Abstract

Optical distortion of phase conjugates made in high-gain degenerate, optical parametric amplifiers (OPA) using three-wave mixing is discussed theoretically. The distortion is shown to be less severe than predicted by low-gain formulas. This result applied also to four-wave OPA’s in transmission configurations.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Zel'dovich, V. Popvichev, V. Ragul'skii, and F. Faisullov, "Connection between the wave fronts of the reflected and exciting light in stimulated Mandel'shtam Brillouin scattering," JETP Lett. 15, 109–113 (1972); V. Wang and C. R. Giulliano, "Correction of phase abberations via stimulated Brillouin scattering," Opt. Lett. 2, 4–6 (1978).
  2. A. Yariv, "On transmission and recovery of three-dimensional image information in optical waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 301–306 (1976).
  3. P. V. Avizonis, F. A. Hopf, W. D. Bomberger, S. F. Jacobs, A. Tomita, and K. H. Womack, "Optical phase conjugation in a LiNbO3 crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 435–437 (1977).
  4. F. A. Hopf, A. Tomita, K. H. Womack, and J. Jewell, "Optical distortion in nonlinear phase conjugation by three-wave mixing," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 968–972 (1979).
  5. R. W. Hellwarth, "Generation of time reversal wave fronts by nonlinear refraction," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1–3 (1977).
  6. D. M. Bloom and G. C. Bjorklund, "Conjugate wave-front generation and image reconstruction by four-wave mixing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 592–594 (1977); S. M. Jensen and R. W. Hellwarth, "Observation of the time-reversed replica of a monochromatic optical wave," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 166–168 (1978); D. M. Bloom, P. F. Liao, and N. P. Economou, "Observation of amplified reflection by degenerate four-wave mixing in atomic sodium vapor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 58–60 (1978); D. Grischkowsky, N. S. Shiren, and R. J. Bennett, "Generation of time-reversed wave fronts using a resonantly enhanced electronic nonlinearity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 805–807 (1978). E. E. Bergmann, K. J. Bigio, B. J. Feldman, and R. A. Fisher, "High efficiency pulsed 10.6-µm phase-conjugate reflection via degenerate four-wave mixing," Opt. Lett. 3, 82–84 (1978); A. Tomita, "Phase conjugation using gain saturation of a Nd:YAG laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 463–464 (1979). There are a substantial number of theoretical papers dealing with the details of the nonlinear mechanics in three-wave mixing. These have no bearing on this work and are not cited.
  7. R. Baumgartner and R. L. Byer, "Optical parametric amplifiers," Tenth International Quantum Electronics Conference, Digest of Technical Papers (Optical Society of America, New York, 1978), p. 688 (unpublished).
  8. F. Zernike and J. E. Midwinter, Applied Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1973), p. 42.
  9. C. V. Heer and P. F. McManamon, "Wavefront correction with photon echoes," Opt. Commun. 23, 49–50 (1977); N. C. Griffen and C. W. Heer, "Focusing and phase conjugation of photon echoes in Na vapor," 33, 865–866 (1978); A. L. Smirl, T. F. Goggess, S. C. Moss, J. R. Lindle, and F. A. Hopf, "Generation of a forward-traveling phase-conjugate wave in germanium," accepted for publication in Opt. Commun.

1979 (1)

1977 (4)

R. W. Hellwarth, "Generation of time reversal wave fronts by nonlinear refraction," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1–3 (1977).

D. M. Bloom and G. C. Bjorklund, "Conjugate wave-front generation and image reconstruction by four-wave mixing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 592–594 (1977); S. M. Jensen and R. W. Hellwarth, "Observation of the time-reversed replica of a monochromatic optical wave," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 166–168 (1978); D. M. Bloom, P. F. Liao, and N. P. Economou, "Observation of amplified reflection by degenerate four-wave mixing in atomic sodium vapor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 58–60 (1978); D. Grischkowsky, N. S. Shiren, and R. J. Bennett, "Generation of time-reversed wave fronts using a resonantly enhanced electronic nonlinearity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 805–807 (1978). E. E. Bergmann, K. J. Bigio, B. J. Feldman, and R. A. Fisher, "High efficiency pulsed 10.6-µm phase-conjugate reflection via degenerate four-wave mixing," Opt. Lett. 3, 82–84 (1978); A. Tomita, "Phase conjugation using gain saturation of a Nd:YAG laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 463–464 (1979). There are a substantial number of theoretical papers dealing with the details of the nonlinear mechanics in three-wave mixing. These have no bearing on this work and are not cited.

C. V. Heer and P. F. McManamon, "Wavefront correction with photon echoes," Opt. Commun. 23, 49–50 (1977); N. C. Griffen and C. W. Heer, "Focusing and phase conjugation of photon echoes in Na vapor," 33, 865–866 (1978); A. L. Smirl, T. F. Goggess, S. C. Moss, J. R. Lindle, and F. A. Hopf, "Generation of a forward-traveling phase-conjugate wave in germanium," accepted for publication in Opt. Commun.

P. V. Avizonis, F. A. Hopf, W. D. Bomberger, S. F. Jacobs, A. Tomita, and K. H. Womack, "Optical phase conjugation in a LiNbO3 crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 435–437 (1977).

1976 (1)

1972 (1)

B. Zel'dovich, V. Popvichev, V. Ragul'skii, and F. Faisullov, "Connection between the wave fronts of the reflected and exciting light in stimulated Mandel'shtam Brillouin scattering," JETP Lett. 15, 109–113 (1972); V. Wang and C. R. Giulliano, "Correction of phase abberations via stimulated Brillouin scattering," Opt. Lett. 2, 4–6 (1978).

Avizonis, P. V.

P. V. Avizonis, F. A. Hopf, W. D. Bomberger, S. F. Jacobs, A. Tomita, and K. H. Womack, "Optical phase conjugation in a LiNbO3 crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 435–437 (1977).

Baumgartner, R.

R. Baumgartner and R. L. Byer, "Optical parametric amplifiers," Tenth International Quantum Electronics Conference, Digest of Technical Papers (Optical Society of America, New York, 1978), p. 688 (unpublished).

Bjorklund, G. C.

D. M. Bloom and G. C. Bjorklund, "Conjugate wave-front generation and image reconstruction by four-wave mixing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 592–594 (1977); S. M. Jensen and R. W. Hellwarth, "Observation of the time-reversed replica of a monochromatic optical wave," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 166–168 (1978); D. M. Bloom, P. F. Liao, and N. P. Economou, "Observation of amplified reflection by degenerate four-wave mixing in atomic sodium vapor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 58–60 (1978); D. Grischkowsky, N. S. Shiren, and R. J. Bennett, "Generation of time-reversed wave fronts using a resonantly enhanced electronic nonlinearity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 805–807 (1978). E. E. Bergmann, K. J. Bigio, B. J. Feldman, and R. A. Fisher, "High efficiency pulsed 10.6-µm phase-conjugate reflection via degenerate four-wave mixing," Opt. Lett. 3, 82–84 (1978); A. Tomita, "Phase conjugation using gain saturation of a Nd:YAG laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 463–464 (1979). There are a substantial number of theoretical papers dealing with the details of the nonlinear mechanics in three-wave mixing. These have no bearing on this work and are not cited.

Bloom, D. M.

D. M. Bloom and G. C. Bjorklund, "Conjugate wave-front generation and image reconstruction by four-wave mixing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 592–594 (1977); S. M. Jensen and R. W. Hellwarth, "Observation of the time-reversed replica of a monochromatic optical wave," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 166–168 (1978); D. M. Bloom, P. F. Liao, and N. P. Economou, "Observation of amplified reflection by degenerate four-wave mixing in atomic sodium vapor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 58–60 (1978); D. Grischkowsky, N. S. Shiren, and R. J. Bennett, "Generation of time-reversed wave fronts using a resonantly enhanced electronic nonlinearity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 805–807 (1978). E. E. Bergmann, K. J. Bigio, B. J. Feldman, and R. A. Fisher, "High efficiency pulsed 10.6-µm phase-conjugate reflection via degenerate four-wave mixing," Opt. Lett. 3, 82–84 (1978); A. Tomita, "Phase conjugation using gain saturation of a Nd:YAG laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 463–464 (1979). There are a substantial number of theoretical papers dealing with the details of the nonlinear mechanics in three-wave mixing. These have no bearing on this work and are not cited.

Bomberger, W. D.

P. V. Avizonis, F. A. Hopf, W. D. Bomberger, S. F. Jacobs, A. Tomita, and K. H. Womack, "Optical phase conjugation in a LiNbO3 crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 435–437 (1977).

Byer, R. L.

R. Baumgartner and R. L. Byer, "Optical parametric amplifiers," Tenth International Quantum Electronics Conference, Digest of Technical Papers (Optical Society of America, New York, 1978), p. 688 (unpublished).

Faisullov, F.

B. Zel'dovich, V. Popvichev, V. Ragul'skii, and F. Faisullov, "Connection between the wave fronts of the reflected and exciting light in stimulated Mandel'shtam Brillouin scattering," JETP Lett. 15, 109–113 (1972); V. Wang and C. R. Giulliano, "Correction of phase abberations via stimulated Brillouin scattering," Opt. Lett. 2, 4–6 (1978).

Heer, C. V.

C. V. Heer and P. F. McManamon, "Wavefront correction with photon echoes," Opt. Commun. 23, 49–50 (1977); N. C. Griffen and C. W. Heer, "Focusing and phase conjugation of photon echoes in Na vapor," 33, 865–866 (1978); A. L. Smirl, T. F. Goggess, S. C. Moss, J. R. Lindle, and F. A. Hopf, "Generation of a forward-traveling phase-conjugate wave in germanium," accepted for publication in Opt. Commun.

Hellwarth, R. W.

Hopf, F. A.

F. A. Hopf, A. Tomita, K. H. Womack, and J. Jewell, "Optical distortion in nonlinear phase conjugation by three-wave mixing," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 968–972 (1979).

P. V. Avizonis, F. A. Hopf, W. D. Bomberger, S. F. Jacobs, A. Tomita, and K. H. Womack, "Optical phase conjugation in a LiNbO3 crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 435–437 (1977).

Jacobs, S. F.

P. V. Avizonis, F. A. Hopf, W. D. Bomberger, S. F. Jacobs, A. Tomita, and K. H. Womack, "Optical phase conjugation in a LiNbO3 crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 435–437 (1977).

Jewell, J.

McManamon, P. F.

C. V. Heer and P. F. McManamon, "Wavefront correction with photon echoes," Opt. Commun. 23, 49–50 (1977); N. C. Griffen and C. W. Heer, "Focusing and phase conjugation of photon echoes in Na vapor," 33, 865–866 (1978); A. L. Smirl, T. F. Goggess, S. C. Moss, J. R. Lindle, and F. A. Hopf, "Generation of a forward-traveling phase-conjugate wave in germanium," accepted for publication in Opt. Commun.

Midwinter, J. E.

F. Zernike and J. E. Midwinter, Applied Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1973), p. 42.

Popvichev, V.

B. Zel'dovich, V. Popvichev, V. Ragul'skii, and F. Faisullov, "Connection between the wave fronts of the reflected and exciting light in stimulated Mandel'shtam Brillouin scattering," JETP Lett. 15, 109–113 (1972); V. Wang and C. R. Giulliano, "Correction of phase abberations via stimulated Brillouin scattering," Opt. Lett. 2, 4–6 (1978).

Ragul’skii, V.

B. Zel'dovich, V. Popvichev, V. Ragul'skii, and F. Faisullov, "Connection between the wave fronts of the reflected and exciting light in stimulated Mandel'shtam Brillouin scattering," JETP Lett. 15, 109–113 (1972); V. Wang and C. R. Giulliano, "Correction of phase abberations via stimulated Brillouin scattering," Opt. Lett. 2, 4–6 (1978).

Tomita, A.

F. A. Hopf, A. Tomita, K. H. Womack, and J. Jewell, "Optical distortion in nonlinear phase conjugation by three-wave mixing," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 968–972 (1979).

P. V. Avizonis, F. A. Hopf, W. D. Bomberger, S. F. Jacobs, A. Tomita, and K. H. Womack, "Optical phase conjugation in a LiNbO3 crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 435–437 (1977).

Womack, K. H.

F. A. Hopf, A. Tomita, K. H. Womack, and J. Jewell, "Optical distortion in nonlinear phase conjugation by three-wave mixing," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 968–972 (1979).

P. V. Avizonis, F. A. Hopf, W. D. Bomberger, S. F. Jacobs, A. Tomita, and K. H. Womack, "Optical phase conjugation in a LiNbO3 crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 435–437 (1977).

Yariv, A.

Zel’dovich, B.

B. Zel'dovich, V. Popvichev, V. Ragul'skii, and F. Faisullov, "Connection between the wave fronts of the reflected and exciting light in stimulated Mandel'shtam Brillouin scattering," JETP Lett. 15, 109–113 (1972); V. Wang and C. R. Giulliano, "Correction of phase abberations via stimulated Brillouin scattering," Opt. Lett. 2, 4–6 (1978).

Zernike, F.

F. Zernike and J. E. Midwinter, Applied Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1973), p. 42.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

P. V. Avizonis, F. A. Hopf, W. D. Bomberger, S. F. Jacobs, A. Tomita, and K. H. Womack, "Optical phase conjugation in a LiNbO3 crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 435–437 (1977).

D. M. Bloom and G. C. Bjorklund, "Conjugate wave-front generation and image reconstruction by four-wave mixing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 592–594 (1977); S. M. Jensen and R. W. Hellwarth, "Observation of the time-reversed replica of a monochromatic optical wave," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 166–168 (1978); D. M. Bloom, P. F. Liao, and N. P. Economou, "Observation of amplified reflection by degenerate four-wave mixing in atomic sodium vapor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 58–60 (1978); D. Grischkowsky, N. S. Shiren, and R. J. Bennett, "Generation of time-reversed wave fronts using a resonantly enhanced electronic nonlinearity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 805–807 (1978). E. E. Bergmann, K. J. Bigio, B. J. Feldman, and R. A. Fisher, "High efficiency pulsed 10.6-µm phase-conjugate reflection via degenerate four-wave mixing," Opt. Lett. 3, 82–84 (1978); A. Tomita, "Phase conjugation using gain saturation of a Nd:YAG laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 463–464 (1979). There are a substantial number of theoretical papers dealing with the details of the nonlinear mechanics in three-wave mixing. These have no bearing on this work and are not cited.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

JETP Lett. (1)

B. Zel'dovich, V. Popvichev, V. Ragul'skii, and F. Faisullov, "Connection between the wave fronts of the reflected and exciting light in stimulated Mandel'shtam Brillouin scattering," JETP Lett. 15, 109–113 (1972); V. Wang and C. R. Giulliano, "Correction of phase abberations via stimulated Brillouin scattering," Opt. Lett. 2, 4–6 (1978).

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. V. Heer and P. F. McManamon, "Wavefront correction with photon echoes," Opt. Commun. 23, 49–50 (1977); N. C. Griffen and C. W. Heer, "Focusing and phase conjugation of photon echoes in Na vapor," 33, 865–866 (1978); A. L. Smirl, T. F. Goggess, S. C. Moss, J. R. Lindle, and F. A. Hopf, "Generation of a forward-traveling phase-conjugate wave in germanium," accepted for publication in Opt. Commun.

Other (2)

R. Baumgartner and R. L. Byer, "Optical parametric amplifiers," Tenth International Quantum Electronics Conference, Digest of Technical Papers (Optical Society of America, New York, 1978), p. 688 (unpublished).

F. Zernike and J. E. Midwinter, Applied Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1973), p. 42.

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