Abstract

The blue field entoptic phenomenon consists of the perception of one’s own leukocytes (white blood cells) flowing in the macular capillaries of the retina. A method has been developed for determining the speed of the leukocytes. In this method, the motion of the leukocytes is simulated on a screen by means of a minicomputer system. The subject is instructed to match the motion of the simulated white blood cells with that of his own leukocytes. For this, he can adjust the number and the maximum and minimum speeds of the simulated particles. Measurements in five young subjects with normal fundi indicate that the speed of the leukocytes in the macular capillaries of the retina is pulsatile. Minimum and maximum speeds are approximately 0.5 and 1 mm/s.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. K. Vierordt, Grundriss der Physiologie (Meidinger, Frankfurt, 1860).
  2. K. Kato, “The velocity of the blood stream in the retinal capillaries of the human eye. (The variation of the velocity of the blood stream after standing),” Acta. Soc. Ophthalmol. Jpn. 55, 1070–1078 (1971) Japanese.
  3. D. H. Hoffmann and H. H. Podestà, “Zur Messung der Ströomungsgeschwindigkeit in kleinsten Netzhautgefäassen,” Acta, XX Concilium Ophthalmologicum Germania, 1966. Edited by E. Weigelin, Excerpta Medica, 1, 162–164 (1966).
  4. M. Sint, E. Riehm, and H. H. Podestà, “Untersuchungenüber die Beziehungen der zentralen kapillaren Retinadurchblutung zur Augendruckhöhe bei Glaucompatienten mit Hilfe der entoptisch sichtbaren Blutbewegung,” Klin. Mbl. Augenheilk,  171, 743–753 (1977).
  5. C. E. Riva, J. J. Kelley, S. H. Sinclair, and M. Loebel, “Optical transmission of cataractous lens at 430 nm and blue field entoptoscopy,” Vision Res. 19, 1181–1183 (1979).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. C. E. Riva, G. T. Feke, B. Eberli, and V. Benary, “Bidirectional LDV system for absolute measurement of blood speed in retinal vessels,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2301–2306 (1979).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1979 (2)

C. E. Riva, J. J. Kelley, S. H. Sinclair, and M. Loebel, “Optical transmission of cataractous lens at 430 nm and blue field entoptoscopy,” Vision Res. 19, 1181–1183 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. E. Riva, G. T. Feke, B. Eberli, and V. Benary, “Bidirectional LDV system for absolute measurement of blood speed in retinal vessels,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2301–2306 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

M. Sint, E. Riehm, and H. H. Podestà, “Untersuchungenüber die Beziehungen der zentralen kapillaren Retinadurchblutung zur Augendruckhöhe bei Glaucompatienten mit Hilfe der entoptisch sichtbaren Blutbewegung,” Klin. Mbl. Augenheilk,  171, 743–753 (1977).

1971 (1)

K. Kato, “The velocity of the blood stream in the retinal capillaries of the human eye. (The variation of the velocity of the blood stream after standing),” Acta. Soc. Ophthalmol. Jpn. 55, 1070–1078 (1971) Japanese.

Benary, V.

Eberli, B.

Feke, G. T.

Hoffmann, D. H.

D. H. Hoffmann and H. H. Podestà, “Zur Messung der Ströomungsgeschwindigkeit in kleinsten Netzhautgefäassen,” Acta, XX Concilium Ophthalmologicum Germania, 1966. Edited by E. Weigelin, Excerpta Medica, 1, 162–164 (1966).

Kato, K.

K. Kato, “The velocity of the blood stream in the retinal capillaries of the human eye. (The variation of the velocity of the blood stream after standing),” Acta. Soc. Ophthalmol. Jpn. 55, 1070–1078 (1971) Japanese.

Kelley, J. J.

C. E. Riva, J. J. Kelley, S. H. Sinclair, and M. Loebel, “Optical transmission of cataractous lens at 430 nm and blue field entoptoscopy,” Vision Res. 19, 1181–1183 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Loebel, M.

C. E. Riva, J. J. Kelley, S. H. Sinclair, and M. Loebel, “Optical transmission of cataractous lens at 430 nm and blue field entoptoscopy,” Vision Res. 19, 1181–1183 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Podestà, H. H.

M. Sint, E. Riehm, and H. H. Podestà, “Untersuchungenüber die Beziehungen der zentralen kapillaren Retinadurchblutung zur Augendruckhöhe bei Glaucompatienten mit Hilfe der entoptisch sichtbaren Blutbewegung,” Klin. Mbl. Augenheilk,  171, 743–753 (1977).

D. H. Hoffmann and H. H. Podestà, “Zur Messung der Ströomungsgeschwindigkeit in kleinsten Netzhautgefäassen,” Acta, XX Concilium Ophthalmologicum Germania, 1966. Edited by E. Weigelin, Excerpta Medica, 1, 162–164 (1966).

Riehm, E.

M. Sint, E. Riehm, and H. H. Podestà, “Untersuchungenüber die Beziehungen der zentralen kapillaren Retinadurchblutung zur Augendruckhöhe bei Glaucompatienten mit Hilfe der entoptisch sichtbaren Blutbewegung,” Klin. Mbl. Augenheilk,  171, 743–753 (1977).

Riva, C. E.

C. E. Riva, G. T. Feke, B. Eberli, and V. Benary, “Bidirectional LDV system for absolute measurement of blood speed in retinal vessels,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2301–2306 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. E. Riva, J. J. Kelley, S. H. Sinclair, and M. Loebel, “Optical transmission of cataractous lens at 430 nm and blue field entoptoscopy,” Vision Res. 19, 1181–1183 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sinclair, S. H.

C. E. Riva, J. J. Kelley, S. H. Sinclair, and M. Loebel, “Optical transmission of cataractous lens at 430 nm and blue field entoptoscopy,” Vision Res. 19, 1181–1183 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sint, M.

M. Sint, E. Riehm, and H. H. Podestà, “Untersuchungenüber die Beziehungen der zentralen kapillaren Retinadurchblutung zur Augendruckhöhe bei Glaucompatienten mit Hilfe der entoptisch sichtbaren Blutbewegung,” Klin. Mbl. Augenheilk,  171, 743–753 (1977).

Vierordt, K.

K. Vierordt, Grundriss der Physiologie (Meidinger, Frankfurt, 1860).

Acta. Soc. Ophthalmol. Jpn. (1)

K. Kato, “The velocity of the blood stream in the retinal capillaries of the human eye. (The variation of the velocity of the blood stream after standing),” Acta. Soc. Ophthalmol. Jpn. 55, 1070–1078 (1971) Japanese.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Klin. Mbl. Augenheilk (1)

M. Sint, E. Riehm, and H. H. Podestà, “Untersuchungenüber die Beziehungen der zentralen kapillaren Retinadurchblutung zur Augendruckhöhe bei Glaucompatienten mit Hilfe der entoptisch sichtbaren Blutbewegung,” Klin. Mbl. Augenheilk,  171, 743–753 (1977).

Vision Res. (1)

C. E. Riva, J. J. Kelley, S. H. Sinclair, and M. Loebel, “Optical transmission of cataractous lens at 430 nm and blue field entoptoscopy,” Vision Res. 19, 1181–1183 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

D. H. Hoffmann and H. H. Podestà, “Zur Messung der Ströomungsgeschwindigkeit in kleinsten Netzhautgefäassen,” Acta, XX Concilium Ophthalmologicum Germania, 1966. Edited by E. Weigelin, Excerpta Medica, 1, 162–164 (1966).

K. Vierordt, Grundriss der Physiologie (Meidinger, Frankfurt, 1860).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

FIG. 1
FIG. 1

Simulated retinal capillary paths along which the SL’s moved. These paths were not visible to the subjects. The cross at the center of the field is a fixation target. The angular diameters indicated in the figure correspond to a viewing distance of 55 cm.

FIG. 2
FIG. 2

Instantaneous view of the position of the SL’s on the cathode ray tube screen. The cross at the center of the field is a fixation target.

FIG. 3
FIG. 3

Control experiments a: matching the velocity of SL’s in two simulated fields containing different number of SL’s. Five subjects were tested. Plot of Vtest/ Vref vs Ntest/Nref. Each data point represents an average based on ten trials. Error bars represents ±1 standard deviation.

FIG. 4
FIG. 4

Control experiment b: matching the number of SL’s moving in two fields, with Vtest different from Vref. Five subjects were tested. Plot of Ntest/Nref vs Vtest/Vref. Each data point represents an average based on 10 trials. Error bars represent ±1 standard deviation.

FIG. 5
FIG. 5

Generating the pulsatile speed of the SL’s. (a) Variation of the maximum speed Vmax (t) or the red blood cells in retinal arteries recorded by laser Doppler velocimetry.6 (b) Typical blood pressure wave P(t) recorded from the finger tip. (c) Normalized blood pressure wave p(t) = [P(t) − Pmin]/(PmaxPmin). (d) Speed variation VSL’s (t) of the SL’s in test and reference fields. VSL’s (t) = A p(t) + Btest.

FIG. 6
FIG. 6

Control experiment c: matching the pulsatile velocity of SL’s in two simulated fields containing the same number of corpuscles. Nine subjects were tested. Data points are average values based on ten trials. Error bars are ± 1 standard deviation. The shaded region corresponds to a matching accuracy of ±20%.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Speed of leukocytes in retinal capillaries.