Abstract

Changing-size channels tuned to the oscillation frequency are excited by a stimulus square whose size oscillates at a fixed frequency. In the 0.25–16 Hz frequency band there are at least three kinds of changing-size channels tuned to different frequencies.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Regan and K. I. Beverley, "Looming detectors in the human visual pathway," Vision Res. 18, 415–421 (1978).
  2. D. Regan and K. I. Beverley, "Visual responses to changing size and to sideways motion for different directions of motion in depth: linearization of visual responses," J. Opt. Soc. Am 70, 1289–1296 (1980).
  3. D. Regan, K. I. Beverley, and M. Cynader, "Stereoscopic subsystems for position in depth and for motion in depth," Proc. R. Soc. London, Sec. B 204, 485–501 (1979).
  4. D. Regan, K. I. Beverley, and M. Cynader, "The visual perception of motion in depth," Sci. Am. 241, 136–151 (1979).
  5. D. Regan and M. Cynader, "Neurons in area 18 of cat visual cortex selectively sensitive to changing size: nonlinear interactions between the responses to two edges," Vision Res. 19, 699–711 (1979).
  6. K. I. Beverley and D. Regan, "Visual perception of changing size: the effect of object size." Vision Res. 19, 1093–1104 (1979).
  7. The data from two subjects were discarded. Individual subject means for all remaining subjects were averaged for each plotted point. Between two and seven subjects contributed to each point with a mean number of 3.6 subjects for each antiphase condition and 3.0 subjects for each inphase condition. Vertical lines indicate 1 standard error based on the total number of experimental settings for that condition.
  8. The following sets out the grounds on which we rejected the hypothesis that no more than two subsystems were adequate to explain our data. First, we examined whether the antiphase peak for adapt 2 Hz is at a different frequency from the antiphase peak for adapt 8 Hz. Threshold elevations for adapt 2 Hz test 0.5 Hz were greater than elevations for adapt 8 Hz test 0.5 Hz at the 0.01 level (t test). Threshold elevations for adapt 2 Hz test 12 Hz were smaller than elevations for adapt 8 Hz test 12 Hz at the 0.001 level. Therefore these two peaks were at different frequencies so that we have at least two subsystems. Then we tested whether three (or more) subsystems were needed to explain the data of Fig. 1. If there were only two subsystems with peak sensitivities at (say) 0.5 Hz and 12 Hz, then adapting at 4 Hz would have produced either a bimodal elevation curve with subpeaks near 0.5 Hz and 12 Hz, or a flat-topped elevation curve extending from about 0.5 Hz to 12 Hz. This was not so, as shown by the following treatment. Threshold elevations for adapt 4 Hz test 0.5 Hz were less than elevations for adapt 2 Hz test 0.5 Hz at the 0.02 level, while elevations for adapt 4 Hz test 4 Hz were greater than elevations for adapt 2 Hz test 4 Hz at the 0.001 level. Also, elevations for adapt 4 Hz test 4 Hz were greater than elevations for adapt 8 Hz test 4 Hz at the 0.001 level, while elevations for adapt 4 Hz test 12 Hz were less than elevations for adapt 8 Hz test 12 Hz at the 0.005 level.
  9. R. A. Smith, "Adaptation of visual contrast sensitivity to specific temporal frequencies," Vision Res. 10, 275–279 (1970).
  10. W. Richards, "Flashback to Maxwell: flicker matching," OSA Annual Meeting, Boston (1975).
  11. A. Pantle, "Flicker adaptation-I: Effect on visual sensitivity to temporal fluctuations of light intensity," Vision Res., 11, 943–952 (1971).
  12. T. H. Nilsson, C. F. Richmond, and T. M. Nelson, "Flicker adaptation shows evidence of many visual channels selectively sensitive to temporal frequency," Vision Res. 15, 621–624 (1975).
  13. D. Regan, "Chromatic adaptation and steady-state evoked potentials," Vision Res. 8, 149–158 (1968).
  14. D. Regan, Evoked Potentials in Psychology, Sensory Physiology and Clinical Medicine (Chapman and Hall, London, and Wiley, New York, 1972).

1980 (1)

D. Regan and K. I. Beverley, "Visual responses to changing size and to sideways motion for different directions of motion in depth: linearization of visual responses," J. Opt. Soc. Am 70, 1289–1296 (1980).

1979 (4)

D. Regan, K. I. Beverley, and M. Cynader, "Stereoscopic subsystems for position in depth and for motion in depth," Proc. R. Soc. London, Sec. B 204, 485–501 (1979).

D. Regan, K. I. Beverley, and M. Cynader, "The visual perception of motion in depth," Sci. Am. 241, 136–151 (1979).

D. Regan and M. Cynader, "Neurons in area 18 of cat visual cortex selectively sensitive to changing size: nonlinear interactions between the responses to two edges," Vision Res. 19, 699–711 (1979).

K. I. Beverley and D. Regan, "Visual perception of changing size: the effect of object size." Vision Res. 19, 1093–1104 (1979).

1978 (1)

D. Regan and K. I. Beverley, "Looming detectors in the human visual pathway," Vision Res. 18, 415–421 (1978).

1975 (1)

T. H. Nilsson, C. F. Richmond, and T. M. Nelson, "Flicker adaptation shows evidence of many visual channels selectively sensitive to temporal frequency," Vision Res. 15, 621–624 (1975).

1971 (1)

A. Pantle, "Flicker adaptation-I: Effect on visual sensitivity to temporal fluctuations of light intensity," Vision Res., 11, 943–952 (1971).

1970 (1)

R. A. Smith, "Adaptation of visual contrast sensitivity to specific temporal frequencies," Vision Res. 10, 275–279 (1970).

1968 (1)

D. Regan, "Chromatic adaptation and steady-state evoked potentials," Vision Res. 8, 149–158 (1968).

Beverley, K. I.

D. Regan and K. I. Beverley, "Visual responses to changing size and to sideways motion for different directions of motion in depth: linearization of visual responses," J. Opt. Soc. Am 70, 1289–1296 (1980).

D. Regan, K. I. Beverley, and M. Cynader, "Stereoscopic subsystems for position in depth and for motion in depth," Proc. R. Soc. London, Sec. B 204, 485–501 (1979).

D. Regan, K. I. Beverley, and M. Cynader, "The visual perception of motion in depth," Sci. Am. 241, 136–151 (1979).

K. I. Beverley and D. Regan, "Visual perception of changing size: the effect of object size." Vision Res. 19, 1093–1104 (1979).

D. Regan and K. I. Beverley, "Looming detectors in the human visual pathway," Vision Res. 18, 415–421 (1978).

Cynader, M.

D. Regan, K. I. Beverley, and M. Cynader, "The visual perception of motion in depth," Sci. Am. 241, 136–151 (1979).

D. Regan, K. I. Beverley, and M. Cynader, "Stereoscopic subsystems for position in depth and for motion in depth," Proc. R. Soc. London, Sec. B 204, 485–501 (1979).

D. Regan and M. Cynader, "Neurons in area 18 of cat visual cortex selectively sensitive to changing size: nonlinear interactions between the responses to two edges," Vision Res. 19, 699–711 (1979).

Nelson, T. M.

T. H. Nilsson, C. F. Richmond, and T. M. Nelson, "Flicker adaptation shows evidence of many visual channels selectively sensitive to temporal frequency," Vision Res. 15, 621–624 (1975).

Nilsson, T. H.

T. H. Nilsson, C. F. Richmond, and T. M. Nelson, "Flicker adaptation shows evidence of many visual channels selectively sensitive to temporal frequency," Vision Res. 15, 621–624 (1975).

Pantle, A.

A. Pantle, "Flicker adaptation-I: Effect on visual sensitivity to temporal fluctuations of light intensity," Vision Res., 11, 943–952 (1971).

Regan, D.

D. Regan and K. I. Beverley, "Visual responses to changing size and to sideways motion for different directions of motion in depth: linearization of visual responses," J. Opt. Soc. Am 70, 1289–1296 (1980).

D. Regan, K. I. Beverley, and M. Cynader, "Stereoscopic subsystems for position in depth and for motion in depth," Proc. R. Soc. London, Sec. B 204, 485–501 (1979).

D. Regan, K. I. Beverley, and M. Cynader, "The visual perception of motion in depth," Sci. Am. 241, 136–151 (1979).

D. Regan and M. Cynader, "Neurons in area 18 of cat visual cortex selectively sensitive to changing size: nonlinear interactions between the responses to two edges," Vision Res. 19, 699–711 (1979).

K. I. Beverley and D. Regan, "Visual perception of changing size: the effect of object size." Vision Res. 19, 1093–1104 (1979).

D. Regan and K. I. Beverley, "Looming detectors in the human visual pathway," Vision Res. 18, 415–421 (1978).

D. Regan, "Chromatic adaptation and steady-state evoked potentials," Vision Res. 8, 149–158 (1968).

D. Regan, Evoked Potentials in Psychology, Sensory Physiology and Clinical Medicine (Chapman and Hall, London, and Wiley, New York, 1972).

Richards, W.

W. Richards, "Flashback to Maxwell: flicker matching," OSA Annual Meeting, Boston (1975).

Richmond, C. F.

T. H. Nilsson, C. F. Richmond, and T. M. Nelson, "Flicker adaptation shows evidence of many visual channels selectively sensitive to temporal frequency," Vision Res. 15, 621–624 (1975).

Smith, R. A.

R. A. Smith, "Adaptation of visual contrast sensitivity to specific temporal frequencies," Vision Res. 10, 275–279 (1970).

J. Opt. Soc. Am (1)

D. Regan and K. I. Beverley, "Visual responses to changing size and to sideways motion for different directions of motion in depth: linearization of visual responses," J. Opt. Soc. Am 70, 1289–1296 (1980).

Proc. R. Soc. London, Sec. B (1)

D. Regan, K. I. Beverley, and M. Cynader, "Stereoscopic subsystems for position in depth and for motion in depth," Proc. R. Soc. London, Sec. B 204, 485–501 (1979).

Sci. Am. (1)

D. Regan, K. I. Beverley, and M. Cynader, "The visual perception of motion in depth," Sci. Am. 241, 136–151 (1979).

Vision Res. (7)

D. Regan and M. Cynader, "Neurons in area 18 of cat visual cortex selectively sensitive to changing size: nonlinear interactions between the responses to two edges," Vision Res. 19, 699–711 (1979).

K. I. Beverley and D. Regan, "Visual perception of changing size: the effect of object size." Vision Res. 19, 1093–1104 (1979).

A. Pantle, "Flicker adaptation-I: Effect on visual sensitivity to temporal fluctuations of light intensity," Vision Res., 11, 943–952 (1971).

T. H. Nilsson, C. F. Richmond, and T. M. Nelson, "Flicker adaptation shows evidence of many visual channels selectively sensitive to temporal frequency," Vision Res. 15, 621–624 (1975).

D. Regan, "Chromatic adaptation and steady-state evoked potentials," Vision Res. 8, 149–158 (1968).

R. A. Smith, "Adaptation of visual contrast sensitivity to specific temporal frequencies," Vision Res. 10, 275–279 (1970).

D. Regan and K. I. Beverley, "Looming detectors in the human visual pathway," Vision Res. 18, 415–421 (1978).

Other (4)

W. Richards, "Flashback to Maxwell: flicker matching," OSA Annual Meeting, Boston (1975).

D. Regan, Evoked Potentials in Psychology, Sensory Physiology and Clinical Medicine (Chapman and Hall, London, and Wiley, New York, 1972).

The data from two subjects were discarded. Individual subject means for all remaining subjects were averaged for each plotted point. Between two and seven subjects contributed to each point with a mean number of 3.6 subjects for each antiphase condition and 3.0 subjects for each inphase condition. Vertical lines indicate 1 standard error based on the total number of experimental settings for that condition.

The following sets out the grounds on which we rejected the hypothesis that no more than two subsystems were adequate to explain our data. First, we examined whether the antiphase peak for adapt 2 Hz is at a different frequency from the antiphase peak for adapt 8 Hz. Threshold elevations for adapt 2 Hz test 0.5 Hz were greater than elevations for adapt 8 Hz test 0.5 Hz at the 0.01 level (t test). Threshold elevations for adapt 2 Hz test 12 Hz were smaller than elevations for adapt 8 Hz test 12 Hz at the 0.001 level. Therefore these two peaks were at different frequencies so that we have at least two subsystems. Then we tested whether three (or more) subsystems were needed to explain the data of Fig. 1. If there were only two subsystems with peak sensitivities at (say) 0.5 Hz and 12 Hz, then adapting at 4 Hz would have produced either a bimodal elevation curve with subpeaks near 0.5 Hz and 12 Hz, or a flat-topped elevation curve extending from about 0.5 Hz to 12 Hz. This was not so, as shown by the following treatment. Threshold elevations for adapt 4 Hz test 0.5 Hz were less than elevations for adapt 2 Hz test 0.5 Hz at the 0.02 level, while elevations for adapt 4 Hz test 4 Hz were greater than elevations for adapt 2 Hz test 4 Hz at the 0.001 level. Also, elevations for adapt 4 Hz test 4 Hz were greater than elevations for adapt 8 Hz test 4 Hz at the 0.001 level, while elevations for adapt 4 Hz test 12 Hz were less than elevations for adapt 8 Hz test 12 Hz at the 0.005 level.

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