Abstract

Recently, it has been argued that the precision of image stabilization is reflected in the magnitude of the differences in contrast sensitivity measures obtained with and without image stabilization. Here we present two sets of data, one showing large and the other small differences in contrast sensitivity to sinusoidal gratings viewed under stabilized and unstabilized, normal conditions. Both sets of data were obtained by the use of the same apparatus optimized for image stabilization. Large differences occur between unstabilized and stabilized measures of sensitivity only when the observer is allowed to scan the unstabilized test grating, or to prolong inspection of the stabilized target thus allowing for disappearance of the stabilized image. On the other hand, when the target is presented for a few seconds and the observer fixates on it, normal image motion, which results from eye movements of fixation, is found to enhance contrast sensitivity by only a small amount. It would appear, therefore, that the extent of reduction of sensitivity for a stabilized grating cannot be used as an index of the precision of image stabilization.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Krauskopf, “Effect of retinal image motion for maintained vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 740–744 (1957).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. J. Nachmias, “Effect of exposure duration on visual contrast sensitivity with square wave gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 421–427 (1967).
    [Crossref]
  3. D. S. Gilbert and D. H. Fender, “Contrast thresholds measured with stabilized and non-stabilized sine-wave gratings,” Opt. Acta 16, 191–204 (1969).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. Watanabe, T. Mori, and K. Hiwathashi, “Spatial sine-wave responses of the human visual system,” Vision Res. 8, 1245–1263 (1968).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. U. Tulunay-Keesey and R. M. Jones, “The effect of micromovements of the eye and exposure duration on contrast sensitivity,” Vision Res. 16, 481–488 (1976).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. U. Tulunay-Keesey and B. J. Bennis, “Effects of stimulus onset and image motion on contrast sensitivity,” Vision Res. 19, 767–776 (1979).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. D. H. Kelly, “Visual contrast sensitivity,” Opt. Acta 24, 107–129 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  8. D. H. Kelly, “Motion and vision. I. Stabilized images of stationary gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1266–1274 (1979).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. D. H. Kelly and R. E. Savoie, “A study of sine-wave contrast sensitivity by two psychophysical methods,” Percept. Psychophys. 14, 313–318 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  10. C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, “On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images,” J. Physiol. (London) 203, 237–260 (1969).
  11. R. M. Jones and U. Tulunay-Keesey, “Local retinal adaptation and spatial frequency channels,” Vision Res. 15, 1239–1244 (1975).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. R. M. Jones and U. Tulunay-Keesey, “An active feedback system for stabilizing visual images,” IEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-19, 29–33 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  13. R. M. Jones and U. Tulunay-Keesey, “Accuracy of image stabilization by an optical-electronic feedback system,” Vision Res. 15, 57–61 (1975).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. H. B. Barlow, “Slippage of contact lenses and other artifacts in relation to fading and regeneration of supposedly stable retinal images,” Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 51, 36–51 (1963).
  15. L. A. Riggs and A. H. L. Shick, “Accuracy of retinal image stabilization achieved with a plane mirror on a tightly fitting contact lens,” Vision Res. 8, 159–169 (1968).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. C. F. Stromeyer, Y. Y. Zeevi, and S. Klein, “Response of visual mechanisms to stimulus onsets and offsets,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1351–1354 (1979).
  17. B. Breitmeyer and B. Julesz, “The role of on and off transients in determining the psychophysical spatial frequency response,” Vision Res. 15, 411–416 (1975).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. Sekular20has pointed out that phase alternating sinusoidal gratings can be expressed mathematically as the sum of two gratings drifting in opposite directions. This concept can be extended to any target whose contrast varies as a function of time, as when contrast is manipulated manually to determine thresholds. In this sense, none of the stimuli used by us or by others is free of moving components. In the case of the Gaussian presentation we used, the temporal variations can be specified. Each grating has a steady component at a fixed frequency and two components of the same frequency but half amplitude moving in opposite directions, with velocities that depend on the duration of the waveform. By assuming that the Gaussian is closely related to the raised cosine, it has been calculated that for a 5-cpd grating, with a period of 15 s, for example, the moving components have a velocity of 0.7 min arc/s.
  19. Kelly8states that our data in Ref. 5 shows unaccountably low contrast sensitivity. These data were gathered on a subject with a generally low spatial contrast sensitivity (UTK) with the method of adjustment under careful fixation, conditions favorable to reduction of sensitivity by virtue of lengthy exposure to contrast. Our data in the same paper5as well as in subsequent papers6show a peak of contrast sensitivity between the frequencies of 2 and 4 cpd at contrast values ranging between 0.3 and 1%, levels as low as have been reported in the literature so far.
  20. L. E. Arend, “Temporal determinants of the form of the spatial contrast threshold MFT,” Vision Res. 16, 1035–1042 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  21. U. Tulunay-Keesey and B. Bennis, “Fading of after-images and stabilized images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 18, 139 (1979).
  22. R. Sekular, A. Pantle, and E. Levinson, “Physiological Basis of Motion Perception,” in Handbook of Physiology, VII Perception, edited by R. Held, W. Leibowitz, and H. L. Teuber, (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1978).

1979 (4)

U. Tulunay-Keesey and B. J. Bennis, “Effects of stimulus onset and image motion on contrast sensitivity,” Vision Res. 19, 767–776 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. Kelly, “Motion and vision. I. Stabilized images of stationary gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1266–1274 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. F. Stromeyer, Y. Y. Zeevi, and S. Klein, “Response of visual mechanisms to stimulus onsets and offsets,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1351–1354 (1979).

U. Tulunay-Keesey and B. Bennis, “Fading of after-images and stabilized images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 18, 139 (1979).

1977 (1)

D. H. Kelly, “Visual contrast sensitivity,” Opt. Acta 24, 107–129 (1977).
[Crossref]

1976 (2)

U. Tulunay-Keesey and R. M. Jones, “The effect of micromovements of the eye and exposure duration on contrast sensitivity,” Vision Res. 16, 481–488 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. E. Arend, “Temporal determinants of the form of the spatial contrast threshold MFT,” Vision Res. 16, 1035–1042 (1976).
[Crossref]

1975 (3)

B. Breitmeyer and B. Julesz, “The role of on and off transients in determining the psychophysical spatial frequency response,” Vision Res. 15, 411–416 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Jones and U. Tulunay-Keesey, “Local retinal adaptation and spatial frequency channels,” Vision Res. 15, 1239–1244 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Jones and U. Tulunay-Keesey, “Accuracy of image stabilization by an optical-electronic feedback system,” Vision Res. 15, 57–61 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1973 (1)

D. H. Kelly and R. E. Savoie, “A study of sine-wave contrast sensitivity by two psychophysical methods,” Percept. Psychophys. 14, 313–318 (1973).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

R. M. Jones and U. Tulunay-Keesey, “An active feedback system for stabilizing visual images,” IEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-19, 29–33 (1972).
[Crossref]

1969 (2)

C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, “On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images,” J. Physiol. (London) 203, 237–260 (1969).

D. S. Gilbert and D. H. Fender, “Contrast thresholds measured with stabilized and non-stabilized sine-wave gratings,” Opt. Acta 16, 191–204 (1969).
[Crossref]

1968 (2)

A. Watanabe, T. Mori, and K. Hiwathashi, “Spatial sine-wave responses of the human visual system,” Vision Res. 8, 1245–1263 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Riggs and A. H. L. Shick, “Accuracy of retinal image stabilization achieved with a plane mirror on a tightly fitting contact lens,” Vision Res. 8, 159–169 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1967 (1)

1963 (1)

H. B. Barlow, “Slippage of contact lenses and other artifacts in relation to fading and regeneration of supposedly stable retinal images,” Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 51, 36–51 (1963).

1957 (1)

Arend, L. E.

L. E. Arend, “Temporal determinants of the form of the spatial contrast threshold MFT,” Vision Res. 16, 1035–1042 (1976).
[Crossref]

Barlow, H. B.

H. B. Barlow, “Slippage of contact lenses and other artifacts in relation to fading and regeneration of supposedly stable retinal images,” Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 51, 36–51 (1963).

Bennis, B.

U. Tulunay-Keesey and B. Bennis, “Fading of after-images and stabilized images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 18, 139 (1979).

Bennis, B. J.

U. Tulunay-Keesey and B. J. Bennis, “Effects of stimulus onset and image motion on contrast sensitivity,” Vision Res. 19, 767–776 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blakemore, C.

C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, “On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images,” J. Physiol. (London) 203, 237–260 (1969).

Breitmeyer, B.

B. Breitmeyer and B. Julesz, “The role of on and off transients in determining the psychophysical spatial frequency response,” Vision Res. 15, 411–416 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campbell, F. W.

C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, “On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images,” J. Physiol. (London) 203, 237–260 (1969).

Fender, D. H.

D. S. Gilbert and D. H. Fender, “Contrast thresholds measured with stabilized and non-stabilized sine-wave gratings,” Opt. Acta 16, 191–204 (1969).
[Crossref]

Gilbert, D. S.

D. S. Gilbert and D. H. Fender, “Contrast thresholds measured with stabilized and non-stabilized sine-wave gratings,” Opt. Acta 16, 191–204 (1969).
[Crossref]

Hiwathashi, K.

A. Watanabe, T. Mori, and K. Hiwathashi, “Spatial sine-wave responses of the human visual system,” Vision Res. 8, 1245–1263 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jones, R. M.

U. Tulunay-Keesey and R. M. Jones, “The effect of micromovements of the eye and exposure duration on contrast sensitivity,” Vision Res. 16, 481–488 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Jones and U. Tulunay-Keesey, “Local retinal adaptation and spatial frequency channels,” Vision Res. 15, 1239–1244 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Jones and U. Tulunay-Keesey, “Accuracy of image stabilization by an optical-electronic feedback system,” Vision Res. 15, 57–61 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Jones and U. Tulunay-Keesey, “An active feedback system for stabilizing visual images,” IEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-19, 29–33 (1972).
[Crossref]

Julesz, B.

B. Breitmeyer and B. Julesz, “The role of on and off transients in determining the psychophysical spatial frequency response,” Vision Res. 15, 411–416 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kelly, D. H.

D. H. Kelly, “Motion and vision. I. Stabilized images of stationary gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1266–1274 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. Kelly, “Visual contrast sensitivity,” Opt. Acta 24, 107–129 (1977).
[Crossref]

D. H. Kelly and R. E. Savoie, “A study of sine-wave contrast sensitivity by two psychophysical methods,” Percept. Psychophys. 14, 313–318 (1973).
[Crossref]

Klein, S.

C. F. Stromeyer, Y. Y. Zeevi, and S. Klein, “Response of visual mechanisms to stimulus onsets and offsets,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1351–1354 (1979).

Krauskopf, J.

Levinson, E.

R. Sekular, A. Pantle, and E. Levinson, “Physiological Basis of Motion Perception,” in Handbook of Physiology, VII Perception, edited by R. Held, W. Leibowitz, and H. L. Teuber, (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1978).

Mori, T.

A. Watanabe, T. Mori, and K. Hiwathashi, “Spatial sine-wave responses of the human visual system,” Vision Res. 8, 1245–1263 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nachmias, J.

Pantle, A.

R. Sekular, A. Pantle, and E. Levinson, “Physiological Basis of Motion Perception,” in Handbook of Physiology, VII Perception, edited by R. Held, W. Leibowitz, and H. L. Teuber, (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1978).

Riggs, L. A.

L. A. Riggs and A. H. L. Shick, “Accuracy of retinal image stabilization achieved with a plane mirror on a tightly fitting contact lens,” Vision Res. 8, 159–169 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Savoie, R. E.

D. H. Kelly and R. E. Savoie, “A study of sine-wave contrast sensitivity by two psychophysical methods,” Percept. Psychophys. 14, 313–318 (1973).
[Crossref]

Sekular, R.

R. Sekular, A. Pantle, and E. Levinson, “Physiological Basis of Motion Perception,” in Handbook of Physiology, VII Perception, edited by R. Held, W. Leibowitz, and H. L. Teuber, (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1978).

Shick, A. H. L.

L. A. Riggs and A. H. L. Shick, “Accuracy of retinal image stabilization achieved with a plane mirror on a tightly fitting contact lens,” Vision Res. 8, 159–169 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stromeyer, C. F.

C. F. Stromeyer, Y. Y. Zeevi, and S. Klein, “Response of visual mechanisms to stimulus onsets and offsets,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1351–1354 (1979).

Tulunay-Keesey, U.

U. Tulunay-Keesey and B. Bennis, “Fading of after-images and stabilized images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 18, 139 (1979).

U. Tulunay-Keesey and B. J. Bennis, “Effects of stimulus onset and image motion on contrast sensitivity,” Vision Res. 19, 767–776 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Tulunay-Keesey and R. M. Jones, “The effect of micromovements of the eye and exposure duration on contrast sensitivity,” Vision Res. 16, 481–488 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Jones and U. Tulunay-Keesey, “Accuracy of image stabilization by an optical-electronic feedback system,” Vision Res. 15, 57–61 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Jones and U. Tulunay-Keesey, “Local retinal adaptation and spatial frequency channels,” Vision Res. 15, 1239–1244 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Jones and U. Tulunay-Keesey, “An active feedback system for stabilizing visual images,” IEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-19, 29–33 (1972).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, A.

A. Watanabe, T. Mori, and K. Hiwathashi, “Spatial sine-wave responses of the human visual system,” Vision Res. 8, 1245–1263 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeevi, Y. Y.

C. F. Stromeyer, Y. Y. Zeevi, and S. Klein, “Response of visual mechanisms to stimulus onsets and offsets,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1351–1354 (1979).

IEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

R. M. Jones and U. Tulunay-Keesey, “An active feedback system for stabilizing visual images,” IEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-19, 29–33 (1972).
[Crossref]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. (1)

U. Tulunay-Keesey and B. Bennis, “Fading of after-images and stabilized images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 18, 139 (1979).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (4)

J. Physiol. (London) (1)

C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, “On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images,” J. Physiol. (London) 203, 237–260 (1969).

Opt. Acta (2)

D. S. Gilbert and D. H. Fender, “Contrast thresholds measured with stabilized and non-stabilized sine-wave gratings,” Opt. Acta 16, 191–204 (1969).
[Crossref]

D. H. Kelly, “Visual contrast sensitivity,” Opt. Acta 24, 107–129 (1977).
[Crossref]

Percept. Psychophys. (1)

D. H. Kelly and R. E. Savoie, “A study of sine-wave contrast sensitivity by two psychophysical methods,” Percept. Psychophys. 14, 313–318 (1973).
[Crossref]

Q. J. Exp. Psychol. (1)

H. B. Barlow, “Slippage of contact lenses and other artifacts in relation to fading and regeneration of supposedly stable retinal images,” Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 51, 36–51 (1963).

Vision Res. (8)

L. A. Riggs and A. H. L. Shick, “Accuracy of retinal image stabilization achieved with a plane mirror on a tightly fitting contact lens,” Vision Res. 8, 159–169 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Jones and U. Tulunay-Keesey, “Accuracy of image stabilization by an optical-electronic feedback system,” Vision Res. 15, 57–61 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Breitmeyer and B. Julesz, “The role of on and off transients in determining the psychophysical spatial frequency response,” Vision Res. 15, 411–416 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Jones and U. Tulunay-Keesey, “Local retinal adaptation and spatial frequency channels,” Vision Res. 15, 1239–1244 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Watanabe, T. Mori, and K. Hiwathashi, “Spatial sine-wave responses of the human visual system,” Vision Res. 8, 1245–1263 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Tulunay-Keesey and R. M. Jones, “The effect of micromovements of the eye and exposure duration on contrast sensitivity,” Vision Res. 16, 481–488 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Tulunay-Keesey and B. J. Bennis, “Effects of stimulus onset and image motion on contrast sensitivity,” Vision Res. 19, 767–776 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. E. Arend, “Temporal determinants of the form of the spatial contrast threshold MFT,” Vision Res. 16, 1035–1042 (1976).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

R. Sekular, A. Pantle, and E. Levinson, “Physiological Basis of Motion Perception,” in Handbook of Physiology, VII Perception, edited by R. Held, W. Leibowitz, and H. L. Teuber, (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1978).

Sekular20has pointed out that phase alternating sinusoidal gratings can be expressed mathematically as the sum of two gratings drifting in opposite directions. This concept can be extended to any target whose contrast varies as a function of time, as when contrast is manipulated manually to determine thresholds. In this sense, none of the stimuli used by us or by others is free of moving components. In the case of the Gaussian presentation we used, the temporal variations can be specified. Each grating has a steady component at a fixed frequency and two components of the same frequency but half amplitude moving in opposite directions, with velocities that depend on the duration of the waveform. By assuming that the Gaussian is closely related to the raised cosine, it has been calculated that for a 5-cpd grating, with a period of 15 s, for example, the moving components have a velocity of 0.7 min arc/s.

Kelly8states that our data in Ref. 5 shows unaccountably low contrast sensitivity. These data were gathered on a subject with a generally low spatial contrast sensitivity (UTK) with the method of adjustment under careful fixation, conditions favorable to reduction of sensitivity by virtue of lengthy exposure to contrast. Our data in the same paper5as well as in subsequent papers6show a peak of contrast sensitivity between the frequencies of 2 and 4 cpd at contrast values ranging between 0.3 and 1%, levels as low as have been reported in the literature so far.

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Figures (2)

FIG. 1
FIG. 1

Percent contrast necessary to evoke an afterimage in stabilized viewing as a function of spatial frequency. Solid lines represent data obtained in our laboratory with observer BJB, UTK, and RMJ. The (*) represents the highest frequency that produced an afterimage for all three subjects. This also was the highest frequency available with our display unit. The method for obtaining these measures was as follows: The observer viewed a given spatial frequency and contrast grating for 10 s. Only the onset of the pattern was marked by an auditory signal. The contrast was switched off and the display was evenly illuminated at the average luminance of the pattern. Observers were asked to hold a switch down as long as they could see a pattern. If the observer switch was not released, it meant that an afterimage of the pattern was seen. After 10 s of viewing the evenly illuminated display, the pattern was presented along with the auditory signal marking the beginning of a new trial, at a lower contrast. This procedure was repeated until the observer’s release of the switch corresponded with the switch-off of the pattern. At least 10 judgments were obtained for contrast values around this transitional zone; the data points represent the average. The dashed lines represent data from Ref. 8 (Fig. 10) for subjects DK and MC.

FIG. 2
FIG. 2

Percent contrast necessary to detect sinusoidal gratings in normal, unstabilized vision (solid lines), and during stabilization of the retinal image (dotted lines). In panel (a) the temporal waveform of target contrast was Gaussian with a 7.5 s increase and 7.5 s decrease. Method of staircase was used for obtaining threshold measures. The observer judged the presence or absence of the pattern during each target presentation. An unstabilized fixation point was supplied for both viewing conditions. The observers were instructed to attempt to maintain fixation under unstabilized viewing conditions. In panel (b) the method of adjustment was used wherein the observer adjusted the contrast to a level that he felt would not change. Although unstabilized fixation was supplied as before, no instructions were given for maintaining fixation under unstabilized conditions.