Abstract

Temporal resolution during rapid light adaptation was studied using a suprathreshold two-pulse discrimination paradigm with stimulus conditions modeled after the classic increment threshold experiments of B. H. Crawford. The two-pulse stimulus (1° diam, two 20-ms pulses separated by 40 ms) was presented before, during, and after a 6° diam, 500 ms background conditioning field, and discriminability was measured as d’ using signal detection methods. Discriminability is depressed at background field onset and offset, but increases during the exposure time of the background. Immediately following background offset, two-pulse discriminability is dramatically enhanced: two pulses are discriminated from one pulse with a d’ of 4 or more. When the two-pulse stimulus follows background offset by 80 to 240 ms, a novel temporal illusion occurs: a single pulse consistently appears as a double pulse. Several hypotheses for understanding these results are discussed.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. H. Crawford, “Visual adaptation in relation to brief conditioning stimuli,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 134, 283–302 (1947).
    [Crossref]
  2. R. M. Boynton and G. Kandel, “On-Responses in the Human Visual System as a Function of Adaptation Level,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 275–286 (1957).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. R. M. Boynton and J. B. Siegfried, “Psychophysical Estimates of On-Responses to Brief Light Flashes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 720–721 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  4. R. T. Kintz and R. M. Boynton, “Temporal Summation During Backward Visual Masking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 212–216 (1969).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. H. D. Baker, “Initial Stages of Light and Dark Adaptation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 98–103 (1963).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. W. S. Battersby and I. H. Wagman, “Neural limitations of visual excitability. I. The Time Course of Monocular Light Adaptation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 752–759 (1959).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. G. Sperling, “Temporal and spatial visual masking. I. Masking by Impulse Flashes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 541–559 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  8. L. Ganz, “Temporal factors in visual perception,” in Handbook of Perception, Vol. 5, Seeing, edited by E. C. Carterette and M. P. Friedman (Academic, New York, 1975), Chap. 6.
  9. L. H. Theodor, “The detectability of a brief gap in a pulse of light as a function of its temporal location within the pulse,” Percept. Psychophys. 12, 168–170 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  10. E. Matin, “Light adaptation and the dynamics of induced tilt,” Vision Res. 14, 255–265 (1974).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. A. Mahneke, “Foveal discrimination measured with two successive light flashes,” Acta Ophthalmol. 36, 3–11 (1958).
    [Crossref]
  12. M. L. Kietzman, “Two-Pulse Measures of Temporal Resolution as a Function of Stimulus Energy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 809–813 (1967).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. M. F. Lewis, “Two-Flash Thresholds as a Function of Luminance in the Dark-Adapted Eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 814–815 (1967).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. D. G. Purcell and A. L. Stewart, “The two-flash threshold: An evaluation of critical-duration and visual-persistence hypotheses,” Percept. Psychophys. 9, 61–64 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  15. L. Matin, “Critical Duration, the Differential Luminance Threshold, Critical Flicker Frequency, and Visual Adaptation: A Theoretical Treatment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 404–415 (1968).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. L. Matin, “Use of the glow modulator tube for visual research,” Am. J. Psych. 77, 650–651 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  17. G. Westheimer, “The Maxwellian view,” Vision Res. 6, 669–682 (1969).
    [Crossref]
  18. A 20-ms pulse was selected as the“noise” stimulus rather than an equal-energy 40-ms pulse because observers could easily discriminate a single 40-ms pulse on the basis of its greater brightness. The single 20-ms pulse and the pair of 20-ms pulses separated by 40 ms did not differ in brightness, so observers were compelled to base their judgments on temporal properties of the stimuli, rather than other phenomenal aspects.
  19. R. M. Boynton, W. R. Bush, and J. M. Enoch, “Rapid changes in foveal sensitivity resulting from direct and indirect adapting stimuli,” J. Opt. Am. Soc. Am. 44, 56–60 (1954).
    [Crossref]
  20. The R measure is equivalent to the traditional measure β(response bias) when the a priori probabilities of signal trial and noise trial presentation are equal. R was chosen over β because accurate estimates of β could not always be derived on the basis of 200 experimental trials. See W. A. Yost, “A forced-choice adaptive procedure for measuring auditory thresholds in children,” Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. 10, 671–677 (1978) for a similar use of log R.
    [Crossref]
  21. L. G. Standing and P. C. Dodwell, “Retroactive contour enhancement: A new visual storage effect,” Quart. J. Exp. Psych. 24, 21–29 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  22. E. Donchin and D. Lindsley, “Retroactive brightness enhancement with brief paired flashes of light,” Vision Res. 5, 59–70 (1965).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. E. Donchin and D. Lindsley, “Visually evoked response correlates of perceptual masking and enhancement,” EEG Clin. Neurophysiol. 19, 325–335 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  24. E. Pulos, J. E. Raymond, and W. Makous, “Transient sensitization by a contrast flash,” Vision Res. 20, 281–288 (1980).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. E. Pulos and W. Makous, “Sensitization following offset of an annulus,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1452(A) (1979).
  26. R. W. Bowen, K. A. Markell, V. Pappageorge, and F. Alfano, “Temporal resolution during transient light and dark adaptation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 18, 248–249 (1979).
  27. K. Dunlap, “The shortest perceptible time interval between two flashes of light,” Psychol. Rev. 22, 226–250 (1915).
    [Crossref]
  28. S. H. Bartley and F. W. Wilkinson, “Certain factors in producing complexity of responses to a single pulse of light,” J. Psychol. 9, 299–306 (1953).
    [Crossref]
  29. R. M. Boynton, “Discrimination of homogeneous double pulses of light,” in Visual Psychophysics, Vol. VII/4, Handbook of Sensory Physiology, edited by D. Jameson and L. Hurvich (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972), Chap. 9.
    [Crossref]
  30. R. M. Springer, J. A. Deutsch, and G. Stanley, “Double flashes from single pulses of light,” Percept. Psychophys. 18, 398–400 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  31. G. M. Shickman, “Brief illumination and visual temporal resolving power,” Dissertation, Harvard University, 1960 (unpublished).
  32. K. J. W. Craik, “The effect of adaptation on differential brightness discrimination,” J. Physiol. 92, 406–421 (1938).

1980 (1)

E. Pulos, J. E. Raymond, and W. Makous, “Transient sensitization by a contrast flash,” Vision Res. 20, 281–288 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1979 (2)

E. Pulos and W. Makous, “Sensitization following offset of an annulus,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1452(A) (1979).

R. W. Bowen, K. A. Markell, V. Pappageorge, and F. Alfano, “Temporal resolution during transient light and dark adaptation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 18, 248–249 (1979).

1978 (1)

The R measure is equivalent to the traditional measure β(response bias) when the a priori probabilities of signal trial and noise trial presentation are equal. R was chosen over β because accurate estimates of β could not always be derived on the basis of 200 experimental trials. See W. A. Yost, “A forced-choice adaptive procedure for measuring auditory thresholds in children,” Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. 10, 671–677 (1978) for a similar use of log R.
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

R. M. Springer, J. A. Deutsch, and G. Stanley, “Double flashes from single pulses of light,” Percept. Psychophys. 18, 398–400 (1975).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

E. Matin, “Light adaptation and the dynamics of induced tilt,” Vision Res. 14, 255–265 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1972 (2)

L. H. Theodor, “The detectability of a brief gap in a pulse of light as a function of its temporal location within the pulse,” Percept. Psychophys. 12, 168–170 (1972).
[Crossref]

L. G. Standing and P. C. Dodwell, “Retroactive contour enhancement: A new visual storage effect,” Quart. J. Exp. Psych. 24, 21–29 (1972).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

D. G. Purcell and A. L. Stewart, “The two-flash threshold: An evaluation of critical-duration and visual-persistence hypotheses,” Percept. Psychophys. 9, 61–64 (1971).
[Crossref]

1969 (2)

1968 (1)

1967 (2)

1965 (3)

G. Sperling, “Temporal and spatial visual masking. I. Masking by Impulse Flashes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 541–559 (1965).
[Crossref]

E. Donchin and D. Lindsley, “Retroactive brightness enhancement with brief paired flashes of light,” Vision Res. 5, 59–70 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Donchin and D. Lindsley, “Visually evoked response correlates of perceptual masking and enhancement,” EEG Clin. Neurophysiol. 19, 325–335 (1965).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

L. Matin, “Use of the glow modulator tube for visual research,” Am. J. Psych. 77, 650–651 (1964).
[Crossref]

1963 (1)

1962 (1)

1959 (1)

1958 (1)

A. Mahneke, “Foveal discrimination measured with two successive light flashes,” Acta Ophthalmol. 36, 3–11 (1958).
[Crossref]

1957 (1)

1954 (1)

R. M. Boynton, W. R. Bush, and J. M. Enoch, “Rapid changes in foveal sensitivity resulting from direct and indirect adapting stimuli,” J. Opt. Am. Soc. Am. 44, 56–60 (1954).
[Crossref]

1953 (1)

S. H. Bartley and F. W. Wilkinson, “Certain factors in producing complexity of responses to a single pulse of light,” J. Psychol. 9, 299–306 (1953).
[Crossref]

1947 (1)

B. H. Crawford, “Visual adaptation in relation to brief conditioning stimuli,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 134, 283–302 (1947).
[Crossref]

1938 (1)

K. J. W. Craik, “The effect of adaptation on differential brightness discrimination,” J. Physiol. 92, 406–421 (1938).

1915 (1)

K. Dunlap, “The shortest perceptible time interval between two flashes of light,” Psychol. Rev. 22, 226–250 (1915).
[Crossref]

Alfano, F.

R. W. Bowen, K. A. Markell, V. Pappageorge, and F. Alfano, “Temporal resolution during transient light and dark adaptation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 18, 248–249 (1979).

Baker, H. D.

Bartley, S. H.

S. H. Bartley and F. W. Wilkinson, “Certain factors in producing complexity of responses to a single pulse of light,” J. Psychol. 9, 299–306 (1953).
[Crossref]

Battersby, W. S.

Bowen, R. W.

R. W. Bowen, K. A. Markell, V. Pappageorge, and F. Alfano, “Temporal resolution during transient light and dark adaptation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 18, 248–249 (1979).

Boynton, R. M.

R. T. Kintz and R. M. Boynton, “Temporal Summation During Backward Visual Masking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 212–216 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Boynton and J. B. Siegfried, “Psychophysical Estimates of On-Responses to Brief Light Flashes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 720–721 (1962).
[Crossref]

R. M. Boynton and G. Kandel, “On-Responses in the Human Visual System as a Function of Adaptation Level,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 275–286 (1957).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Boynton, W. R. Bush, and J. M. Enoch, “Rapid changes in foveal sensitivity resulting from direct and indirect adapting stimuli,” J. Opt. Am. Soc. Am. 44, 56–60 (1954).
[Crossref]

R. M. Boynton, “Discrimination of homogeneous double pulses of light,” in Visual Psychophysics, Vol. VII/4, Handbook of Sensory Physiology, edited by D. Jameson and L. Hurvich (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972), Chap. 9.
[Crossref]

Bush, W. R.

R. M. Boynton, W. R. Bush, and J. M. Enoch, “Rapid changes in foveal sensitivity resulting from direct and indirect adapting stimuli,” J. Opt. Am. Soc. Am. 44, 56–60 (1954).
[Crossref]

Craik, K. J. W.

K. J. W. Craik, “The effect of adaptation on differential brightness discrimination,” J. Physiol. 92, 406–421 (1938).

Crawford, B. H.

B. H. Crawford, “Visual adaptation in relation to brief conditioning stimuli,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 134, 283–302 (1947).
[Crossref]

Deutsch, J. A.

R. M. Springer, J. A. Deutsch, and G. Stanley, “Double flashes from single pulses of light,” Percept. Psychophys. 18, 398–400 (1975).
[Crossref]

Dodwell, P. C.

L. G. Standing and P. C. Dodwell, “Retroactive contour enhancement: A new visual storage effect,” Quart. J. Exp. Psych. 24, 21–29 (1972).
[Crossref]

Donchin, E.

E. Donchin and D. Lindsley, “Retroactive brightness enhancement with brief paired flashes of light,” Vision Res. 5, 59–70 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Donchin and D. Lindsley, “Visually evoked response correlates of perceptual masking and enhancement,” EEG Clin. Neurophysiol. 19, 325–335 (1965).
[Crossref]

Dunlap, K.

K. Dunlap, “The shortest perceptible time interval between two flashes of light,” Psychol. Rev. 22, 226–250 (1915).
[Crossref]

Enoch, J. M.

R. M. Boynton, W. R. Bush, and J. M. Enoch, “Rapid changes in foveal sensitivity resulting from direct and indirect adapting stimuli,” J. Opt. Am. Soc. Am. 44, 56–60 (1954).
[Crossref]

Ganz, L.

L. Ganz, “Temporal factors in visual perception,” in Handbook of Perception, Vol. 5, Seeing, edited by E. C. Carterette and M. P. Friedman (Academic, New York, 1975), Chap. 6.

Kandel, G.

Kietzman, M. L.

Kintz, R. T.

Lewis, M. F.

Lindsley, D.

E. Donchin and D. Lindsley, “Retroactive brightness enhancement with brief paired flashes of light,” Vision Res. 5, 59–70 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Donchin and D. Lindsley, “Visually evoked response correlates of perceptual masking and enhancement,” EEG Clin. Neurophysiol. 19, 325–335 (1965).
[Crossref]

Mahneke, A.

A. Mahneke, “Foveal discrimination measured with two successive light flashes,” Acta Ophthalmol. 36, 3–11 (1958).
[Crossref]

Makous, W.

E. Pulos, J. E. Raymond, and W. Makous, “Transient sensitization by a contrast flash,” Vision Res. 20, 281–288 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Pulos and W. Makous, “Sensitization following offset of an annulus,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1452(A) (1979).

Markell, K. A.

R. W. Bowen, K. A. Markell, V. Pappageorge, and F. Alfano, “Temporal resolution during transient light and dark adaptation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 18, 248–249 (1979).

Matin, E.

E. Matin, “Light adaptation and the dynamics of induced tilt,” Vision Res. 14, 255–265 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matin, L.

Pappageorge, V.

R. W. Bowen, K. A. Markell, V. Pappageorge, and F. Alfano, “Temporal resolution during transient light and dark adaptation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 18, 248–249 (1979).

Pulos, E.

E. Pulos, J. E. Raymond, and W. Makous, “Transient sensitization by a contrast flash,” Vision Res. 20, 281–288 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Pulos and W. Makous, “Sensitization following offset of an annulus,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1452(A) (1979).

Purcell, D. G.

D. G. Purcell and A. L. Stewart, “The two-flash threshold: An evaluation of critical-duration and visual-persistence hypotheses,” Percept. Psychophys. 9, 61–64 (1971).
[Crossref]

Raymond, J. E.

E. Pulos, J. E. Raymond, and W. Makous, “Transient sensitization by a contrast flash,” Vision Res. 20, 281–288 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shickman, G. M.

G. M. Shickman, “Brief illumination and visual temporal resolving power,” Dissertation, Harvard University, 1960 (unpublished).

Siegfried, J. B.

Sperling, G.

Springer, R. M.

R. M. Springer, J. A. Deutsch, and G. Stanley, “Double flashes from single pulses of light,” Percept. Psychophys. 18, 398–400 (1975).
[Crossref]

Standing, L. G.

L. G. Standing and P. C. Dodwell, “Retroactive contour enhancement: A new visual storage effect,” Quart. J. Exp. Psych. 24, 21–29 (1972).
[Crossref]

Stanley, G.

R. M. Springer, J. A. Deutsch, and G. Stanley, “Double flashes from single pulses of light,” Percept. Psychophys. 18, 398–400 (1975).
[Crossref]

Stewart, A. L.

D. G. Purcell and A. L. Stewart, “The two-flash threshold: An evaluation of critical-duration and visual-persistence hypotheses,” Percept. Psychophys. 9, 61–64 (1971).
[Crossref]

Theodor, L. H.

L. H. Theodor, “The detectability of a brief gap in a pulse of light as a function of its temporal location within the pulse,” Percept. Psychophys. 12, 168–170 (1972).
[Crossref]

Wagman, I. H.

Westheimer, G.

G. Westheimer, “The Maxwellian view,” Vision Res. 6, 669–682 (1969).
[Crossref]

Wilkinson, F. W.

S. H. Bartley and F. W. Wilkinson, “Certain factors in producing complexity of responses to a single pulse of light,” J. Psychol. 9, 299–306 (1953).
[Crossref]

Yost, W. A.

The R measure is equivalent to the traditional measure β(response bias) when the a priori probabilities of signal trial and noise trial presentation are equal. R was chosen over β because accurate estimates of β could not always be derived on the basis of 200 experimental trials. See W. A. Yost, “A forced-choice adaptive procedure for measuring auditory thresholds in children,” Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. 10, 671–677 (1978) for a similar use of log R.
[Crossref]

Acta Ophthalmol. (1)

A. Mahneke, “Foveal discrimination measured with two successive light flashes,” Acta Ophthalmol. 36, 3–11 (1958).
[Crossref]

Am. J. Psych. (1)

L. Matin, “Use of the glow modulator tube for visual research,” Am. J. Psych. 77, 650–651 (1964).
[Crossref]

Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. (1)

The R measure is equivalent to the traditional measure β(response bias) when the a priori probabilities of signal trial and noise trial presentation are equal. R was chosen over β because accurate estimates of β could not always be derived on the basis of 200 experimental trials. See W. A. Yost, “A forced-choice adaptive procedure for measuring auditory thresholds in children,” Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. 10, 671–677 (1978) for a similar use of log R.
[Crossref]

EEG Clin. Neurophysiol. (1)

E. Donchin and D. Lindsley, “Visually evoked response correlates of perceptual masking and enhancement,” EEG Clin. Neurophysiol. 19, 325–335 (1965).
[Crossref]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. (1)

R. W. Bowen, K. A. Markell, V. Pappageorge, and F. Alfano, “Temporal resolution during transient light and dark adaptation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 18, 248–249 (1979).

J. Opt. Am. Soc. Am. (1)

R. M. Boynton, W. R. Bush, and J. M. Enoch, “Rapid changes in foveal sensitivity resulting from direct and indirect adapting stimuli,” J. Opt. Am. Soc. Am. 44, 56–60 (1954).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (10)

E. Pulos and W. Makous, “Sensitization following offset of an annulus,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1452(A) (1979).

L. Matin, “Critical Duration, the Differential Luminance Threshold, Critical Flicker Frequency, and Visual Adaptation: A Theoretical Treatment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 404–415 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. L. Kietzman, “Two-Pulse Measures of Temporal Resolution as a Function of Stimulus Energy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 809–813 (1967).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. F. Lewis, “Two-Flash Thresholds as a Function of Luminance in the Dark-Adapted Eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 814–815 (1967).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Boynton and G. Kandel, “On-Responses in the Human Visual System as a Function of Adaptation Level,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 275–286 (1957).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Boynton and J. B. Siegfried, “Psychophysical Estimates of On-Responses to Brief Light Flashes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 720–721 (1962).
[Crossref]

R. T. Kintz and R. M. Boynton, “Temporal Summation During Backward Visual Masking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 212–216 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. D. Baker, “Initial Stages of Light and Dark Adaptation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 98–103 (1963).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. S. Battersby and I. H. Wagman, “Neural limitations of visual excitability. I. The Time Course of Monocular Light Adaptation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 752–759 (1959).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Sperling, “Temporal and spatial visual masking. I. Masking by Impulse Flashes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 541–559 (1965).
[Crossref]

J. Physiol. (1)

K. J. W. Craik, “The effect of adaptation on differential brightness discrimination,” J. Physiol. 92, 406–421 (1938).

J. Psychol. (1)

S. H. Bartley and F. W. Wilkinson, “Certain factors in producing complexity of responses to a single pulse of light,” J. Psychol. 9, 299–306 (1953).
[Crossref]

Percept. Psychophys. (3)

R. M. Springer, J. A. Deutsch, and G. Stanley, “Double flashes from single pulses of light,” Percept. Psychophys. 18, 398–400 (1975).
[Crossref]

D. G. Purcell and A. L. Stewart, “The two-flash threshold: An evaluation of critical-duration and visual-persistence hypotheses,” Percept. Psychophys. 9, 61–64 (1971).
[Crossref]

L. H. Theodor, “The detectability of a brief gap in a pulse of light as a function of its temporal location within the pulse,” Percept. Psychophys. 12, 168–170 (1972).
[Crossref]

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B (1)

B. H. Crawford, “Visual adaptation in relation to brief conditioning stimuli,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 134, 283–302 (1947).
[Crossref]

Psychol. Rev. (1)

K. Dunlap, “The shortest perceptible time interval between two flashes of light,” Psychol. Rev. 22, 226–250 (1915).
[Crossref]

Quart. J. Exp. Psych. (1)

L. G. Standing and P. C. Dodwell, “Retroactive contour enhancement: A new visual storage effect,” Quart. J. Exp. Psych. 24, 21–29 (1972).
[Crossref]

Vision Res. (4)

E. Donchin and D. Lindsley, “Retroactive brightness enhancement with brief paired flashes of light,” Vision Res. 5, 59–70 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Westheimer, “The Maxwellian view,” Vision Res. 6, 669–682 (1969).
[Crossref]

E. Matin, “Light adaptation and the dynamics of induced tilt,” Vision Res. 14, 255–265 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Pulos, J. E. Raymond, and W. Makous, “Transient sensitization by a contrast flash,” Vision Res. 20, 281–288 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

R. M. Boynton, “Discrimination of homogeneous double pulses of light,” in Visual Psychophysics, Vol. VII/4, Handbook of Sensory Physiology, edited by D. Jameson and L. Hurvich (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972), Chap. 9.
[Crossref]

G. M. Shickman, “Brief illumination and visual temporal resolving power,” Dissertation, Harvard University, 1960 (unpublished).

A 20-ms pulse was selected as the“noise” stimulus rather than an equal-energy 40-ms pulse because observers could easily discriminate a single 40-ms pulse on the basis of its greater brightness. The single 20-ms pulse and the pair of 20-ms pulses separated by 40 ms did not differ in brightness, so observers were compelled to base their judgments on temporal properties of the stimuli, rather than other phenomenal aspects.

L. Ganz, “Temporal factors in visual perception,” in Handbook of Perception, Vol. 5, Seeing, edited by E. C. Carterette and M. P. Friedman (Academic, New York, 1975), Chap. 6.

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Figures (4)

FIG. 1
FIG. 1

Stimulus array.

FIG. 2
FIG. 2

Two-pulse discriminability d′ as a function of time of onset (in milliseconds) of the two-pulse stimulus relative to the onset of the background field for two observers at two levels of background field retinal illuminance, 1700 td (filled circles) and 170 td (open circles). Vertical dashed lines indicate onset and offset of background field. Letter designations A–E are discussed in text.

FIG. 3
FIG. 3

Log R (Ratio of one-pulse to two-pulse reports) as a function of time after onset of background field (in milliseconds). Retinal illuminance levels are as in Fig. 2.

FIG. 4
FIG. 4

Increment threshold (log trolands) as a function of time after onset of background field (in milliseconds) for a background field retinal illuminance of 1700 td.