Abstract

The extrafoveal spectral sensitivity function was measured during dark adaptation at different intensity levels above the cone plateau of the long-term dark-adaptation curve using both flicker and heterochromatic brightness-matching techniques. During most of the cone-plateau period, the spectral sensitivity function was found to be photopic in form at all the intensity levels employed. In the dark-adapted state, the two psychophysical techniques appeared to measure different processes. Thus, the flicker technique yielded a spectral sensitivity function which was basically scotopic in form at all the intensity levels employed while the spectral sensitivity function obtained with the brightness technique was basically photopic in form. It is suggested that, in a dark-adapted state, both rods and cones contribute to the brightness response at each wavelength over the major portion of the spectrum for a long transitional intensity range when the brightness technique is used. The flicker technique, on the other hand, appears to single out the rod activity.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. B. Stabell and U. Stabell, “The chromaticity coordinates for spectrum colors of extrafoveal cones,” Vision Res. 17, 1091–1094 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  19. S. L. Guth and H. R. Lodge, “Heterochromatic additivity, foveal spectral sensitivity, and a new color model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 450–462(1973).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “Scotopic hues of simultaneous contrast,” Vision Res. 18, 1491–1496 (1978).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science, Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulas (Wiley, New York, 1967).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

1978 (1)

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “Scotopic hues of simultaneous contrast,” Vision Res. 18, 1491–1496 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1977 (3)

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “Wavelength discrimination of peripheral cones and its change with rod intrusion,” Vision Res. 17, 423–426 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, “The chromaticity coordinates for spectrum colors of extrafoveal cones,” Vision Res. 17, 1091–1094 (1977).
[Crossref]

I. Abramov and J. Gordon, “Color vision in the peripheral retina. I. Spectral sensitivity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 195–202 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1976 (2)

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, “Rod and cone contributions to peripheral color vision,” Vision Res. 16, 1099–1104 (1976).
[Crossref]

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “Absence of rod activity from peripheral vision,” Vision Res. 16, 1433–1437 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1975 (3)

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “The effect of rod activity on color matching functions,” Vision Res. 15, 1119–1123 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. P. Kaiser and J. P. Comerford, “Flicker photometry of equally bright lights,” Vision Res. 15, 1399–1402 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. Wooten, K. Fuld, and L. Spillmann, “Photopic spectral sensitivity of the peripheral retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 334–342 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1973 (2)

S. L. Guth and H. R. Lodge, “Heterochromatic additivity, foveal spectral sensitivity, and a new color model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 450–462(1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. Wooten and G. Wald, “Color-vision mechanisms in the peripheral retinas of normal and dichromatic observers,” J. Gen. Physiol. 61, 125–145 (1973).

1964 (1)

G. Wald, “The receptors of human color vision,” Science 145, 1007–1017 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1963 (1)

I. Lie, “Dark adaptation and the photochromatic interval,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 17, 411–510 (1963).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1958 (1)

1957 (1)

1955 (1)

1954 (1)

M. Aguilar and W. S. Stiles, “Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation,” Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).
[Crossref]

1953 (1)

R. A. Weale, “Spectral sensitivity and wave-length discrimination of the peripheral retina,” J. Physiol. London 119, 170–190 (1953).

1945 (1)

G. Wald, “Human vision and the spectrum,” Science 101, 623–658 (1945).
[Crossref]

1943 (1)

H. V. Walters and W. D. Wright, “The spectral sensitivity of the fovea and extrafovea in the Purkinje range,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 131, 340–361 (1943).
[Crossref]

Abramov, I.

Aguilar, M.

M. Aguilar and W. S. Stiles, “Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation,” Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).
[Crossref]

Comerford, J. P.

K. P. Kaiser and J. P. Comerford, “Flicker photometry of equally bright lights,” Vision Res. 15, 1399–1402 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fuld, K.

Gordon, J.

Guth, S. L.

Hsia, Y.

Kaiser, K. P.

K. P. Kaiser and J. P. Comerford, “Flicker photometry of equally bright lights,” Vision Res. 15, 1399–1402 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kinney, J. A. S.

Lie, I.

I. Lie, “Dark adaptation and the photochromatic interval,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 17, 411–510 (1963).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lodge, H. R.

Sperling, H. G.

Spillmann, L.

Stabell, B.

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “Bezold-Brücke phenomenon of the extrafoveal retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1648–1652 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “Scotopic hues of simultaneous contrast,” Vision Res. 18, 1491–1496 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “Wavelength discrimination of peripheral cones and its change with rod intrusion,” Vision Res. 17, 423–426 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, “The chromaticity coordinates for spectrum colors of extrafoveal cones,” Vision Res. 17, 1091–1094 (1977).
[Crossref]

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “Absence of rod activity from peripheral vision,” Vision Res. 16, 1433–1437 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, “Rod and cone contributions to peripheral color vision,” Vision Res. 16, 1099–1104 (1976).
[Crossref]

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “The effect of rod activity on color matching functions,” Vision Res. 15, 1119–1123 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stabell, U.

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “Bezold-Brücke phenomenon of the extrafoveal retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1648–1652 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “Scotopic hues of simultaneous contrast,” Vision Res. 18, 1491–1496 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “Wavelength discrimination of peripheral cones and its change with rod intrusion,” Vision Res. 17, 423–426 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, “The chromaticity coordinates for spectrum colors of extrafoveal cones,” Vision Res. 17, 1091–1094 (1977).
[Crossref]

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, “Rod and cone contributions to peripheral color vision,” Vision Res. 16, 1099–1104 (1976).
[Crossref]

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “Absence of rod activity from peripheral vision,” Vision Res. 16, 1433–1437 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “The effect of rod activity on color matching functions,” Vision Res. 15, 1119–1123 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stiles, W. S.

M. Aguilar and W. S. Stiles, “Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation,” Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).
[Crossref]

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science, Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulas (Wiley, New York, 1967).

Wald, G.

B. R. Wooten and G. Wald, “Color-vision mechanisms in the peripheral retinas of normal and dichromatic observers,” J. Gen. Physiol. 61, 125–145 (1973).

G. Wald, “The receptors of human color vision,” Science 145, 1007–1017 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Wald, “Human vision and the spectrum,” Science 101, 623–658 (1945).
[Crossref]

Walters, H. V.

H. V. Walters and W. D. Wright, “The spectral sensitivity of the fovea and extrafovea in the Purkinje range,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 131, 340–361 (1943).
[Crossref]

Weale, R. A.

R. A. Weale, “Spectral sensitivity and wave-length discrimination of the peripheral retina,” J. Physiol. London 119, 170–190 (1953).

Wooten, B. R.

B. R. Wooten, K. Fuld, and L. Spillmann, “Photopic spectral sensitivity of the peripheral retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 334–342 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. Wooten and G. Wald, “Color-vision mechanisms in the peripheral retinas of normal and dichromatic observers,” J. Gen. Physiol. 61, 125–145 (1973).

Wright, W. D.

H. V. Walters and W. D. Wright, “The spectral sensitivity of the fovea and extrafovea in the Purkinje range,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 131, 340–361 (1943).
[Crossref]

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (Henry Kimpton, London, 1946).

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science, Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulas (Wiley, New York, 1967).

Doc. Ophthalmol. (1)

I. Lie, “Dark adaptation and the photochromatic interval,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 17, 411–510 (1963).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gen. Physiol. (1)

B. R. Wooten and G. Wald, “Color-vision mechanisms in the peripheral retinas of normal and dichromatic observers,” J. Gen. Physiol. 61, 125–145 (1973).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (7)

J. Physiol. London (1)

R. A. Weale, “Spectral sensitivity and wave-length discrimination of the peripheral retina,” J. Physiol. London 119, 170–190 (1953).

Opt. Acta (1)

M. Aguilar and W. S. Stiles, “Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation,” Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).
[Crossref]

Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B (1)

H. V. Walters and W. D. Wright, “The spectral sensitivity of the fovea and extrafovea in the Purkinje range,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 131, 340–361 (1943).
[Crossref]

Science (2)

G. Wald, “The receptors of human color vision,” Science 145, 1007–1017 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Wald, “Human vision and the spectrum,” Science 101, 623–658 (1945).
[Crossref]

Vision Res. (7)

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “The effect of rod activity on color matching functions,” Vision Res. 15, 1119–1123 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. P. Kaiser and J. P. Comerford, “Flicker photometry of equally bright lights,” Vision Res. 15, 1399–1402 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “Scotopic hues of simultaneous contrast,” Vision Res. 18, 1491–1496 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, “Rod and cone contributions to peripheral color vision,” Vision Res. 16, 1099–1104 (1976).
[Crossref]

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “Absence of rod activity from peripheral vision,” Vision Res. 16, 1433–1437 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “Wavelength discrimination of peripheral cones and its change with rod intrusion,” Vision Res. 17, 423–426 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, “The chromaticity coordinates for spectrum colors of extrafoveal cones,” Vision Res. 17, 1091–1094 (1977).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science, Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulas (Wiley, New York, 1967).

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (Henry Kimpton, London, 1946).

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Figures (9)

FIG. 1
FIG. 1

Spectral sensitivity obtained using flicker photometry at 7° temporally during the cone-plateau period at 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5, 5.5, 6 and 6.5 min of dark adaptation. The intensity level of the standard light source of color temperature 2854 K was equivalent to 10 photopic td by foveal observation. For clarity, each successive curve has been displaced upwards by 0.2 log units. The scale of the ordinate is therefore correct only for the lowest curve. In this and the following figures, the ordinate gives the reciprocal of the intensity value of the test field in terms of nW emerging from the exit pupil. Furthermore, the data points have been connected with straight lines.

FIG. 2
FIG. 2

Spectral sensitivity obtained using flicker photometry at 7° temporally during the cone-plateau period of 6 min of dark adaptation. The intensity levels of the standard light source were equivalent to 3, 10, 30, and 100 photopic td by foveal observation.

FIG. 3
FIG. 3

Spectral sensitivity obtained using flicker photometry at 7° temporally during the cone-plateau period at 6 min of dark adaptation (○), together with spectral sensitivity obtained at the fovea (●). The intensity level of the standard light source was under both conditions equivalent to 10 photopic td by foveal observation.

FIG. 4
FIG. 4

Dark-adaptation curves of the 490-nm test light measured at 7° temporally subsequent to light-adaptation for 3 min to white light (2800 K) with constant retinal illumination of 100 000 photopic td. The measurements were obtained using flicker photometry. The intensity of the standard light source was equivalent to 3, 10, 30, and 100 photopic td by foveal observation. The ordinary dark-adaptation curve of the 490 nm test light obtained by the absolute threshold technique using 0.5-s stimulation, is included for comparison purposes.

FIG. 5
FIG. 5

Dark-adaptation curves of the 490-nm test light at 7° temporally obtained subsequent to light-adaptation for 3 min to white light of 10 000 (●) and 500 000 (▲) photopic td. Both the flicker (plain symbols) and the absolute threshold (filled symbols) techniques were employed. The intensity of the standard light source employed under the flicker conditions, was equivalent to 10 photopic td by foveal observation, while 0.5-s stimulation was employed under the threshold measurements.

FIG. 6
FIG. 6

Spectral sensitivity obtained using flicker photometry at 7° temporally during the cone-plateau period (○) and in a dark-adapted state (●). The intensity of the standard light source was under both conditions equivalent to 3, 10, and 100 photopic td by foveal observation.

FIG. 7
FIG. 7

Spectral sensitivity obtained using flicker photometry at 7° temporally in a dark-adapted state (○). The intensity of the standard light source was equivalent to 3, 10, and 100 photopic td by foveal observation. The scotopic spectral threshold curve (●) obtained 7° temporally in a dark-adapted state using 0.5-s stimulation, is included for comparison purposes. The curves are equated in the shortwave region. The ordinate values are correct only for the flicker curves.

FIG. 8
FIG. 8

Spectral sensitivity obtained at 7° temporally using the heterochromatic brightness-matching technique during the cone-plateau period between 5 and 6 min of dark-adaptation (○), and in a dark-adapted state (●). The intensity of the deep red (660 nm) comparison field was under both conditions equivalent to 3, 10, 30, and 100 photopic td by foveal observation.

FIG. 9
FIG. 9

Spectral sensitivity obtained using the hetrochromatic brightness-matching technique at 7° temporally in a dark-adapted state (○). The intensity of the deep red (660 nm) comparison field was equivalent to 3, 10, 30, and 100 photopic td by foveal observation. The scotopic spectral threshold curve (●) obtained 7° temporally in a dark-adapted state using 0.5-s stimulation is included for comparison purposes. The curves are equated in the shortwave region. The ordinate values are correct only for the brightness curve.