visibility of gradients and low spatial frequency sinusoids: evidence for a distance constancy mechanism," Photogr. Sci. Eng. 22, 64–68 (1978).

R. L. Savoy, "Low spatial frequencies and low number of cycles at low luminances," Photogr. Sci. Eng. 22, 76–79 (1978).

Proc. R. Soc. (Lond) B

B. H. Crawford, "The effect of field size and pattern on the change of visual sensitivity with time," Proc. R. Soc. (Lond) B 129, 94–106 (1940).

Vision Res.

J. J. McCann, R. L. Savoy, and J. A. Hall, Jr., "Visibility of low-frequency sine-wave targets: dependence on number of cycles and surround parameters," Vision Res. 18, 891–894 (1978).

J. J. McCann, R. L. Savoy, J. A. Hall, Jr., and J. J. Scarpetti, "Visibility of continuous luminance gradients," Vision Res. 14, 917–927 (1974).

J. Hoekstra, D. P. J. van der Goot, G. van den Brink, and F. A. Bilsen, "The influence of number of cycles upon the visual contrast threshold for spatial sine patterns," Vision Res. 14, 365–368 (1974).

O. Estevez and C. R. Cavonius, "Attenuation in detection of gratings: sorting out the artefacts," Vision Res. 16, 497–500 (1976).

Other

R. Cohen, C. R. Carlson, and G. Cody, "Image descriptors for displays," ONR Tech. Report, Contract No. N000-74-C-0184 (1976).

The Fourier spectra of these targets cannot be inferred from the nominal spatial frequencies of the sinusoid-wave portions. The Fourier spectra of such targets with a black surround are dominated by the black-to-average-luminance edge. For a discussion of this problem see R. L. Savoy, "Visibility of low-spatial frequency targets: Dependence on number of cycles and implications for spatial frequency channels," M. S. Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Ref. 6.

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