Abstract

Basic properties of propagation of electromagnetic waves in nonlinear media are a direct consequence of classical conservation laws for energy, and for components of momentum and angular momentum.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. H. Maiman, "Stimulated Optical Radiation in Ruby," Nature 187, 493–494 (1960).
  2. P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinreich, "Generation of Optical Harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 118–119 (1961).
  3. W. Kaiser and G. C. B. Garrett, "Two-Photon Excitation in CaF2; Eu2+," Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 229–231 (1961).
  4. E. J. Woodbury and W. K. Ng, "Ruby Laser Operation in the Near IR," Proc. IRE 50, 2367 (1962).
  5. J. A. Giordmaine, "Mixing of Light Beams in Crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 19–20 (1962).
  6. P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenhoff, and C. M. Savage, "Effects of Dispersion and Focusing on the Production of Optical Harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 21–22 (1962).
  7. P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, and C. M. Savage, "Optical Third Harmonic Generation," in Quantum Electronics, edited by P. Grivet and N. Bloembergen (Columbia University, New York, 1964), pp. 1559–1578.
  8. P. D. Maker and R. W. Terhune, "Study of Optical Effects Due to and Induced Polarization Third Order in the Electric Field Strength," Phys. Rev. A 137, 801–818 (1965).
  9. See, for example, N. Bloembergen, Nonlinear Optics (Benjamin, New York, 1965; 3rd printing, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1978).
  10. A. Yariv, Principles of Quantum Electronics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1975).
  11. J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, "Interactions between Light Waves in a Nonlinear Dielectric," Phys. Rev. 127, 1918–1939 (1962).
  12. N. Bloembergen and P. S. Pershan, "Light Waves at the Boundary of a Nonlinear Medium," Phys. Rev. 128, 606–622 (1962).
  13. See, for example, D. C. Hanna, M. A. Yuratich, and D. Cotter, "Nonlinear Optics of Free Atoms and Molecules," in Optical Sciences (Springer, Heidelberg, 1979), Vol. 17.
  14. Y. R. Shen, "Recent Advances in Nonlinear Optics," Rev. Mod. Phys. 48, 1–32 (1976).
  15. Nonlinear Spectroscopy, Course 64 of the E. Fermi International School of Physics, edited by N. Bloembergen (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1977).
  16. H. S. Boyne and W. C. Martin, "Experimental Determination of the Frequency Ratio of Optical Harmonics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 880–884 (1962).
  17. D. A. Jennings, F. R. Peterson, and K. M. Evenson, "Direct Frequency Measurement of the 260 THz (1.15 µm) 20Ne Laser and Beyond," in Laser Spectroscopy IV, edited by H. Walther and K. W. Rothe (Springer, Heidelberg, 1979), pp. 39–48.
  18. N. Bloembergen and A. J. Sievers, "Nonlinear Optical Properties of Periodic Laminar Structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 483–486 (1970).
  19. J.W. Shelton and Y. R. Shen, "Study of Phase-Matched Normal and Umklapp Third Harmonic Generation Processes in Cholesteric Liquid Crystals," Phys. Rev. A 5, 1867–1882 (1972).
  20. N. Bloembergen, H. J. Simon, and C. H. Lee, "Total Reflection Phenomena in Second Harmonic Generation of Light," Phys. Rev. 181, 1261–1271 (1969).
  21. See N. Bloembergen, "Second Harmonic Reflected Light," Opt. Acta 13, 311–322 (1966).
  22. A. J. Schell and N. Bloembergen, "Laser Studies of Internal Conical Refraction III: Second Harmonic Conical Refraction in α-iodic Acid," Phys. Rev. A 18, 2592–2602 (1978).
  23. See, for example, N. Bloembergen and M. D. Levenson, "Doppler-Free Two-Photon Absorption Spectroscopy," in High Resolution Laser Spectroscopy, edited by K. Shimoda, Topics in Applied Physics 13 (Springer, Heidelberg, 1976), pp. 315–369.
  24. R. W. Hellwarth, "Generation of time reversed wave fronts by nonlinear refraction," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1–3 (1977).
  25. A. Yariv, "Four Wave Nonlinear Optical Mixing as Real Time Holography," Opt. Commun. 25, 23–25 (1978).
  26. See, for example, a number of articles by various authors published in Opt. Lett. 5: 51–66, 102–107, 169–171, 182–187, 252–263 (1980), and references quoted therein.
  27. D. S. Hamilton, D. Heiman, J. Feinberg, and R. W. Hellwarth, "Spatial Diffusion Measurements in Impurity-Doped Solids by Degenerate Four Wave Mixing," Opt. Lett. 4, 124–125 (1979).
  28. J. H. Simon and N. Bloembergen, "Second Harmonic Light Generation in Crystals with Natural Optical Activity," Phys. Rev. 171, 1107–1114 (1968).
  29. N. Bloembergen, "Conservation of Angular Momentum of Optical Processes in Crystals," in Polarization, Matière et Rayonnement, edited by C. Cohen-Tannoudji (Presses Universitaires, Paris, 1969), pp. 109–119.
  30. N. Bloembergen, W. K. Burns, and C. L. Tang, "Symmetry of Nonlinear Optical Susceptibilities in Absorbing Media and Conservation of Angular Momentum," Int. J. Quantum Chem. 5, 555–562 (1971).

1979 (3)

See, for example, D. C. Hanna, M. A. Yuratich, and D. Cotter, "Nonlinear Optics of Free Atoms and Molecules," in Optical Sciences (Springer, Heidelberg, 1979), Vol. 17.

D. A. Jennings, F. R. Peterson, and K. M. Evenson, "Direct Frequency Measurement of the 260 THz (1.15 µm) 20Ne Laser and Beyond," in Laser Spectroscopy IV, edited by H. Walther and K. W. Rothe (Springer, Heidelberg, 1979), pp. 39–48.

D. S. Hamilton, D. Heiman, J. Feinberg, and R. W. Hellwarth, "Spatial Diffusion Measurements in Impurity-Doped Solids by Degenerate Four Wave Mixing," Opt. Lett. 4, 124–125 (1979).

1978 (2)

A. Yariv, "Four Wave Nonlinear Optical Mixing as Real Time Holography," Opt. Commun. 25, 23–25 (1978).

A. J. Schell and N. Bloembergen, "Laser Studies of Internal Conical Refraction III: Second Harmonic Conical Refraction in α-iodic Acid," Phys. Rev. A 18, 2592–2602 (1978).

1977 (1)

1976 (2)

See, for example, N. Bloembergen and M. D. Levenson, "Doppler-Free Two-Photon Absorption Spectroscopy," in High Resolution Laser Spectroscopy, edited by K. Shimoda, Topics in Applied Physics 13 (Springer, Heidelberg, 1976), pp. 315–369.

Y. R. Shen, "Recent Advances in Nonlinear Optics," Rev. Mod. Phys. 48, 1–32 (1976).

1972 (1)

J.W. Shelton and Y. R. Shen, "Study of Phase-Matched Normal and Umklapp Third Harmonic Generation Processes in Cholesteric Liquid Crystals," Phys. Rev. A 5, 1867–1882 (1972).

1971 (1)

N. Bloembergen, W. K. Burns, and C. L. Tang, "Symmetry of Nonlinear Optical Susceptibilities in Absorbing Media and Conservation of Angular Momentum," Int. J. Quantum Chem. 5, 555–562 (1971).

1970 (1)

N. Bloembergen and A. J. Sievers, "Nonlinear Optical Properties of Periodic Laminar Structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 483–486 (1970).

1969 (2)

N. Bloembergen, H. J. Simon, and C. H. Lee, "Total Reflection Phenomena in Second Harmonic Generation of Light," Phys. Rev. 181, 1261–1271 (1969).

N. Bloembergen, "Conservation of Angular Momentum of Optical Processes in Crystals," in Polarization, Matière et Rayonnement, edited by C. Cohen-Tannoudji (Presses Universitaires, Paris, 1969), pp. 109–119.

1968 (1)

J. H. Simon and N. Bloembergen, "Second Harmonic Light Generation in Crystals with Natural Optical Activity," Phys. Rev. 171, 1107–1114 (1968).

1966 (1)

See N. Bloembergen, "Second Harmonic Reflected Light," Opt. Acta 13, 311–322 (1966).

1965 (1)

P. D. Maker and R. W. Terhune, "Study of Optical Effects Due to and Induced Polarization Third Order in the Electric Field Strength," Phys. Rev. A 137, 801–818 (1965).

1964 (1)

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, and C. M. Savage, "Optical Third Harmonic Generation," in Quantum Electronics, edited by P. Grivet and N. Bloembergen (Columbia University, New York, 1964), pp. 1559–1578.

1962 (6)

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, "Interactions between Light Waves in a Nonlinear Dielectric," Phys. Rev. 127, 1918–1939 (1962).

N. Bloembergen and P. S. Pershan, "Light Waves at the Boundary of a Nonlinear Medium," Phys. Rev. 128, 606–622 (1962).

E. J. Woodbury and W. K. Ng, "Ruby Laser Operation in the Near IR," Proc. IRE 50, 2367 (1962).

J. A. Giordmaine, "Mixing of Light Beams in Crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 19–20 (1962).

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenhoff, and C. M. Savage, "Effects of Dispersion and Focusing on the Production of Optical Harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 21–22 (1962).

H. S. Boyne and W. C. Martin, "Experimental Determination of the Frequency Ratio of Optical Harmonics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 880–884 (1962).

1961 (2)

P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinreich, "Generation of Optical Harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 118–119 (1961).

W. Kaiser and G. C. B. Garrett, "Two-Photon Excitation in CaF2; Eu2+," Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 229–231 (1961).

1960 (1)

T. H. Maiman, "Stimulated Optical Radiation in Ruby," Nature 187, 493–494 (1960).

Armstrong, J. A.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, "Interactions between Light Waves in a Nonlinear Dielectric," Phys. Rev. 127, 1918–1939 (1962).

Bloembergen, N.

A. J. Schell and N. Bloembergen, "Laser Studies of Internal Conical Refraction III: Second Harmonic Conical Refraction in α-iodic Acid," Phys. Rev. A 18, 2592–2602 (1978).

See, for example, N. Bloembergen and M. D. Levenson, "Doppler-Free Two-Photon Absorption Spectroscopy," in High Resolution Laser Spectroscopy, edited by K. Shimoda, Topics in Applied Physics 13 (Springer, Heidelberg, 1976), pp. 315–369.

N. Bloembergen, W. K. Burns, and C. L. Tang, "Symmetry of Nonlinear Optical Susceptibilities in Absorbing Media and Conservation of Angular Momentum," Int. J. Quantum Chem. 5, 555–562 (1971).

N. Bloembergen and A. J. Sievers, "Nonlinear Optical Properties of Periodic Laminar Structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 483–486 (1970).

N. Bloembergen, H. J. Simon, and C. H. Lee, "Total Reflection Phenomena in Second Harmonic Generation of Light," Phys. Rev. 181, 1261–1271 (1969).

N. Bloembergen, "Conservation of Angular Momentum of Optical Processes in Crystals," in Polarization, Matière et Rayonnement, edited by C. Cohen-Tannoudji (Presses Universitaires, Paris, 1969), pp. 109–119.

J. H. Simon and N. Bloembergen, "Second Harmonic Light Generation in Crystals with Natural Optical Activity," Phys. Rev. 171, 1107–1114 (1968).

See N. Bloembergen, "Second Harmonic Reflected Light," Opt. Acta 13, 311–322 (1966).

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, "Interactions between Light Waves in a Nonlinear Dielectric," Phys. Rev. 127, 1918–1939 (1962).

N. Bloembergen and P. S. Pershan, "Light Waves at the Boundary of a Nonlinear Medium," Phys. Rev. 128, 606–622 (1962).

See, for example, N. Bloembergen, Nonlinear Optics (Benjamin, New York, 1965; 3rd printing, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1978).

Boyne, H. S.

Burns, W. K.

N. Bloembergen, W. K. Burns, and C. L. Tang, "Symmetry of Nonlinear Optical Susceptibilities in Absorbing Media and Conservation of Angular Momentum," Int. J. Quantum Chem. 5, 555–562 (1971).

Cotter, D.

See, for example, D. C. Hanna, M. A. Yuratich, and D. Cotter, "Nonlinear Optics of Free Atoms and Molecules," in Optical Sciences (Springer, Heidelberg, 1979), Vol. 17.

Ducuing, J.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, "Interactions between Light Waves in a Nonlinear Dielectric," Phys. Rev. 127, 1918–1939 (1962).

Evenson, K. M.

D. A. Jennings, F. R. Peterson, and K. M. Evenson, "Direct Frequency Measurement of the 260 THz (1.15 µm) 20Ne Laser and Beyond," in Laser Spectroscopy IV, edited by H. Walther and K. W. Rothe (Springer, Heidelberg, 1979), pp. 39–48.

Feinberg, J.

Franken, P. A.

P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinreich, "Generation of Optical Harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 118–119 (1961).

Garrett, G. C. B.

W. Kaiser and G. C. B. Garrett, "Two-Photon Excitation in CaF2; Eu2+," Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 229–231 (1961).

Giordmaine, J. A.

J. A. Giordmaine, "Mixing of Light Beams in Crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 19–20 (1962).

Hamilton, D. S.

Hanna, D. C.

See, for example, D. C. Hanna, M. A. Yuratich, and D. Cotter, "Nonlinear Optics of Free Atoms and Molecules," in Optical Sciences (Springer, Heidelberg, 1979), Vol. 17.

Heiman, D.

Hellwarth, R. W.

Hill, A. E.

P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinreich, "Generation of Optical Harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 118–119 (1961).

Jennings, D. A.

D. A. Jennings, F. R. Peterson, and K. M. Evenson, "Direct Frequency Measurement of the 260 THz (1.15 µm) 20Ne Laser and Beyond," in Laser Spectroscopy IV, edited by H. Walther and K. W. Rothe (Springer, Heidelberg, 1979), pp. 39–48.

Kaiser, W.

W. Kaiser and G. C. B. Garrett, "Two-Photon Excitation in CaF2; Eu2+," Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 229–231 (1961).

Lee, C. H.

N. Bloembergen, H. J. Simon, and C. H. Lee, "Total Reflection Phenomena in Second Harmonic Generation of Light," Phys. Rev. 181, 1261–1271 (1969).

Levenson, M. D.

See, for example, N. Bloembergen and M. D. Levenson, "Doppler-Free Two-Photon Absorption Spectroscopy," in High Resolution Laser Spectroscopy, edited by K. Shimoda, Topics in Applied Physics 13 (Springer, Heidelberg, 1976), pp. 315–369.

Maiman, T. H.

T. H. Maiman, "Stimulated Optical Radiation in Ruby," Nature 187, 493–494 (1960).

Maker, P. D.

P. D. Maker and R. W. Terhune, "Study of Optical Effects Due to and Induced Polarization Third Order in the Electric Field Strength," Phys. Rev. A 137, 801–818 (1965).

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, and C. M. Savage, "Optical Third Harmonic Generation," in Quantum Electronics, edited by P. Grivet and N. Bloembergen (Columbia University, New York, 1964), pp. 1559–1578.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenhoff, and C. M. Savage, "Effects of Dispersion and Focusing on the Production of Optical Harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 21–22 (1962).

Martin, W. C.

Ng, W. K.

E. J. Woodbury and W. K. Ng, "Ruby Laser Operation in the Near IR," Proc. IRE 50, 2367 (1962).

Nisenhoff, M.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenhoff, and C. M. Savage, "Effects of Dispersion and Focusing on the Production of Optical Harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 21–22 (1962).

Pershan, P. S.

N. Bloembergen and P. S. Pershan, "Light Waves at the Boundary of a Nonlinear Medium," Phys. Rev. 128, 606–622 (1962).

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, "Interactions between Light Waves in a Nonlinear Dielectric," Phys. Rev. 127, 1918–1939 (1962).

Peters, C. W.

P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinreich, "Generation of Optical Harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 118–119 (1961).

Peterson, F. R.

D. A. Jennings, F. R. Peterson, and K. M. Evenson, "Direct Frequency Measurement of the 260 THz (1.15 µm) 20Ne Laser and Beyond," in Laser Spectroscopy IV, edited by H. Walther and K. W. Rothe (Springer, Heidelberg, 1979), pp. 39–48.

Savage, C. M.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, and C. M. Savage, "Optical Third Harmonic Generation," in Quantum Electronics, edited by P. Grivet and N. Bloembergen (Columbia University, New York, 1964), pp. 1559–1578.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenhoff, and C. M. Savage, "Effects of Dispersion and Focusing on the Production of Optical Harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 21–22 (1962).

Schell, A. J.

A. J. Schell and N. Bloembergen, "Laser Studies of Internal Conical Refraction III: Second Harmonic Conical Refraction in α-iodic Acid," Phys. Rev. A 18, 2592–2602 (1978).

Shelton, J.W.

J.W. Shelton and Y. R. Shen, "Study of Phase-Matched Normal and Umklapp Third Harmonic Generation Processes in Cholesteric Liquid Crystals," Phys. Rev. A 5, 1867–1882 (1972).

Shen, Y. R.

Y. R. Shen, "Recent Advances in Nonlinear Optics," Rev. Mod. Phys. 48, 1–32 (1976).

J.W. Shelton and Y. R. Shen, "Study of Phase-Matched Normal and Umklapp Third Harmonic Generation Processes in Cholesteric Liquid Crystals," Phys. Rev. A 5, 1867–1882 (1972).

Sievers, A. J.

N. Bloembergen and A. J. Sievers, "Nonlinear Optical Properties of Periodic Laminar Structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 483–486 (1970).

Simon, H. J.

N. Bloembergen, H. J. Simon, and C. H. Lee, "Total Reflection Phenomena in Second Harmonic Generation of Light," Phys. Rev. 181, 1261–1271 (1969).

Simon, J. H.

J. H. Simon and N. Bloembergen, "Second Harmonic Light Generation in Crystals with Natural Optical Activity," Phys. Rev. 171, 1107–1114 (1968).

Tang, C. L.

N. Bloembergen, W. K. Burns, and C. L. Tang, "Symmetry of Nonlinear Optical Susceptibilities in Absorbing Media and Conservation of Angular Momentum," Int. J. Quantum Chem. 5, 555–562 (1971).

Terhune, R. W.

P. D. Maker and R. W. Terhune, "Study of Optical Effects Due to and Induced Polarization Third Order in the Electric Field Strength," Phys. Rev. A 137, 801–818 (1965).

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, and C. M. Savage, "Optical Third Harmonic Generation," in Quantum Electronics, edited by P. Grivet and N. Bloembergen (Columbia University, New York, 1964), pp. 1559–1578.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenhoff, and C. M. Savage, "Effects of Dispersion and Focusing on the Production of Optical Harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 21–22 (1962).

Weinreich, G.

P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinreich, "Generation of Optical Harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 118–119 (1961).

Woodbury, E. J.

E. J. Woodbury and W. K. Ng, "Ruby Laser Operation in the Near IR," Proc. IRE 50, 2367 (1962).

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, "Four Wave Nonlinear Optical Mixing as Real Time Holography," Opt. Commun. 25, 23–25 (1978).

A. Yariv, Principles of Quantum Electronics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1975).

Yuratich, M. A.

See, for example, D. C. Hanna, M. A. Yuratich, and D. Cotter, "Nonlinear Optics of Free Atoms and Molecules," in Optical Sciences (Springer, Heidelberg, 1979), Vol. 17.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. Bloembergen and A. J. Sievers, "Nonlinear Optical Properties of Periodic Laminar Structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 483–486 (1970).

Int. J. Quantum Chem. (1)

N. Bloembergen, W. K. Burns, and C. L. Tang, "Symmetry of Nonlinear Optical Susceptibilities in Absorbing Media and Conservation of Angular Momentum," Int. J. Quantum Chem. 5, 555–562 (1971).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Nature (1)

T. H. Maiman, "Stimulated Optical Radiation in Ruby," Nature 187, 493–494 (1960).

Opt. Acta (1)

See N. Bloembergen, "Second Harmonic Reflected Light," Opt. Acta 13, 311–322 (1966).

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Yariv, "Four Wave Nonlinear Optical Mixing as Real Time Holography," Opt. Commun. 25, 23–25 (1978).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. (4)

J. H. Simon and N. Bloembergen, "Second Harmonic Light Generation in Crystals with Natural Optical Activity," Phys. Rev. 171, 1107–1114 (1968).

N. Bloembergen, H. J. Simon, and C. H. Lee, "Total Reflection Phenomena in Second Harmonic Generation of Light," Phys. Rev. 181, 1261–1271 (1969).

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, "Interactions between Light Waves in a Nonlinear Dielectric," Phys. Rev. 127, 1918–1939 (1962).

N. Bloembergen and P. S. Pershan, "Light Waves at the Boundary of a Nonlinear Medium," Phys. Rev. 128, 606–622 (1962).

Phys. Rev. A (3)

J.W. Shelton and Y. R. Shen, "Study of Phase-Matched Normal and Umklapp Third Harmonic Generation Processes in Cholesteric Liquid Crystals," Phys. Rev. A 5, 1867–1882 (1972).

P. D. Maker and R. W. Terhune, "Study of Optical Effects Due to and Induced Polarization Third Order in the Electric Field Strength," Phys. Rev. A 137, 801–818 (1965).

A. J. Schell and N. Bloembergen, "Laser Studies of Internal Conical Refraction III: Second Harmonic Conical Refraction in α-iodic Acid," Phys. Rev. A 18, 2592–2602 (1978).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

J. A. Giordmaine, "Mixing of Light Beams in Crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 19–20 (1962).

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenhoff, and C. M. Savage, "Effects of Dispersion and Focusing on the Production of Optical Harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 21–22 (1962).

P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinreich, "Generation of Optical Harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 118–119 (1961).

W. Kaiser and G. C. B. Garrett, "Two-Photon Excitation in CaF2; Eu2+," Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 229–231 (1961).

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

Y. R. Shen, "Recent Advances in Nonlinear Optics," Rev. Mod. Phys. 48, 1–32 (1976).

Other (10)

Nonlinear Spectroscopy, Course 64 of the E. Fermi International School of Physics, edited by N. Bloembergen (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1977).

See, for example, D. C. Hanna, M. A. Yuratich, and D. Cotter, "Nonlinear Optics of Free Atoms and Molecules," in Optical Sciences (Springer, Heidelberg, 1979), Vol. 17.

D. A. Jennings, F. R. Peterson, and K. M. Evenson, "Direct Frequency Measurement of the 260 THz (1.15 µm) 20Ne Laser and Beyond," in Laser Spectroscopy IV, edited by H. Walther and K. W. Rothe (Springer, Heidelberg, 1979), pp. 39–48.

E. J. Woodbury and W. K. Ng, "Ruby Laser Operation in the Near IR," Proc. IRE 50, 2367 (1962).

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, and C. M. Savage, "Optical Third Harmonic Generation," in Quantum Electronics, edited by P. Grivet and N. Bloembergen (Columbia University, New York, 1964), pp. 1559–1578.

See, for example, N. Bloembergen, Nonlinear Optics (Benjamin, New York, 1965; 3rd printing, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1978).

A. Yariv, Principles of Quantum Electronics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1975).

See, for example, N. Bloembergen and M. D. Levenson, "Doppler-Free Two-Photon Absorption Spectroscopy," in High Resolution Laser Spectroscopy, edited by K. Shimoda, Topics in Applied Physics 13 (Springer, Heidelberg, 1976), pp. 315–369.

See, for example, a number of articles by various authors published in Opt. Lett. 5: 51–66, 102–107, 169–171, 182–187, 252–263 (1980), and references quoted therein.

N. Bloembergen, "Conservation of Angular Momentum of Optical Processes in Crystals," in Polarization, Matière et Rayonnement, edited by C. Cohen-Tannoudji (Presses Universitaires, Paris, 1969), pp. 109–119.

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