Abstract

A 70-year old man developed achromatopsia with bilateral loss of superior visual fields and an inability to recognize familiar faces (prosopagnosia). Ophthalmologic examination results were normal. Visual acuity was 20/25 in either eye. Computerized axial tomography of the brain revealed infarction of the inferior aspect of the temporal occipital cortex in both hemispheres. The patient’s complaint that objects appeared only in shades of gray was supported by large errors made throughout the spectrum on the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test and by matches over the entire red/green range on the Nagel anomaloscope. Although absolute scotopic and photopic thresholds were unremarkable, the increment thresholds to a 482-nm test on a red background increased monotonically as if the Π<sub>1</sub> mechanism were absent. In addition, the spectral sensitivity to large test flashes on an intense red background peaked in the middle rather than in the short-wave portion of the spectrum, as is normally found. We speculate that the chromatic channel is compromised. The patient’s residual vision is mediated by a luminance channel that is subserved by the middle and long—but not the short—wave cone mechanisms.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. C. Meadows, "Disturbed perception of colours associated with localized cerebral lesion," Brain 97, 615–632 (1974).
  2. A. L. Pearlman, J. Birch, and J. C. Meadows, "Cerebral color blindness: An acquired defect in hue discrimination," Ann. Neurol. 5, 253–261 (1979).
  3. R. S. L. Young, G. A. Fishman, and F. Chen, "Traumatically acquired color vision defect," Invest. Ophthalmol. 19, 545–549 (1980).
  4. J. Birch, "A case of acquired tritanopia," Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 17, 325–330 (1976).
  5. A. L. Pearlman, "Anatomy and physiology of central visual pathways," in Adler's Physiology of the Eye, edited by R. A. Moses (Mosby, St. Louis, 1975).
  6. W. S. Stiles, "The directional sensitivity of the retina and the spectral sensitivity of the rods and cones," Proc. R. Soc. Biol. 127, 64–105 (1939).
  7. W. S. Stiles, "Separation of the "blue" and "green" mechanisms of foveal vision by measurements of increment thresholds," Proc. R. Soc. Biol. 133, 418–434 (1946).
  8. E. N. Pugh, Jr., "The nature of πl, color mechanism of Stiles," J. Physiol. 257, 713–747 (1976).
  9. R. S. L. Young, and G. A. Fishman, "A patient with cortical color-blindness," presented at the 1979 Optical Society of America meeting in Rochester, New York, 1979.
  10. l0.S. M. Zeki, "Uniformity and diversity of structure and function in rhesus monkey prestriate visual cortex," J. Physiol. 277, 273–290 (1978).
  11. Y. Hsai, and C. A. Graham, "Spectral luminosity curves for protanopes, deuteranopes, and normal subjects," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 43, 1011–1019 (1957).
  12. P. Whittle, "The brightness of coloured flashes on backgrounds of various colors and luminances," Vision Res. 13, 621–638 (1973).
  13. R. L. De Valois, and K. K. De Valois, "Spatial processing of color and luminance information," presented at the 1979 Optical Society of America meeting in Rochester, New York, 1979.

1980

R. S. L. Young, G. A. Fishman, and F. Chen, "Traumatically acquired color vision defect," Invest. Ophthalmol. 19, 545–549 (1980).

1979

A. L. Pearlman, J. Birch, and J. C. Meadows, "Cerebral color blindness: An acquired defect in hue discrimination," Ann. Neurol. 5, 253–261 (1979).

1978

l0.S. M. Zeki, "Uniformity and diversity of structure and function in rhesus monkey prestriate visual cortex," J. Physiol. 277, 273–290 (1978).

1976

E. N. Pugh, Jr., "The nature of πl, color mechanism of Stiles," J. Physiol. 257, 713–747 (1976).

J. Birch, "A case of acquired tritanopia," Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 17, 325–330 (1976).

1974

C. C. Meadows, "Disturbed perception of colours associated with localized cerebral lesion," Brain 97, 615–632 (1974).

1973

P. Whittle, "The brightness of coloured flashes on backgrounds of various colors and luminances," Vision Res. 13, 621–638 (1973).

1957

Y. Hsai, and C. A. Graham, "Spectral luminosity curves for protanopes, deuteranopes, and normal subjects," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 43, 1011–1019 (1957).

1946

W. S. Stiles, "Separation of the "blue" and "green" mechanisms of foveal vision by measurements of increment thresholds," Proc. R. Soc. Biol. 133, 418–434 (1946).

1939

W. S. Stiles, "The directional sensitivity of the retina and the spectral sensitivity of the rods and cones," Proc. R. Soc. Biol. 127, 64–105 (1939).

Birch, J.

A. L. Pearlman, J. Birch, and J. C. Meadows, "Cerebral color blindness: An acquired defect in hue discrimination," Ann. Neurol. 5, 253–261 (1979).

J. Birch, "A case of acquired tritanopia," Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 17, 325–330 (1976).

Chen, F.

R. S. L. Young, G. A. Fishman, and F. Chen, "Traumatically acquired color vision defect," Invest. Ophthalmol. 19, 545–549 (1980).

De Valois, K. K.

R. L. De Valois, and K. K. De Valois, "Spatial processing of color and luminance information," presented at the 1979 Optical Society of America meeting in Rochester, New York, 1979.

De Valois, R. L.

R. L. De Valois, and K. K. De Valois, "Spatial processing of color and luminance information," presented at the 1979 Optical Society of America meeting in Rochester, New York, 1979.

Fishman, G. A.

R. S. L. Young, G. A. Fishman, and F. Chen, "Traumatically acquired color vision defect," Invest. Ophthalmol. 19, 545–549 (1980).

R. S. L. Young, and G. A. Fishman, "A patient with cortical color-blindness," presented at the 1979 Optical Society of America meeting in Rochester, New York, 1979.

Graham, C. A.

Y. Hsai, and C. A. Graham, "Spectral luminosity curves for protanopes, deuteranopes, and normal subjects," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 43, 1011–1019 (1957).

Hsai, Y.

Y. Hsai, and C. A. Graham, "Spectral luminosity curves for protanopes, deuteranopes, and normal subjects," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 43, 1011–1019 (1957).

Meadows, C. C.

C. C. Meadows, "Disturbed perception of colours associated with localized cerebral lesion," Brain 97, 615–632 (1974).

Meadows, J. C.

A. L. Pearlman, J. Birch, and J. C. Meadows, "Cerebral color blindness: An acquired defect in hue discrimination," Ann. Neurol. 5, 253–261 (1979).

Pearlman, A. L.

A. L. Pearlman, J. Birch, and J. C. Meadows, "Cerebral color blindness: An acquired defect in hue discrimination," Ann. Neurol. 5, 253–261 (1979).

A. L. Pearlman, "Anatomy and physiology of central visual pathways," in Adler's Physiology of the Eye, edited by R. A. Moses (Mosby, St. Louis, 1975).

Pugh, Jr., E. N.

E. N. Pugh, Jr., "The nature of πl, color mechanism of Stiles," J. Physiol. 257, 713–747 (1976).

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles, "Separation of the "blue" and "green" mechanisms of foveal vision by measurements of increment thresholds," Proc. R. Soc. Biol. 133, 418–434 (1946).

W. S. Stiles, "The directional sensitivity of the retina and the spectral sensitivity of the rods and cones," Proc. R. Soc. Biol. 127, 64–105 (1939).

Whittle, P.

P. Whittle, "The brightness of coloured flashes on backgrounds of various colors and luminances," Vision Res. 13, 621–638 (1973).

Young, R. S. L.

R. S. L. Young, G. A. Fishman, and F. Chen, "Traumatically acquired color vision defect," Invest. Ophthalmol. 19, 545–549 (1980).

R. S. L. Young, and G. A. Fishman, "A patient with cortical color-blindness," presented at the 1979 Optical Society of America meeting in Rochester, New York, 1979.

Zeki, S. M.

l0.S. M. Zeki, "Uniformity and diversity of structure and function in rhesus monkey prestriate visual cortex," J. Physiol. 277, 273–290 (1978).

Ann. Neurol.

A. L. Pearlman, J. Birch, and J. C. Meadows, "Cerebral color blindness: An acquired defect in hue discrimination," Ann. Neurol. 5, 253–261 (1979).

Brain

C. C. Meadows, "Disturbed perception of colours associated with localized cerebral lesion," Brain 97, 615–632 (1974).

Invest. Ophthalmol.

R. S. L. Young, G. A. Fishman, and F. Chen, "Traumatically acquired color vision defect," Invest. Ophthalmol. 19, 545–549 (1980).

J. Physiol.

E. N. Pugh, Jr., "The nature of πl, color mechanism of Stiles," J. Physiol. 257, 713–747 (1976).

l0.S. M. Zeki, "Uniformity and diversity of structure and function in rhesus monkey prestriate visual cortex," J. Physiol. 277, 273–290 (1978).

Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol.

J. Birch, "A case of acquired tritanopia," Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 17, 325–330 (1976).

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Y. Hsai, and C. A. Graham, "Spectral luminosity curves for protanopes, deuteranopes, and normal subjects," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 43, 1011–1019 (1957).

Proc. R. Soc. Biol.

W. S. Stiles, "The directional sensitivity of the retina and the spectral sensitivity of the rods and cones," Proc. R. Soc. Biol. 127, 64–105 (1939).

W. S. Stiles, "Separation of the "blue" and "green" mechanisms of foveal vision by measurements of increment thresholds," Proc. R. Soc. Biol. 133, 418–434 (1946).

Vision Res.

P. Whittle, "The brightness of coloured flashes on backgrounds of various colors and luminances," Vision Res. 13, 621–638 (1973).

Other

R. L. De Valois, and K. K. De Valois, "Spatial processing of color and luminance information," presented at the 1979 Optical Society of America meeting in Rochester, New York, 1979.

R. S. L. Young, and G. A. Fishman, "A patient with cortical color-blindness," presented at the 1979 Optical Society of America meeting in Rochester, New York, 1979.

A. L. Pearlman, "Anatomy and physiology of central visual pathways," in Adler's Physiology of the Eye, edited by R. A. Moses (Mosby, St. Louis, 1975).

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