Abstract

Color-matching functions, as well as the variances and inter- and intra-individual correlations, are given for ten subjects. The dispersion found in the blue region is greater than that indicated by Stiles and Burch. The color-matching technique used is thought to be the cause. Consequences of intra-individual variability are evaluated. A comparison is made with scores of subjects on the Davidson and Hemmendinger color rule. The chromaticity diagram is shown to give an unsatisfactory representation of individual variations.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. S. Stiles and J. M. Burch, "N.P.L. colour-matching investigation: final report," Opt. Acta 6, 1–26 (1959).
  2. N. I. Speranskaya, "Determination of spectrum color coordinates for twenty-seven observers," Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 7, 424–428 (1959).
  3. F. Viénot, "New equipment for the measurement of color-matching functions," Color Res. Applic. 2, 165–170 (1977).
  4. F. Viénot, "About the statistics of color-matching functions," Farbe 26, 205–212 (1977).
  5. The results we published in Farbe showed a deviation in the blue region with respect to the CIE 1964 standard colorimetric observer that did not occur in the present experiment. Such a deviation might have been due to our choosing the blue primary at 480 nm to perform the color matches for test radiations below 466 nm, thus requiring a mathematical transformation to obtain the colormatching functions in the 466, 526, 627 nm system.
  6. Colorimetry, Official Recommendations of the International Commission on Illumination, (C.I.E., Paris, France, 1971).
  7. G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967).
  8. M. Alpern, B. Bastian, E. N. Pugh, and W. Gras, "Altered ocular pigments, photostable and labile," Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 17, 273–291 (1976).
  9. P. K. Kaiser and H. Hemmendinger, "The Color Rule: A device for color vision testing," Color Res. Appl. 5, 65–71 (1980).
  10. H. Hemmendinger (private communication, 1979).
  11. V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and S. J. Starr, "Variability of color mixture data. I. Inter-observer variability in the unit coordinates," Vision Res. 16, 1087–1094 (1976).
  12. J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and S. J. Starr, "Variability of color mixture data. II. The effect of viewing size on the unit coordinates," Vision Res. 16, 1095–1098 (1976).
  13. M. Alpern, "Lack of uniformity in colour matching," J. Physiol. 288, 85–105 (1979).
  14. J. K. Bowmaker, E. R. Loew, and P. A. Liebman, "Variation of the λmax of rhodopsin from individual frogs," Vision Res. 15, 997–1046 (1975).
  15. F. M. De Monasterio and P. Gouras, "Responses of macaque ganglion cells to violet lights," Vision Res. 17, 1147–1156 (1977).
  16. M. Alpern and E. N. Pugh, "Variations in the action spectrum of erythrolabe among deuteranopes," J. Physiol. 266, 613–646 (1977).
  17. W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (Henry Kimpton, London, 1946).
  18. O. Estévez, "On the fundamental data-base of normal and dichromatic color vision," Thesis, Krips Repro Meppel, The Netherlands, 1979 (unpublished).

1980 (1)

P. K. Kaiser and H. Hemmendinger, "The Color Rule: A device for color vision testing," Color Res. Appl. 5, 65–71 (1980).

1979 (3)

H. Hemmendinger (private communication, 1979).

M. Alpern, "Lack of uniformity in colour matching," J. Physiol. 288, 85–105 (1979).

O. Estévez, "On the fundamental data-base of normal and dichromatic color vision," Thesis, Krips Repro Meppel, The Netherlands, 1979 (unpublished).

1977 (4)

F. M. De Monasterio and P. Gouras, "Responses of macaque ganglion cells to violet lights," Vision Res. 17, 1147–1156 (1977).

M. Alpern and E. N. Pugh, "Variations in the action spectrum of erythrolabe among deuteranopes," J. Physiol. 266, 613–646 (1977).

F. Viénot, "New equipment for the measurement of color-matching functions," Color Res. Applic. 2, 165–170 (1977).

F. Viénot, "About the statistics of color-matching functions," Farbe 26, 205–212 (1977).

1976 (3)

M. Alpern, B. Bastian, E. N. Pugh, and W. Gras, "Altered ocular pigments, photostable and labile," Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 17, 273–291 (1976).

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and S. J. Starr, "Variability of color mixture data. I. Inter-observer variability in the unit coordinates," Vision Res. 16, 1087–1094 (1976).

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and S. J. Starr, "Variability of color mixture data. II. The effect of viewing size on the unit coordinates," Vision Res. 16, 1095–1098 (1976).

1975 (1)

J. K. Bowmaker, E. R. Loew, and P. A. Liebman, "Variation of the λmax of rhodopsin from individual frogs," Vision Res. 15, 997–1046 (1975).

1959 (2)

W. S. Stiles and J. M. Burch, "N.P.L. colour-matching investigation: final report," Opt. Acta 6, 1–26 (1959).

N. I. Speranskaya, "Determination of spectrum color coordinates for twenty-seven observers," Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 7, 424–428 (1959).

Alpern, M.

M. Alpern, "Lack of uniformity in colour matching," J. Physiol. 288, 85–105 (1979).

M. Alpern and E. N. Pugh, "Variations in the action spectrum of erythrolabe among deuteranopes," J. Physiol. 266, 613–646 (1977).

M. Alpern, B. Bastian, E. N. Pugh, and W. Gras, "Altered ocular pigments, photostable and labile," Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 17, 273–291 (1976).

Bastian, B.

M. Alpern, B. Bastian, E. N. Pugh, and W. Gras, "Altered ocular pigments, photostable and labile," Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 17, 273–291 (1976).

Bowmaker, J. K.

J. K. Bowmaker, E. R. Loew, and P. A. Liebman, "Variation of the λmax of rhodopsin from individual frogs," Vision Res. 15, 997–1046 (1975).

Burch, J. M.

W. S. Stiles and J. M. Burch, "N.P.L. colour-matching investigation: final report," Opt. Acta 6, 1–26 (1959).

De Monasterio, F. M.

F. M. De Monasterio and P. Gouras, "Responses of macaque ganglion cells to violet lights," Vision Res. 17, 1147–1156 (1977).

Estévez, O.

O. Estévez, "On the fundamental data-base of normal and dichromatic color vision," Thesis, Krips Repro Meppel, The Netherlands, 1979 (unpublished).

Gouras, P.

F. M. De Monasterio and P. Gouras, "Responses of macaque ganglion cells to violet lights," Vision Res. 17, 1147–1156 (1977).

Gras, W.

M. Alpern, B. Bastian, E. N. Pugh, and W. Gras, "Altered ocular pigments, photostable and labile," Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 17, 273–291 (1976).

Hemmendinger, H.

P. K. Kaiser and H. Hemmendinger, "The Color Rule: A device for color vision testing," Color Res. Appl. 5, 65–71 (1980).

H. Hemmendinger (private communication, 1979).

Kaiser, P. K.

P. K. Kaiser and H. Hemmendinger, "The Color Rule: A device for color vision testing," Color Res. Appl. 5, 65–71 (1980).

Liebman, P. A.

J. K. Bowmaker, E. R. Loew, and P. A. Liebman, "Variation of the λmax of rhodopsin from individual frogs," Vision Res. 15, 997–1046 (1975).

Loew, E. R.

J. K. Bowmaker, E. R. Loew, and P. A. Liebman, "Variation of the λmax of rhodopsin from individual frogs," Vision Res. 15, 997–1046 (1975).

Pokorny, J.

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and S. J. Starr, "Variability of color mixture data. II. The effect of viewing size on the unit coordinates," Vision Res. 16, 1095–1098 (1976).

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and S. J. Starr, "Variability of color mixture data. I. Inter-observer variability in the unit coordinates," Vision Res. 16, 1087–1094 (1976).

Pugh, E. N.

M. Alpern and E. N. Pugh, "Variations in the action spectrum of erythrolabe among deuteranopes," J. Physiol. 266, 613–646 (1977).

M. Alpern, B. Bastian, E. N. Pugh, and W. Gras, "Altered ocular pigments, photostable and labile," Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 17, 273–291 (1976).

Smith, V. C.

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and S. J. Starr, "Variability of color mixture data. II. The effect of viewing size on the unit coordinates," Vision Res. 16, 1095–1098 (1976).

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and S. J. Starr, "Variability of color mixture data. I. Inter-observer variability in the unit coordinates," Vision Res. 16, 1087–1094 (1976).

Speranskaya, N. I.

N. I. Speranskaya, "Determination of spectrum color coordinates for twenty-seven observers," Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 7, 424–428 (1959).

Starr, S. J.

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and S. J. Starr, "Variability of color mixture data. II. The effect of viewing size on the unit coordinates," Vision Res. 16, 1095–1098 (1976).

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and S. J. Starr, "Variability of color mixture data. I. Inter-observer variability in the unit coordinates," Vision Res. 16, 1087–1094 (1976).

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles and J. M. Burch, "N.P.L. colour-matching investigation: final report," Opt. Acta 6, 1–26 (1959).

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967).

Viénot, F.

F. Viénot, "New equipment for the measurement of color-matching functions," Color Res. Applic. 2, 165–170 (1977).

F. Viénot, "About the statistics of color-matching functions," Farbe 26, 205–212 (1977).

Wright, W. D.

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (Henry Kimpton, London, 1946).

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967).

Color Res. Appl. (1)

P. K. Kaiser and H. Hemmendinger, "The Color Rule: A device for color vision testing," Color Res. Appl. 5, 65–71 (1980).

Color Res. Applic. (1)

F. Viénot, "New equipment for the measurement of color-matching functions," Color Res. Applic. 2, 165–170 (1977).

Farbe (1)

F. Viénot, "About the statistics of color-matching functions," Farbe 26, 205–212 (1977).

J. Physiol. (2)

M. Alpern, "Lack of uniformity in colour matching," J. Physiol. 288, 85–105 (1979).

M. Alpern and E. N. Pugh, "Variations in the action spectrum of erythrolabe among deuteranopes," J. Physiol. 266, 613–646 (1977).

Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. (1)

M. Alpern, B. Bastian, E. N. Pugh, and W. Gras, "Altered ocular pigments, photostable and labile," Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 17, 273–291 (1976).

Opt. Acta (1)

W. S. Stiles and J. M. Burch, "N.P.L. colour-matching investigation: final report," Opt. Acta 6, 1–26 (1959).

Opt. Spectrosc. (1)

N. I. Speranskaya, "Determination of spectrum color coordinates for twenty-seven observers," Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 7, 424–428 (1959).

Vision Res. (4)

J. K. Bowmaker, E. R. Loew, and P. A. Liebman, "Variation of the λmax of rhodopsin from individual frogs," Vision Res. 15, 997–1046 (1975).

F. M. De Monasterio and P. Gouras, "Responses of macaque ganglion cells to violet lights," Vision Res. 17, 1147–1156 (1977).

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and S. J. Starr, "Variability of color mixture data. I. Inter-observer variability in the unit coordinates," Vision Res. 16, 1087–1094 (1976).

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and S. J. Starr, "Variability of color mixture data. II. The effect of viewing size on the unit coordinates," Vision Res. 16, 1095–1098 (1976).

Other (6)

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (Henry Kimpton, London, 1946).

O. Estévez, "On the fundamental data-base of normal and dichromatic color vision," Thesis, Krips Repro Meppel, The Netherlands, 1979 (unpublished).

H. Hemmendinger (private communication, 1979).

The results we published in Farbe showed a deviation in the blue region with respect to the CIE 1964 standard colorimetric observer that did not occur in the present experiment. Such a deviation might have been due to our choosing the blue primary at 480 nm to perform the color matches for test radiations below 466 nm, thus requiring a mathematical transformation to obtain the colormatching functions in the 466, 526, 627 nm system.

Colorimetry, Official Recommendations of the International Commission on Illumination, (C.I.E., Paris, France, 1971).

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967).

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