Abstract

Within the framework of a feasibility study of remote cross-wind velocity measurements by means of laser Doppler anemometry (LDA), a study was made of the atmospheric fluctuation effects on an optical interference fringe system generated over a distance of 500 m. Variations of the fringe visibility and spacing have been recorded simultaneously. In order to characterize the optical turbulence of the atmosphere during the measurements, an optical scintillometer was used. Provided the atmospheric extinction is low enough, the measured results show that, even under weather conditions which are very unfavorable to the propagation of laser beams, the interference fringe pattern generated is of sufficient quality for LDA measurements.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. R. Lawrence, D. J. Wilson, and C. E. Craven, “A laser velocimeter for remote wind sensing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43, 512–518 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. J. Hughes and E. R. Pike, “Remote measurement of wind speed by laser Doppler systems,” Appl. Opt. 12, 597–601 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. L. Schwiesow and R. E. Cupp, “Remote Doppler velocity measurements of atmospheric dust devil vortices,” Appl. Opt. 15, 1–2 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. G. Bartlett and C. Y. She, “Single-particle correlated time-of-flight velocimeter for remote wind-speed measurement,” Opt. Lett. 1, 175–177 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. S. Lawrence, G. R. Ochs, and S. F. Clifford, “Use of scintillations to measure average wind across a light beam,” Appl. Opt. 11, 239–243 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. L. Fried, “Remote Probing of the Optical Strength of Atmospheric Turbulence and of Wind Velocity,” Proc. IEEE,  57, 415–420 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. F. Clifford, G. R. Ochs, and T-i. Wang, “Optical wind sensing by observing the scintillations of a random scene,” Appl. Opt. 14, 2844–2850 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. L. Walters, “Passive remote crosswind sensor,” Appl. Opt. 16, 2625–2626 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. B. Lehmann, H. J. Pfeifer, and H. D. vom Stein, Verfahren zur Messung der Geschwindigkeit von optisch streuenden Objekten, Deutsches Patentamt, Offenlegungsschrift 1673 403 (1967).
  10. F. Durst, A. Melling, and J. H. Whitelaw, Principles and Practice of Laser Doppler Anemometry (Academic, London, 1976).
  11. T. S. Durrani and C. A. Greated, Laser Systems in Flow Measurement (Plenum, New York, 1977).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. Ryznar, “Dependency of optical scintillation frequency on wind speed,” Appl. Opt. 4, 1416–1418 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. J. Pfeifer and H. D. vom Stein, “An automatic data processing system for Laser anemometers,” IEEE Trans. Aerospace Electron. Syst. AES-8, 345–349 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  14. V. I. Tatarski, Wave Propagation in a Turbulent Medium (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1961), p. 58.
  15. D. H. Höhn, “Zur Ausbreitung eines Laserstrahls in der Atmosphäre,” Optik 30, Heft 2, 161–170 (1969).
  16. J. Abele and H. Raidt, “Zur Laser-Doppler-Anemometrie in derfreien Atmosphäre,” Forschungsinstitut für Optik, D-7400 Tübingen, Report FfO 1978/5 (1978).
  17. H. Raidt and A. Jetter, “Laser-Szintillometer,” Forschungsinstitut für Optik, D-7400 Tübingen, Report 1977/46 (1977).
  18. H. Z. Cummins and E. R. Pike, editors, Photon Correlation Spectroscopy and Velocimetry (Plenum, New York and London, 1977).
  19. D. A. de Wolf, “Optical Propagation through Turbulent Air,” Opt. Laser Technol., February, 1979, pp. 29–36.
    [CrossRef]

1979 (1)

D. A. de Wolf, “Optical Propagation through Turbulent Air,” Opt. Laser Technol., February, 1979, pp. 29–36.
[CrossRef]

1977 (2)

1976 (1)

1975 (1)

1973 (1)

1972 (3)

R. S. Lawrence, G. R. Ochs, and S. F. Clifford, “Use of scintillations to measure average wind across a light beam,” Appl. Opt. 11, 239–243 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. R. Lawrence, D. J. Wilson, and C. E. Craven, “A laser velocimeter for remote wind sensing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43, 512–518 (1972).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Pfeifer and H. D. vom Stein, “An automatic data processing system for Laser anemometers,” IEEE Trans. Aerospace Electron. Syst. AES-8, 345–349 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1969 (2)

D. H. Höhn, “Zur Ausbreitung eines Laserstrahls in der Atmosphäre,” Optik 30, Heft 2, 161–170 (1969).

D. L. Fried, “Remote Probing of the Optical Strength of Atmospheric Turbulence and of Wind Velocity,” Proc. IEEE,  57, 415–420 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

Abele, J.

J. Abele and H. Raidt, “Zur Laser-Doppler-Anemometrie in derfreien Atmosphäre,” Forschungsinstitut für Optik, D-7400 Tübingen, Report FfO 1978/5 (1978).

Bartlett, K. G.

Clifford, S. F.

Craven, C. E.

T. R. Lawrence, D. J. Wilson, and C. E. Craven, “A laser velocimeter for remote wind sensing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43, 512–518 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Cupp, R. E.

de Wolf, D. A.

D. A. de Wolf, “Optical Propagation through Turbulent Air,” Opt. Laser Technol., February, 1979, pp. 29–36.
[CrossRef]

Durrani, T. S.

T. S. Durrani and C. A. Greated, Laser Systems in Flow Measurement (Plenum, New York, 1977).
[CrossRef]

Durst, F.

F. Durst, A. Melling, and J. H. Whitelaw, Principles and Practice of Laser Doppler Anemometry (Academic, London, 1976).

Fried, D. L.

D. L. Fried, “Remote Probing of the Optical Strength of Atmospheric Turbulence and of Wind Velocity,” Proc. IEEE,  57, 415–420 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Greated, C. A.

T. S. Durrani and C. A. Greated, Laser Systems in Flow Measurement (Plenum, New York, 1977).
[CrossRef]

Höhn, D. H.

D. H. Höhn, “Zur Ausbreitung eines Laserstrahls in der Atmosphäre,” Optik 30, Heft 2, 161–170 (1969).

Hughes, A. J.

Jetter, A.

H. Raidt and A. Jetter, “Laser-Szintillometer,” Forschungsinstitut für Optik, D-7400 Tübingen, Report 1977/46 (1977).

Lawrence, R. S.

Lawrence, T. R.

T. R. Lawrence, D. J. Wilson, and C. E. Craven, “A laser velocimeter for remote wind sensing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43, 512–518 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Lehmann, B.

B. Lehmann, H. J. Pfeifer, and H. D. vom Stein, Verfahren zur Messung der Geschwindigkeit von optisch streuenden Objekten, Deutsches Patentamt, Offenlegungsschrift 1673 403 (1967).

Melling, A.

F. Durst, A. Melling, and J. H. Whitelaw, Principles and Practice of Laser Doppler Anemometry (Academic, London, 1976).

Ochs, G. R.

Pfeifer, H. J.

H. J. Pfeifer and H. D. vom Stein, “An automatic data processing system for Laser anemometers,” IEEE Trans. Aerospace Electron. Syst. AES-8, 345–349 (1972).
[CrossRef]

B. Lehmann, H. J. Pfeifer, and H. D. vom Stein, Verfahren zur Messung der Geschwindigkeit von optisch streuenden Objekten, Deutsches Patentamt, Offenlegungsschrift 1673 403 (1967).

Pike, E. R.

Raidt, H.

H. Raidt and A. Jetter, “Laser-Szintillometer,” Forschungsinstitut für Optik, D-7400 Tübingen, Report 1977/46 (1977).

J. Abele and H. Raidt, “Zur Laser-Doppler-Anemometrie in derfreien Atmosphäre,” Forschungsinstitut für Optik, D-7400 Tübingen, Report FfO 1978/5 (1978).

Ryznar, E.

Schwiesow, R. L.

She, C. Y.

Tatarski, V. I.

V. I. Tatarski, Wave Propagation in a Turbulent Medium (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1961), p. 58.

vom Stein, H. D.

H. J. Pfeifer and H. D. vom Stein, “An automatic data processing system for Laser anemometers,” IEEE Trans. Aerospace Electron. Syst. AES-8, 345–349 (1972).
[CrossRef]

B. Lehmann, H. J. Pfeifer, and H. D. vom Stein, Verfahren zur Messung der Geschwindigkeit von optisch streuenden Objekten, Deutsches Patentamt, Offenlegungsschrift 1673 403 (1967).

Walters, D. L.

Wang, T-i.

Whitelaw, J. H.

F. Durst, A. Melling, and J. H. Whitelaw, Principles and Practice of Laser Doppler Anemometry (Academic, London, 1976).

Wilson, D. J.

T. R. Lawrence, D. J. Wilson, and C. E. Craven, “A laser velocimeter for remote wind sensing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43, 512–518 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

IEEE Trans. Aerospace Electron. Syst. (1)

H. J. Pfeifer and H. D. vom Stein, “An automatic data processing system for Laser anemometers,” IEEE Trans. Aerospace Electron. Syst. AES-8, 345–349 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

D. A. de Wolf, “Optical Propagation through Turbulent Air,” Opt. Laser Technol., February, 1979, pp. 29–36.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optik (1)

D. H. Höhn, “Zur Ausbreitung eines Laserstrahls in der Atmosphäre,” Optik 30, Heft 2, 161–170 (1969).

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. L. Fried, “Remote Probing of the Optical Strength of Atmospheric Turbulence and of Wind Velocity,” Proc. IEEE,  57, 415–420 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

T. R. Lawrence, D. J. Wilson, and C. E. Craven, “A laser velocimeter for remote wind sensing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43, 512–518 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

B. Lehmann, H. J. Pfeifer, and H. D. vom Stein, Verfahren zur Messung der Geschwindigkeit von optisch streuenden Objekten, Deutsches Patentamt, Offenlegungsschrift 1673 403 (1967).

F. Durst, A. Melling, and J. H. Whitelaw, Principles and Practice of Laser Doppler Anemometry (Academic, London, 1976).

T. S. Durrani and C. A. Greated, Laser Systems in Flow Measurement (Plenum, New York, 1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Abele and H. Raidt, “Zur Laser-Doppler-Anemometrie in derfreien Atmosphäre,” Forschungsinstitut für Optik, D-7400 Tübingen, Report FfO 1978/5 (1978).

H. Raidt and A. Jetter, “Laser-Szintillometer,” Forschungsinstitut für Optik, D-7400 Tübingen, Report 1977/46 (1977).

H. Z. Cummins and E. R. Pike, editors, Photon Correlation Spectroscopy and Velocimetry (Plenum, New York and London, 1977).

V. I. Tatarski, Wave Propagation in a Turbulent Medium (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1961), p. 58.

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Figures (6)

FIG 1
FIG 1

Optical arrangement for LDA cross-wind velocity measurements.

FIG. 2
FIG. 2

Receiving optics.

FIG. 3
FIG. 3

Interference fringes produced over a distance of 500 m.

FIG. 4
FIG. 4

Light intensity record (electronically filtered and unfiltered).

FIG. 5
FIG. 5

Probability P (in percent) of finding a visibility value K as a function of K.

FIG. 6
FIG. 6

Relative standard deviation of fringe spacing.

Equations (9)

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d = λ / 2 sin β ,
f = υ d ,
f = f B ± υ d .
K = A max A min A max + A min .
τ = 1 N i = 1 N ( f i f m ) 2 / f m 2 .
D n ( r 1 , r 2 ) = [ n ( r 1 ) n ( r 2 ) ] 2 .
D n ( r ) = C ¯ n 2 r 2 / 3 .
C n = { 8 × 10 8 m 1 / 3 Weak turbulance 2.5 × 10 7 m 1 / 3 intermediate turbulance 8 × 10 7 m 1 / 3 strong turbulance .
τ ( % ) = 62.0 + 3.642 ln C ¯ n .