Abstract

The extrafoveal spectral sensitivity function was measured during dark adaptation at different intensity levels above the cone plateau of the long-term dark-adaptation curve using both flicker and heterochromatic brightness-matching techniques. During most of the cone-plateau period, the spectral sensitivity function was found to be photopic in form at all the intensity levels employed. In the dark-adapted state, the two psychophysical techniques appeared to measure different processes. Thus, the flicker technique yielded a spectral sensitivity function which was basically scotopic in form at all the intensity levels employed while the spectral sensitivity function obtained with the brightness technique was basically photopic in form. It is suggested that, in a dark-adapted state, both rods and cones contribute to the brightness response at each wavelength over the major portion of the spectrum for a long transitional intensity range when the brightness technique is used. The flicker technique, on the other hand, appears to single out the rod activity.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. B. R. Wooten and G. Wald, "Color-vision mechanisms in the peripheral retinas of normal and dichromatic observers," J. Gen. Physiol. 61, 125–145 (1973).
  2. B. R. Wooten, K. Fuld, and L. Spillmann, "Photopic spectral sensitivity of the peripheral retina," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 334–342 (1975).
  3. G. Wald, "The receptors of human color vision," Science 145, 1007–1017 (1964).
  4. H. V. Walters and W. D. Wright, "The spectral sensitivity of the fovea and extrafovea in the Purkinje range," Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 131, 340–361 (1943).
  5. W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (Henry Kimpton, London, 1946).
  6. M. Aguilar and W. S. Stiles, "Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation," Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).
  7. J. A. S. Kinney, "Sensitivity of the eye to spectral radiation at scotopic and mesopic intensity levels," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 507–514 (1955).
  8. J. A. S. Kinney, "Comparison of scotopic, mesopic, and photopic spectral sensitivity curves," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 185–190 (1958).
  9. I. Lie, "Dark adaptation and the photochromatic interval," Doc. Ophthalmol. 17, 411–510 (1963).
  10. U. Stabell and B. Stabell, "The effect of rod activity on color matching functions," Vision Res. 15, 1119–1123 (1975).
  11. R. A. Weale, "Spectral sensitivity and wave-length discrimination of the peripheral retina," J. Physiol. London 119, 170–190 (1953).
  12. G. Wald, "Human vision and the spectrum," Science 101, 623–658 (1945).
  13. H. G. Sperling and Y. Hsia, "Some comparisons among spectral sensitivity data obtained in different retinal locations and with two sizes off foveal stimulus," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 707–713 (1957).
  14. I. Abramov and J. Gordon, "Color vision in the peripheral retina. I. Spectral sensitivity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 195–202 (1977).
  15. B. Stabell and U. Stabell, "Rod and cone contributions to peripheral color vision," Vision Res. 16, 1099–1104 (1976).
  16. U. Stabell and B. Stabell, "Absence of rod activity from peripheral vision," Vision Res. 16, 1433–1437 (1976).
  17. U. Stabell and B. Stabell, "Wavelength discrimination of peripheral cones and its change with rod intrusion," Vision Res. 17, 423–426 (1977).
  18. B. Stabell and U. Stabell, "The chromaticity coordinates for spectrum colors of extrafoveal cones," Vision Res. 17, 1091–1094 (1977).
  19. S. L. Guth and H. R. Lodge, "Heterochromatic additivity, foveal spectral sensitivity, and a new color model," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 450–462 (1973).
  20. K. P. Kaiser and J. P. Comerford, "Flicker photometry of equally bright lights," Vision Res. 15, 1399–1402 (1975).
  21. U. Stabell and B. Stabell, "Scotopic hues of simultaneous contrast," Vision Res. 18, 1491–1496 (1978).
  22. G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science, Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulas (Wiley, New York, 1967).
  23. U. Stabell and B. Stabell, "Bezold-Brücke phenomenon of the extrafoveal retina," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1648–1652 (1979).

1979 (1)

1978 (1)

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, "Scotopic hues of simultaneous contrast," Vision Res. 18, 1491–1496 (1978).

1977 (3)

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, "Wavelength discrimination of peripheral cones and its change with rod intrusion," Vision Res. 17, 423–426 (1977).

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, "The chromaticity coordinates for spectrum colors of extrafoveal cones," Vision Res. 17, 1091–1094 (1977).

I. Abramov and J. Gordon, "Color vision in the peripheral retina. I. Spectral sensitivity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 195–202 (1977).

1976 (2)

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, "Rod and cone contributions to peripheral color vision," Vision Res. 16, 1099–1104 (1976).

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, "Absence of rod activity from peripheral vision," Vision Res. 16, 1433–1437 (1976).

1975 (3)

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, "The effect of rod activity on color matching functions," Vision Res. 15, 1119–1123 (1975).

K. P. Kaiser and J. P. Comerford, "Flicker photometry of equally bright lights," Vision Res. 15, 1399–1402 (1975).

B. R. Wooten, K. Fuld, and L. Spillmann, "Photopic spectral sensitivity of the peripheral retina," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 334–342 (1975).

1973 (2)

S. L. Guth and H. R. Lodge, "Heterochromatic additivity, foveal spectral sensitivity, and a new color model," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 450–462 (1973).

B. R. Wooten and G. Wald, "Color-vision mechanisms in the peripheral retinas of normal and dichromatic observers," J. Gen. Physiol. 61, 125–145 (1973).

1964 (1)

G. Wald, "The receptors of human color vision," Science 145, 1007–1017 (1964).

1963 (1)

I. Lie, "Dark adaptation and the photochromatic interval," Doc. Ophthalmol. 17, 411–510 (1963).

1958 (1)

1957 (1)

1955 (1)

1954 (1)

M. Aguilar and W. S. Stiles, "Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation," Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).

1953 (1)

R. A. Weale, "Spectral sensitivity and wave-length discrimination of the peripheral retina," J. Physiol. London 119, 170–190 (1953).

1945 (1)

G. Wald, "Human vision and the spectrum," Science 101, 623–658 (1945).

1943 (1)

H. V. Walters and W. D. Wright, "The spectral sensitivity of the fovea and extrafovea in the Purkinje range," Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 131, 340–361 (1943).

Abramov, I.

Aguilar, M.

M. Aguilar and W. S. Stiles, "Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation," Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).

Comerford, J. P.

K. P. Kaiser and J. P. Comerford, "Flicker photometry of equally bright lights," Vision Res. 15, 1399–1402 (1975).

Fuld, K.

Gordon, J.

Guth, S. L.

Hsia, Y.

Kaiser, K. P.

K. P. Kaiser and J. P. Comerford, "Flicker photometry of equally bright lights," Vision Res. 15, 1399–1402 (1975).

Kinney, J. A. S.

Lie, I.

I. Lie, "Dark adaptation and the photochromatic interval," Doc. Ophthalmol. 17, 411–510 (1963).

Lodge, H. R.

Sperling, H. G.

Spillmann, L.

Stabell, B.

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, "Bezold-Brücke phenomenon of the extrafoveal retina," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1648–1652 (1979).

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, "Scotopic hues of simultaneous contrast," Vision Res. 18, 1491–1496 (1978).

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, "Wavelength discrimination of peripheral cones and its change with rod intrusion," Vision Res. 17, 423–426 (1977).

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, "The chromaticity coordinates for spectrum colors of extrafoveal cones," Vision Res. 17, 1091–1094 (1977).

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, "Rod and cone contributions to peripheral color vision," Vision Res. 16, 1099–1104 (1976).

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, "Absence of rod activity from peripheral vision," Vision Res. 16, 1433–1437 (1976).

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, "The effect of rod activity on color matching functions," Vision Res. 15, 1119–1123 (1975).

Stabell, U.

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, "Bezold-Brücke phenomenon of the extrafoveal retina," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1648–1652 (1979).

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, "Scotopic hues of simultaneous contrast," Vision Res. 18, 1491–1496 (1978).

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, "Wavelength discrimination of peripheral cones and its change with rod intrusion," Vision Res. 17, 423–426 (1977).

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, "The chromaticity coordinates for spectrum colors of extrafoveal cones," Vision Res. 17, 1091–1094 (1977).

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, "Rod and cone contributions to peripheral color vision," Vision Res. 16, 1099–1104 (1976).

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, "Absence of rod activity from peripheral vision," Vision Res. 16, 1433–1437 (1976).

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, "The effect of rod activity on color matching functions," Vision Res. 15, 1119–1123 (1975).

Stiles, W. S.

M. Aguilar and W. S. Stiles, "Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation," Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science, Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulas (Wiley, New York, 1967).

Wald, G.

B. R. Wooten and G. Wald, "Color-vision mechanisms in the peripheral retinas of normal and dichromatic observers," J. Gen. Physiol. 61, 125–145 (1973).

G. Wald, "The receptors of human color vision," Science 145, 1007–1017 (1964).

G. Wald, "Human vision and the spectrum," Science 101, 623–658 (1945).

Walters, H. V.

H. V. Walters and W. D. Wright, "The spectral sensitivity of the fovea and extrafovea in the Purkinje range," Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 131, 340–361 (1943).

Weale, R. A.

R. A. Weale, "Spectral sensitivity and wave-length discrimination of the peripheral retina," J. Physiol. London 119, 170–190 (1953).

Wooten, B. R.

B. R. Wooten, K. Fuld, and L. Spillmann, "Photopic spectral sensitivity of the peripheral retina," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 334–342 (1975).

B. R. Wooten and G. Wald, "Color-vision mechanisms in the peripheral retinas of normal and dichromatic observers," J. Gen. Physiol. 61, 125–145 (1973).

Wright, W. D.

H. V. Walters and W. D. Wright, "The spectral sensitivity of the fovea and extrafovea in the Purkinje range," Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 131, 340–361 (1943).

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (Henry Kimpton, London, 1946).

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science, Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulas (Wiley, New York, 1967).

Doc. Ophthalmol. (1)

I. Lie, "Dark adaptation and the photochromatic interval," Doc. Ophthalmol. 17, 411–510 (1963).

J. Gen. Physiol. (1)

B. R. Wooten and G. Wald, "Color-vision mechanisms in the peripheral retinas of normal and dichromatic observers," J. Gen. Physiol. 61, 125–145 (1973).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (7)

J. Physiol. London (1)

R. A. Weale, "Spectral sensitivity and wave-length discrimination of the peripheral retina," J. Physiol. London 119, 170–190 (1953).

Opt. Acta (1)

M. Aguilar and W. S. Stiles, "Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation," Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).

Proc. R. Soc. London (1)

H. V. Walters and W. D. Wright, "The spectral sensitivity of the fovea and extrafovea in the Purkinje range," Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 131, 340–361 (1943).

Science (2)

G. Wald, "The receptors of human color vision," Science 145, 1007–1017 (1964).

G. Wald, "Human vision and the spectrum," Science 101, 623–658 (1945).

Vision Res. (7)

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, "Rod and cone contributions to peripheral color vision," Vision Res. 16, 1099–1104 (1976).

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, "Absence of rod activity from peripheral vision," Vision Res. 16, 1433–1437 (1976).

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, "Wavelength discrimination of peripheral cones and its change with rod intrusion," Vision Res. 17, 423–426 (1977).

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, "The chromaticity coordinates for spectrum colors of extrafoveal cones," Vision Res. 17, 1091–1094 (1977).

K. P. Kaiser and J. P. Comerford, "Flicker photometry of equally bright lights," Vision Res. 15, 1399–1402 (1975).

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, "Scotopic hues of simultaneous contrast," Vision Res. 18, 1491–1496 (1978).

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, "The effect of rod activity on color matching functions," Vision Res. 15, 1119–1123 (1975).

Other (2)

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (Henry Kimpton, London, 1946).

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science, Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulas (Wiley, New York, 1967).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.