Abstract

The <i>II</i><sub>5</sub> color mechanism was isolated in two observers with a 667 nm, 200 ms, 1 deg foveal test flash. Stiles’s field displacement law and the law of field additivity were tested with increment thresholds upon monochromatic and bichromatic adapting fields. The data of both observers obey the displacement law and exhibit no systematic deviations from additivity. Our results cannot reject the hypothesis that the first log unit of adaptation observed under <i>II</i><sub>5</sub>-isolation conditions is determined exclusively by the quantum catch rate of the long-wavelength-sensitive cones.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. S. Stiles, "The directional sensitivity of the retina and the spectral sensitivity of the rods and cones," Proc. R. Soc. Ser. B, 127, 64–105 (1939).
  2. W. S. Stiles, "Further studies of visual mechanisms by the two-color increment threshold technique," Coloq. Prob. Opt. Vis. (Madrid) 1, 65–103 (1953).
  3. See, e.g., J. M. Enoch, "The two-color threshold technique of Stiles," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer, New York, 1972), Vol. VII/4, p. 556.
  4. See, e.g., R. W. Rodieck, The Vertebrate Retina (Freeman, San Francisco, 1973), p. 731.
  5. E. N. Pugh, Jr. and C. Sigel, "Evaluation of the candidacy of the mechanisms of Stiles for color-matching fundamentals," Vision Res. 18, 317–330 (1978).
  6. G. S. Brindley, "Two theorems in color vision," Q. J. Exp. Psych. 9, 101–112 (1957).
  7. H. Grassmann, "Zur Theorie der Farbenmischung," Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 89, 69–84 (1853).
  8. D. H. Krantz, "Color measurement and color theory. I. Representation theorem for Grassmann structures," J. Math. Psych. 12, 283–303 (1975).
  9. K. I. Naka and W. A. H. Rushton, "S-potentials from colour units in retina of fish (Cyprinidae)," J. Physiol. London 185, 535–555 (1966).
  10. B. Wandell, "Foveal recovery following chromatic adaptation," Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Irvine, 1977 (unpublished).
  11. B. Wandell and E. N. Pugh, Jr., "II′5 is not a cone," paper presented at ARVO annual meeting, Sarasota, Florida, 1978.
  12. W. S. Stiles, "Mechanisms of Colour Vision," (Academic, New York, 1978).
  13. E. N. Pugh, Jr., "The nature of the II1 mechanism of W. S. Stiles," J. Physiol. London 257, 713–714 (1976).
  14. E. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Colour Science, Concepts and Methods (Wiley, New York, 1967).
  15. Reference 1, Figs. 37 and 38; Ref. 13, Fig. 4.
  16. W. M. Boynton, S. R. Das, and J. Gardiner, "Interactions between photopic visual mechanisms revealed by mixing conditioning fields." J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1775–1780 (1966).
  17. C. E. Sternheim, C. F. Stromeyer, III, and M. C. K. Khoo, "Visibility of chromatic flicker upon spectrally mixed adapting fields," Vision Res. 19, 175–184 (1979).
  18. L. Sirovich and I. Abramov, "Photopigments and pseudo-pigments," Vision Res. 17, 5–16 (1977).
  19. W. A. H. Rushton and G. Westheimer, "The effect upon the rod threshold of bleaching neighboring rods," J. Physiol. London 164, 318–329 (1962).
  20. D. G. Green, L. Tong, and C. M. Cicerone, "Lateral spread of light adaptation in the rat retina," Vision Res. 17, 479–486 (1977).
  21. M. Alpern and W. A. H. Rushton, "The specificity of the cone interaction in the after-flash effect," J. Physiol. London 176, 473–482 (1965).
  22. S. McKee and G. Westheimer, "Specificity of cone mechanisms in lateral interaction," J. Physiol. London 206, 117–128 (1970).
  23. K. H. Ruddock, "Light transmission through the ocular media and macular pigment," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer, New York, 1972), Vol. VII/4.
  24. D. A. Baylor and A. L. Hodgkin, "Changes in time scale and sensitivity in turtle photoreceptors," J. Physiol. London 242, 729–758 (1974).
  25. J. K. Bowmaker, H. J. A. Dartnall, J. N. Lythgoe, and J. D. Mollon, "The visual pigments of rods and cones in the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta," J. Physiol. London 274, 329–348 (1978).
  26. M. Alpern and E. N. Pugh, Jr., "The variation in the action spectrum of erythrolabe among deuteranopes," J. Physiol. London 266, 613–646 (1977).

1979 (1)

C. E. Sternheim, C. F. Stromeyer, III, and M. C. K. Khoo, "Visibility of chromatic flicker upon spectrally mixed adapting fields," Vision Res. 19, 175–184 (1979).

1978 (4)

B. Wandell and E. N. Pugh, Jr., "II′5 is not a cone," paper presented at ARVO annual meeting, Sarasota, Florida, 1978.

W. S. Stiles, "Mechanisms of Colour Vision," (Academic, New York, 1978).

E. N. Pugh, Jr. and C. Sigel, "Evaluation of the candidacy of the mechanisms of Stiles for color-matching fundamentals," Vision Res. 18, 317–330 (1978).

J. K. Bowmaker, H. J. A. Dartnall, J. N. Lythgoe, and J. D. Mollon, "The visual pigments of rods and cones in the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta," J. Physiol. London 274, 329–348 (1978).

1977 (4)

M. Alpern and E. N. Pugh, Jr., "The variation in the action spectrum of erythrolabe among deuteranopes," J. Physiol. London 266, 613–646 (1977).

B. Wandell, "Foveal recovery following chromatic adaptation," Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Irvine, 1977 (unpublished).

L. Sirovich and I. Abramov, "Photopigments and pseudo-pigments," Vision Res. 17, 5–16 (1977).

D. G. Green, L. Tong, and C. M. Cicerone, "Lateral spread of light adaptation in the rat retina," Vision Res. 17, 479–486 (1977).

1976 (1)

E. N. Pugh, Jr., "The nature of the II1 mechanism of W. S. Stiles," J. Physiol. London 257, 713–714 (1976).

1975 (1)

D. H. Krantz, "Color measurement and color theory. I. Representation theorem for Grassmann structures," J. Math. Psych. 12, 283–303 (1975).

1974 (1)

D. A. Baylor and A. L. Hodgkin, "Changes in time scale and sensitivity in turtle photoreceptors," J. Physiol. London 242, 729–758 (1974).

1972 (2)

K. H. Ruddock, "Light transmission through the ocular media and macular pigment," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer, New York, 1972), Vol. VII/4.

See, e.g., J. M. Enoch, "The two-color threshold technique of Stiles," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer, New York, 1972), Vol. VII/4, p. 556.

1970 (1)

S. McKee and G. Westheimer, "Specificity of cone mechanisms in lateral interaction," J. Physiol. London 206, 117–128 (1970).

1966 (2)

K. I. Naka and W. A. H. Rushton, "S-potentials from colour units in retina of fish (Cyprinidae)," J. Physiol. London 185, 535–555 (1966).

W. M. Boynton, S. R. Das, and J. Gardiner, "Interactions between photopic visual mechanisms revealed by mixing conditioning fields." J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1775–1780 (1966).

1965 (1)

M. Alpern and W. A. H. Rushton, "The specificity of the cone interaction in the after-flash effect," J. Physiol. London 176, 473–482 (1965).

1962 (1)

W. A. H. Rushton and G. Westheimer, "The effect upon the rod threshold of bleaching neighboring rods," J. Physiol. London 164, 318–329 (1962).

1957 (1)

G. S. Brindley, "Two theorems in color vision," Q. J. Exp. Psych. 9, 101–112 (1957).

1953 (1)

W. S. Stiles, "Further studies of visual mechanisms by the two-color increment threshold technique," Coloq. Prob. Opt. Vis. (Madrid) 1, 65–103 (1953).

1939 (1)

W. S. Stiles, "The directional sensitivity of the retina and the spectral sensitivity of the rods and cones," Proc. R. Soc. Ser. B, 127, 64–105 (1939).

1853 (1)

H. Grassmann, "Zur Theorie der Farbenmischung," Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 89, 69–84 (1853).

Abramov, I.

L. Sirovich and I. Abramov, "Photopigments and pseudo-pigments," Vision Res. 17, 5–16 (1977).

Alpern, M.

M. Alpern and E. N. Pugh, Jr., "The variation in the action spectrum of erythrolabe among deuteranopes," J. Physiol. London 266, 613–646 (1977).

M. Alpern and W. A. H. Rushton, "The specificity of the cone interaction in the after-flash effect," J. Physiol. London 176, 473–482 (1965).

Baylor, D. A.

D. A. Baylor and A. L. Hodgkin, "Changes in time scale and sensitivity in turtle photoreceptors," J. Physiol. London 242, 729–758 (1974).

Bowmaker, J. K.

J. K. Bowmaker, H. J. A. Dartnall, J. N. Lythgoe, and J. D. Mollon, "The visual pigments of rods and cones in the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta," J. Physiol. London 274, 329–348 (1978).

Boynton, W. M.

Brindley, G. S.

G. S. Brindley, "Two theorems in color vision," Q. J. Exp. Psych. 9, 101–112 (1957).

Cicerone, C. M.

D. G. Green, L. Tong, and C. M. Cicerone, "Lateral spread of light adaptation in the rat retina," Vision Res. 17, 479–486 (1977).

Dartnall, H. J. A.

J. K. Bowmaker, H. J. A. Dartnall, J. N. Lythgoe, and J. D. Mollon, "The visual pigments of rods and cones in the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta," J. Physiol. London 274, 329–348 (1978).

Das, S. R.

Enoch, J. M.

See, e.g., J. M. Enoch, "The two-color threshold technique of Stiles," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer, New York, 1972), Vol. VII/4, p. 556.

Gardiner, J.

Grassmann, H.

H. Grassmann, "Zur Theorie der Farbenmischung," Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 89, 69–84 (1853).

Green, D. G.

D. G. Green, L. Tong, and C. M. Cicerone, "Lateral spread of light adaptation in the rat retina," Vision Res. 17, 479–486 (1977).

Hodgkin, A. L.

D. A. Baylor and A. L. Hodgkin, "Changes in time scale and sensitivity in turtle photoreceptors," J. Physiol. London 242, 729–758 (1974).

Khoo, M. C. K.

C. E. Sternheim, C. F. Stromeyer, III, and M. C. K. Khoo, "Visibility of chromatic flicker upon spectrally mixed adapting fields," Vision Res. 19, 175–184 (1979).

Krantz, D. H.

D. H. Krantz, "Color measurement and color theory. I. Representation theorem for Grassmann structures," J. Math. Psych. 12, 283–303 (1975).

Lythgoe, J. N.

J. K. Bowmaker, H. J. A. Dartnall, J. N. Lythgoe, and J. D. Mollon, "The visual pigments of rods and cones in the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta," J. Physiol. London 274, 329–348 (1978).

McKee, S.

S. McKee and G. Westheimer, "Specificity of cone mechanisms in lateral interaction," J. Physiol. London 206, 117–128 (1970).

Mollon, J. D.

J. K. Bowmaker, H. J. A. Dartnall, J. N. Lythgoe, and J. D. Mollon, "The visual pigments of rods and cones in the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta," J. Physiol. London 274, 329–348 (1978).

Naka, K. I.

K. I. Naka and W. A. H. Rushton, "S-potentials from colour units in retina of fish (Cyprinidae)," J. Physiol. London 185, 535–555 (1966).

Pugh, Jr., E. N.

E. N. Pugh, Jr. and C. Sigel, "Evaluation of the candidacy of the mechanisms of Stiles for color-matching fundamentals," Vision Res. 18, 317–330 (1978).

B. Wandell and E. N. Pugh, Jr., "II′5 is not a cone," paper presented at ARVO annual meeting, Sarasota, Florida, 1978.

M. Alpern and E. N. Pugh, Jr., "The variation in the action spectrum of erythrolabe among deuteranopes," J. Physiol. London 266, 613–646 (1977).

E. N. Pugh, Jr., "The nature of the II1 mechanism of W. S. Stiles," J. Physiol. London 257, 713–714 (1976).

Rodieck, R. W.

See, e.g., R. W. Rodieck, The Vertebrate Retina (Freeman, San Francisco, 1973), p. 731.

Ruddock, K. H.

K. H. Ruddock, "Light transmission through the ocular media and macular pigment," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer, New York, 1972), Vol. VII/4.

Rushton, W. A. H.

K. I. Naka and W. A. H. Rushton, "S-potentials from colour units in retina of fish (Cyprinidae)," J. Physiol. London 185, 535–555 (1966).

M. Alpern and W. A. H. Rushton, "The specificity of the cone interaction in the after-flash effect," J. Physiol. London 176, 473–482 (1965).

W. A. H. Rushton and G. Westheimer, "The effect upon the rod threshold of bleaching neighboring rods," J. Physiol. London 164, 318–329 (1962).

Sigel, C.

E. N. Pugh, Jr. and C. Sigel, "Evaluation of the candidacy of the mechanisms of Stiles for color-matching fundamentals," Vision Res. 18, 317–330 (1978).

Sirovich, L.

L. Sirovich and I. Abramov, "Photopigments and pseudo-pigments," Vision Res. 17, 5–16 (1977).

Sternheim, C. E.

C. E. Sternheim, C. F. Stromeyer, III, and M. C. K. Khoo, "Visibility of chromatic flicker upon spectrally mixed adapting fields," Vision Res. 19, 175–184 (1979).

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles, "Mechanisms of Colour Vision," (Academic, New York, 1978).

W. S. Stiles, "Further studies of visual mechanisms by the two-color increment threshold technique," Coloq. Prob. Opt. Vis. (Madrid) 1, 65–103 (1953).

W. S. Stiles, "The directional sensitivity of the retina and the spectral sensitivity of the rods and cones," Proc. R. Soc. Ser. B, 127, 64–105 (1939).

E. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Colour Science, Concepts and Methods (Wiley, New York, 1967).

Stromeyer, III, C. F.

C. E. Sternheim, C. F. Stromeyer, III, and M. C. K. Khoo, "Visibility of chromatic flicker upon spectrally mixed adapting fields," Vision Res. 19, 175–184 (1979).

Tong, L.

D. G. Green, L. Tong, and C. M. Cicerone, "Lateral spread of light adaptation in the rat retina," Vision Res. 17, 479–486 (1977).

Wandell, B.

B. Wandell and E. N. Pugh, Jr., "II′5 is not a cone," paper presented at ARVO annual meeting, Sarasota, Florida, 1978.

B. Wandell, "Foveal recovery following chromatic adaptation," Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Irvine, 1977 (unpublished).

Westheimer, G.

S. McKee and G. Westheimer, "Specificity of cone mechanisms in lateral interaction," J. Physiol. London 206, 117–128 (1970).

W. A. H. Rushton and G. Westheimer, "The effect upon the rod threshold of bleaching neighboring rods," J. Physiol. London 164, 318–329 (1962).

Wyszecki, E.

E. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Colour Science, Concepts and Methods (Wiley, New York, 1967).

Ann. Phys. (1)

H. Grassmann, "Zur Theorie der Farbenmischung," Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 89, 69–84 (1853).

Coloq. Prob. Opt. Vis. (1)

W. S. Stiles, "Further studies of visual mechanisms by the two-color increment threshold technique," Coloq. Prob. Opt. Vis. (Madrid) 1, 65–103 (1953).

J. Math. Psych. (1)

D. H. Krantz, "Color measurement and color theory. I. Representation theorem for Grassmann structures," J. Math. Psych. 12, 283–303 (1975).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Physiol. London (8)

E. N. Pugh, Jr., "The nature of the II1 mechanism of W. S. Stiles," J. Physiol. London 257, 713–714 (1976).

W. A. H. Rushton and G. Westheimer, "The effect upon the rod threshold of bleaching neighboring rods," J. Physiol. London 164, 318–329 (1962).

M. Alpern and W. A. H. Rushton, "The specificity of the cone interaction in the after-flash effect," J. Physiol. London 176, 473–482 (1965).

S. McKee and G. Westheimer, "Specificity of cone mechanisms in lateral interaction," J. Physiol. London 206, 117–128 (1970).

K. I. Naka and W. A. H. Rushton, "S-potentials from colour units in retina of fish (Cyprinidae)," J. Physiol. London 185, 535–555 (1966).

D. A. Baylor and A. L. Hodgkin, "Changes in time scale and sensitivity in turtle photoreceptors," J. Physiol. London 242, 729–758 (1974).

J. K. Bowmaker, H. J. A. Dartnall, J. N. Lythgoe, and J. D. Mollon, "The visual pigments of rods and cones in the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta," J. Physiol. London 274, 329–348 (1978).

M. Alpern and E. N. Pugh, Jr., "The variation in the action spectrum of erythrolabe among deuteranopes," J. Physiol. London 266, 613–646 (1977).

Proc. R. Soc. Ser. B (1)

W. S. Stiles, "The directional sensitivity of the retina and the spectral sensitivity of the rods and cones," Proc. R. Soc. Ser. B, 127, 64–105 (1939).

Q. J. Exp. Psych. (1)

G. S. Brindley, "Two theorems in color vision," Q. J. Exp. Psych. 9, 101–112 (1957).

Vision Res. (4)

E. N. Pugh, Jr. and C. Sigel, "Evaluation of the candidacy of the mechanisms of Stiles for color-matching fundamentals," Vision Res. 18, 317–330 (1978).

D. G. Green, L. Tong, and C. M. Cicerone, "Lateral spread of light adaptation in the rat retina," Vision Res. 17, 479–486 (1977).

C. E. Sternheim, C. F. Stromeyer, III, and M. C. K. Khoo, "Visibility of chromatic flicker upon spectrally mixed adapting fields," Vision Res. 19, 175–184 (1979).

L. Sirovich and I. Abramov, "Photopigments and pseudo-pigments," Vision Res. 17, 5–16 (1977).

Other (8)

E. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Colour Science, Concepts and Methods (Wiley, New York, 1967).

Reference 1, Figs. 37 and 38; Ref. 13, Fig. 4.

K. H. Ruddock, "Light transmission through the ocular media and macular pigment," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer, New York, 1972), Vol. VII/4.

See, e.g., J. M. Enoch, "The two-color threshold technique of Stiles," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer, New York, 1972), Vol. VII/4, p. 556.

See, e.g., R. W. Rodieck, The Vertebrate Retina (Freeman, San Francisco, 1973), p. 731.

B. Wandell, "Foveal recovery following chromatic adaptation," Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Irvine, 1977 (unpublished).

B. Wandell and E. N. Pugh, Jr., "II′5 is not a cone," paper presented at ARVO annual meeting, Sarasota, Florida, 1978.

W. S. Stiles, "Mechanisms of Colour Vision," (Academic, New York, 1978).

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