Abstract

Normal corneal electroretinograms (ERG) are analyzed in the frequency domain using the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and linear prediction (LP) methods. Four dominant frequencies at 18, 79, 126, and 159 Hz are found in the dark-adapted state. Light adaptation shifts the low frequency to higher frequency and the mid- and the two high-frequency components to lower frequencies. The relative amplitude of the high-frequency component resulting from the oscillatory potentials is quantified. It is shown that frequency-domain features are of a smaller variability than time-domain components, and can be extracted even from a noisy surface ERG.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. C. Armington, The Electroretinogram (Academic, New York, 1974).
  2. A. E. Krill, Hereditary Retinal and Choroidal Diseases (Harper and Row, New York, 1972), Vol. I.
  3. G. A. Fishman, The Electroretinogram and Electro-oculogram in Retinal and Choroidal Disease (American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolarylngology, Minneapolis, 1975).
  4. H. Peterson, "The normal b-potential in the single-flash clinical electroretinogram," Acta Ophthalmol. Suppl. 101, 1–57 (1969).
  5. P. Algvere and S. Westbeck, "Human ERG in response to double flashes of light during the course of light adaptation: a Fourier analysis of the oscillatory potentials," Vision Res. 12, 145–214 (1972).
  6. A. J. Koblasz, "Nonlinear analysis of the human electroretinogram," Ph.D. thesis, California Institute of Technology, California,1977 (unpublished).
  7. C. McCulloch, J. A. Orpin, J. W. Waisberg, and J. A. Parker, "Frequency analysis of the human dark adapted electroretinogram," Canad. J. Ophthalmol. 7, 189–198 (1974).
  8. R. E. Poppele and L. Maffei, "Frequency analysis of the electroretinogram," J. Neurophysiol. 30, 982–992 (1967).
  9. J. L. Rae, M. J. Correia, Ni, M-D, and A. J. Koblasz, "Frequency domain characterization of the human electroretinogram using gaussian white noise," ARVO, p. 194 (1978).
  10. A. Troelstra and N. M. J. Schweitzer, "An analysis of the b-wave in the human ERG," Vision Res. 3, 213–226 (1963).
  11. A. Troelstra and N. M. J. Schweitzer, "Non-linear analysis of the electroretinographic b-wave in man," J. Neurophysiol. 31, 588–606 (1968).
  12. L. H. Zetterberg, "Estimation of parameters for a linear difference equation with application to EEG analysis," Math. Biosci. 5, 227–274 (1969).
  13. M. Gjotterberg, "Double flash human electroretinogram with special reference to the oscillatory potentials and the early phase of dark adaptation: A normative study," Acta Ophthalmol. 52, 291–303 (1974).
  14. S. E. Simonson, "ERG in diabetics," in The Clinical Value of Electroretinography, edited by J. Francois (ISCERG Symposium, Ghent, 1966). (Karger, New York, 1968), pp. 403–412.
  15. E. Usami, "Studies on the method of measurement of oscillatory potential on ERG," Acta Soc. Ophthalmol. Jpn. 70, 84–91 (1965).
  16. A. Harden, "Non-corneal electroretinogram," Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 58, 811–816 (1974).
  17. J. W. Cooley, P. A. W. Lewis and P. D. Welch, "The fast Fourier transform," IEEE Trans. Audio Electroacoust. 17, 77–85 (1969).
  18. R. G. Bickford, P. T. White, C. W. Sem-Jacobson, and E. A. Rodin, "Components of the photomyoclonic response in man," Fed. Proc. 12, 15 (1953).
  19. J. Makhoul, "Linear prediction: A tutoral review," Proc. IEEE 63, 561–580 (1975).
  20. We denote the sampled normalized signal by S(n) and assume that it can be estimated by a linear combination of its past values: S(n) = - pΣk=1akS(n - k). Using the z transform we get the following all-pole model: H(z) = 1/1 + pΣk=1akz-k. In order to find the required model of the signal one has to determine the set of p coef., |ak|. The estimated spectrum is accordingly equal to: P(w) = 1/│1 + pΣk=1ake-jkw│2. The signal is thus characterized by the set of p poles and the dominant frequencies are selected with respect to their absolute value which is a measure of the quality factor.
  21. J. C. Armington, P. Gouras, D. I. Tepas, and R. Gunkel, "Detection of the electroretinogram in retinitis pigmentosa," Exp. Eye Res. 1, 74–80 (1961).
  22. Y. M. Lee, Statistical Theory of Communication (Wiley, New York, 1961).
  23. L. Stark, Neurological Control Systems - Studies in Bioengineering (Plenum, New York, 1968).
  24. L. Ronchi, "Some questions concerning electroretinographic response and its variability," Med. Res. Eng. 12, 20–24 (1978).
  25. D. Yonemura, T. Aoki and K. Tsuzuki, "Electroretinogram in diabetic retinopathy," Arch. Ophthalmol. 68, 14–24 (1962).
  26. P. Algvere, "Studies on the oscillatory potentials of the clinical electroretinogram," Acta Ophthalmol. Suppl. 96, 11 (1968).
  27. L. Wachtmeister and J. Dowling, "The oscillatory potentials of the mudpuppy retina," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 12, 1177–1188 (1978).
  28. Since eye movements are conjugate, one could record from both eyes while simulating only one eye. Since the record from the stimulated eye would contain ERG plus artifacts while the record from the other, covered eye would contain only artifacts, one could eliminate the common element either by simple subtraction or by more sophisticated methods such as cross correlation or adaptive filtering.
  29. J. H. Jacobson, T. Suzuki, and G. Stephens, "The electroretinogram obtained by computer techniques in color-deficient humans," Arch. Ophthalmol. 69, 424–435 (1963).
  30. K. Y. Fujimara, I Tsuchida, and J. H. Jacobson, "Oscillatory potential of the human electroretinogram evoked by monochromatic light," Invest. Ophthalmol. 4, 683–693 (1972).

1978 (3)

J. L. Rae, M. J. Correia, Ni, M-D, and A. J. Koblasz, "Frequency domain characterization of the human electroretinogram using gaussian white noise," ARVO, p. 194 (1978).

L. Ronchi, "Some questions concerning electroretinographic response and its variability," Med. Res. Eng. 12, 20–24 (1978).

L. Wachtmeister and J. Dowling, "The oscillatory potentials of the mudpuppy retina," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 12, 1177–1188 (1978).

1977 (1)

A. J. Koblasz, "Nonlinear analysis of the human electroretinogram," Ph.D. thesis, California Institute of Technology, California,1977 (unpublished).

1975 (1)

J. Makhoul, "Linear prediction: A tutoral review," Proc. IEEE 63, 561–580 (1975).

1974 (3)

M. Gjotterberg, "Double flash human electroretinogram with special reference to the oscillatory potentials and the early phase of dark adaptation: A normative study," Acta Ophthalmol. 52, 291–303 (1974).

A. Harden, "Non-corneal electroretinogram," Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 58, 811–816 (1974).

C. McCulloch, J. A. Orpin, J. W. Waisberg, and J. A. Parker, "Frequency analysis of the human dark adapted electroretinogram," Canad. J. Ophthalmol. 7, 189–198 (1974).

1972 (2)

P. Algvere and S. Westbeck, "Human ERG in response to double flashes of light during the course of light adaptation: a Fourier analysis of the oscillatory potentials," Vision Res. 12, 145–214 (1972).

K. Y. Fujimara, I Tsuchida, and J. H. Jacobson, "Oscillatory potential of the human electroretinogram evoked by monochromatic light," Invest. Ophthalmol. 4, 683–693 (1972).

1969 (3)

H. Peterson, "The normal b-potential in the single-flash clinical electroretinogram," Acta Ophthalmol. Suppl. 101, 1–57 (1969).

L. H. Zetterberg, "Estimation of parameters for a linear difference equation with application to EEG analysis," Math. Biosci. 5, 227–274 (1969).

J. W. Cooley, P. A. W. Lewis and P. D. Welch, "The fast Fourier transform," IEEE Trans. Audio Electroacoust. 17, 77–85 (1969).

1968 (2)

A. Troelstra and N. M. J. Schweitzer, "Non-linear analysis of the electroretinographic b-wave in man," J. Neurophysiol. 31, 588–606 (1968).

P. Algvere, "Studies on the oscillatory potentials of the clinical electroretinogram," Acta Ophthalmol. Suppl. 96, 11 (1968).

1967 (1)

R. E. Poppele and L. Maffei, "Frequency analysis of the electroretinogram," J. Neurophysiol. 30, 982–992 (1967).

1966 (1)

S. E. Simonson, "ERG in diabetics," in The Clinical Value of Electroretinography, edited by J. Francois (ISCERG Symposium, Ghent, 1966). (Karger, New York, 1968), pp. 403–412.

1965 (1)

E. Usami, "Studies on the method of measurement of oscillatory potential on ERG," Acta Soc. Ophthalmol. Jpn. 70, 84–91 (1965).

1963 (2)

A. Troelstra and N. M. J. Schweitzer, "An analysis of the b-wave in the human ERG," Vision Res. 3, 213–226 (1963).

J. H. Jacobson, T. Suzuki, and G. Stephens, "The electroretinogram obtained by computer techniques in color-deficient humans," Arch. Ophthalmol. 69, 424–435 (1963).

1962 (1)

D. Yonemura, T. Aoki and K. Tsuzuki, "Electroretinogram in diabetic retinopathy," Arch. Ophthalmol. 68, 14–24 (1962).

1961 (1)

J. C. Armington, P. Gouras, D. I. Tepas, and R. Gunkel, "Detection of the electroretinogram in retinitis pigmentosa," Exp. Eye Res. 1, 74–80 (1961).

1953 (1)

R. G. Bickford, P. T. White, C. W. Sem-Jacobson, and E. A. Rodin, "Components of the photomyoclonic response in man," Fed. Proc. 12, 15 (1953).

Algvere, P.

P. Algvere and S. Westbeck, "Human ERG in response to double flashes of light during the course of light adaptation: a Fourier analysis of the oscillatory potentials," Vision Res. 12, 145–214 (1972).

P. Algvere, "Studies on the oscillatory potentials of the clinical electroretinogram," Acta Ophthalmol. Suppl. 96, 11 (1968).

Aoki, T.

D. Yonemura, T. Aoki and K. Tsuzuki, "Electroretinogram in diabetic retinopathy," Arch. Ophthalmol. 68, 14–24 (1962).

Armington, J. C.

J. C. Armington, P. Gouras, D. I. Tepas, and R. Gunkel, "Detection of the electroretinogram in retinitis pigmentosa," Exp. Eye Res. 1, 74–80 (1961).

J. C. Armington, The Electroretinogram (Academic, New York, 1974).

Bickford, R. G.

R. G. Bickford, P. T. White, C. W. Sem-Jacobson, and E. A. Rodin, "Components of the photomyoclonic response in man," Fed. Proc. 12, 15 (1953).

Cooley, J. W.

J. W. Cooley, P. A. W. Lewis and P. D. Welch, "The fast Fourier transform," IEEE Trans. Audio Electroacoust. 17, 77–85 (1969).

Correia, M. J.

J. L. Rae, M. J. Correia, Ni, M-D, and A. J. Koblasz, "Frequency domain characterization of the human electroretinogram using gaussian white noise," ARVO, p. 194 (1978).

Dowling, J.

L. Wachtmeister and J. Dowling, "The oscillatory potentials of the mudpuppy retina," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 12, 1177–1188 (1978).

Fishman, G. A.

G. A. Fishman, The Electroretinogram and Electro-oculogram in Retinal and Choroidal Disease (American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolarylngology, Minneapolis, 1975).

Fujimara, K. Y.

K. Y. Fujimara, I Tsuchida, and J. H. Jacobson, "Oscillatory potential of the human electroretinogram evoked by monochromatic light," Invest. Ophthalmol. 4, 683–693 (1972).

Gjotterberg, M.

M. Gjotterberg, "Double flash human electroretinogram with special reference to the oscillatory potentials and the early phase of dark adaptation: A normative study," Acta Ophthalmol. 52, 291–303 (1974).

Gouras, P.

J. C. Armington, P. Gouras, D. I. Tepas, and R. Gunkel, "Detection of the electroretinogram in retinitis pigmentosa," Exp. Eye Res. 1, 74–80 (1961).

Gunkel, R.

J. C. Armington, P. Gouras, D. I. Tepas, and R. Gunkel, "Detection of the electroretinogram in retinitis pigmentosa," Exp. Eye Res. 1, 74–80 (1961).

Harden, A.

A. Harden, "Non-corneal electroretinogram," Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 58, 811–816 (1974).

Jacobson, J. H.

K. Y. Fujimara, I Tsuchida, and J. H. Jacobson, "Oscillatory potential of the human electroretinogram evoked by monochromatic light," Invest. Ophthalmol. 4, 683–693 (1972).

J. H. Jacobson, T. Suzuki, and G. Stephens, "The electroretinogram obtained by computer techniques in color-deficient humans," Arch. Ophthalmol. 69, 424–435 (1963).

Koblasz, A. J.

J. L. Rae, M. J. Correia, Ni, M-D, and A. J. Koblasz, "Frequency domain characterization of the human electroretinogram using gaussian white noise," ARVO, p. 194 (1978).

A. J. Koblasz, "Nonlinear analysis of the human electroretinogram," Ph.D. thesis, California Institute of Technology, California,1977 (unpublished).

Krill, A. E.

A. E. Krill, Hereditary Retinal and Choroidal Diseases (Harper and Row, New York, 1972), Vol. I.

Lee, Y. M.

Y. M. Lee, Statistical Theory of Communication (Wiley, New York, 1961).

Lewis, P. A. W.

J. W. Cooley, P. A. W. Lewis and P. D. Welch, "The fast Fourier transform," IEEE Trans. Audio Electroacoust. 17, 77–85 (1969).

Maffei, L.

R. E. Poppele and L. Maffei, "Frequency analysis of the electroretinogram," J. Neurophysiol. 30, 982–992 (1967).

Makhoul, J.

J. Makhoul, "Linear prediction: A tutoral review," Proc. IEEE 63, 561–580 (1975).

McCulloch, C.

C. McCulloch, J. A. Orpin, J. W. Waisberg, and J. A. Parker, "Frequency analysis of the human dark adapted electroretinogram," Canad. J. Ophthalmol. 7, 189–198 (1974).

Orpin, J. A.

C. McCulloch, J. A. Orpin, J. W. Waisberg, and J. A. Parker, "Frequency analysis of the human dark adapted electroretinogram," Canad. J. Ophthalmol. 7, 189–198 (1974).

Parker, J. A.

C. McCulloch, J. A. Orpin, J. W. Waisberg, and J. A. Parker, "Frequency analysis of the human dark adapted electroretinogram," Canad. J. Ophthalmol. 7, 189–198 (1974).

Peterson, H.

H. Peterson, "The normal b-potential in the single-flash clinical electroretinogram," Acta Ophthalmol. Suppl. 101, 1–57 (1969).

Poppele, R. E.

R. E. Poppele and L. Maffei, "Frequency analysis of the electroretinogram," J. Neurophysiol. 30, 982–992 (1967).

Rae, J. L.

J. L. Rae, M. J. Correia, Ni, M-D, and A. J. Koblasz, "Frequency domain characterization of the human electroretinogram using gaussian white noise," ARVO, p. 194 (1978).

Rodin, E. A.

R. G. Bickford, P. T. White, C. W. Sem-Jacobson, and E. A. Rodin, "Components of the photomyoclonic response in man," Fed. Proc. 12, 15 (1953).

Ronchi, L.

L. Ronchi, "Some questions concerning electroretinographic response and its variability," Med. Res. Eng. 12, 20–24 (1978).

Schweitzer, N. M. J.

A. Troelstra and N. M. J. Schweitzer, "Non-linear analysis of the electroretinographic b-wave in man," J. Neurophysiol. 31, 588–606 (1968).

A. Troelstra and N. M. J. Schweitzer, "An analysis of the b-wave in the human ERG," Vision Res. 3, 213–226 (1963).

Sem-Jacobson, C. W.

R. G. Bickford, P. T. White, C. W. Sem-Jacobson, and E. A. Rodin, "Components of the photomyoclonic response in man," Fed. Proc. 12, 15 (1953).

Simonson, S. E.

S. E. Simonson, "ERG in diabetics," in The Clinical Value of Electroretinography, edited by J. Francois (ISCERG Symposium, Ghent, 1966). (Karger, New York, 1968), pp. 403–412.

Stark, L.

L. Stark, Neurological Control Systems - Studies in Bioengineering (Plenum, New York, 1968).

Stephens, G.

J. H. Jacobson, T. Suzuki, and G. Stephens, "The electroretinogram obtained by computer techniques in color-deficient humans," Arch. Ophthalmol. 69, 424–435 (1963).

Suzuki, T.

J. H. Jacobson, T. Suzuki, and G. Stephens, "The electroretinogram obtained by computer techniques in color-deficient humans," Arch. Ophthalmol. 69, 424–435 (1963).

Tepas, D. I.

J. C. Armington, P. Gouras, D. I. Tepas, and R. Gunkel, "Detection of the electroretinogram in retinitis pigmentosa," Exp. Eye Res. 1, 74–80 (1961).

Troelstra, A.

A. Troelstra and N. M. J. Schweitzer, "Non-linear analysis of the electroretinographic b-wave in man," J. Neurophysiol. 31, 588–606 (1968).

A. Troelstra and N. M. J. Schweitzer, "An analysis of the b-wave in the human ERG," Vision Res. 3, 213–226 (1963).

Tsuchida, I

K. Y. Fujimara, I Tsuchida, and J. H. Jacobson, "Oscillatory potential of the human electroretinogram evoked by monochromatic light," Invest. Ophthalmol. 4, 683–693 (1972).

Tsuzuki, K.

D. Yonemura, T. Aoki and K. Tsuzuki, "Electroretinogram in diabetic retinopathy," Arch. Ophthalmol. 68, 14–24 (1962).

Usami, E.

E. Usami, "Studies on the method of measurement of oscillatory potential on ERG," Acta Soc. Ophthalmol. Jpn. 70, 84–91 (1965).

Wachtmeister, L.

L. Wachtmeister and J. Dowling, "The oscillatory potentials of the mudpuppy retina," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 12, 1177–1188 (1978).

Waisberg, J. W.

C. McCulloch, J. A. Orpin, J. W. Waisberg, and J. A. Parker, "Frequency analysis of the human dark adapted electroretinogram," Canad. J. Ophthalmol. 7, 189–198 (1974).

Welch, P. D.

J. W. Cooley, P. A. W. Lewis and P. D. Welch, "The fast Fourier transform," IEEE Trans. Audio Electroacoust. 17, 77–85 (1969).

Westbeck, S.

P. Algvere and S. Westbeck, "Human ERG in response to double flashes of light during the course of light adaptation: a Fourier analysis of the oscillatory potentials," Vision Res. 12, 145–214 (1972).

White, P. T.

R. G. Bickford, P. T. White, C. W. Sem-Jacobson, and E. A. Rodin, "Components of the photomyoclonic response in man," Fed. Proc. 12, 15 (1953).

Yonemura, D.

D. Yonemura, T. Aoki and K. Tsuzuki, "Electroretinogram in diabetic retinopathy," Arch. Ophthalmol. 68, 14–24 (1962).

Zetterberg, L. H.

L. H. Zetterberg, "Estimation of parameters for a linear difference equation with application to EEG analysis," Math. Biosci. 5, 227–274 (1969).

Acta Ophthalmol. (1)

M. Gjotterberg, "Double flash human electroretinogram with special reference to the oscillatory potentials and the early phase of dark adaptation: A normative study," Acta Ophthalmol. 52, 291–303 (1974).

Acta Ophthalmol. Suppl. (2)

H. Peterson, "The normal b-potential in the single-flash clinical electroretinogram," Acta Ophthalmol. Suppl. 101, 1–57 (1969).

P. Algvere, "Studies on the oscillatory potentials of the clinical electroretinogram," Acta Ophthalmol. Suppl. 96, 11 (1968).

Acta Soc. Ophthalmol. Jpn. (1)

E. Usami, "Studies on the method of measurement of oscillatory potential on ERG," Acta Soc. Ophthalmol. Jpn. 70, 84–91 (1965).

Arch. Ophthalmol. (2)

J. H. Jacobson, T. Suzuki, and G. Stephens, "The electroretinogram obtained by computer techniques in color-deficient humans," Arch. Ophthalmol. 69, 424–435 (1963).

D. Yonemura, T. Aoki and K. Tsuzuki, "Electroretinogram in diabetic retinopathy," Arch. Ophthalmol. 68, 14–24 (1962).

Brit. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

A. Harden, "Non-corneal electroretinogram," Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 58, 811–816 (1974).

Canad. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

C. McCulloch, J. A. Orpin, J. W. Waisberg, and J. A. Parker, "Frequency analysis of the human dark adapted electroretinogram," Canad. J. Ophthalmol. 7, 189–198 (1974).

Exp. Eye Res. (1)

J. C. Armington, P. Gouras, D. I. Tepas, and R. Gunkel, "Detection of the electroretinogram in retinitis pigmentosa," Exp. Eye Res. 1, 74–80 (1961).

Fed. Proc. (1)

R. G. Bickford, P. T. White, C. W. Sem-Jacobson, and E. A. Rodin, "Components of the photomyoclonic response in man," Fed. Proc. 12, 15 (1953).

IEEE Trans. Audio Electroacoust. (1)

J. W. Cooley, P. A. W. Lewis and P. D. Welch, "The fast Fourier transform," IEEE Trans. Audio Electroacoust. 17, 77–85 (1969).

Invest. Ophthalmol. (1)

K. Y. Fujimara, I Tsuchida, and J. H. Jacobson, "Oscillatory potential of the human electroretinogram evoked by monochromatic light," Invest. Ophthalmol. 4, 683–693 (1972).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (1)

L. Wachtmeister and J. Dowling, "The oscillatory potentials of the mudpuppy retina," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 12, 1177–1188 (1978).

J. Neurophysiol. (2)

R. E. Poppele and L. Maffei, "Frequency analysis of the electroretinogram," J. Neurophysiol. 30, 982–992 (1967).

A. Troelstra and N. M. J. Schweitzer, "Non-linear analysis of the electroretinographic b-wave in man," J. Neurophysiol. 31, 588–606 (1968).

Math. Biosci. (1)

L. H. Zetterberg, "Estimation of parameters for a linear difference equation with application to EEG analysis," Math. Biosci. 5, 227–274 (1969).

Med. Res. Eng. (1)

L. Ronchi, "Some questions concerning electroretinographic response and its variability," Med. Res. Eng. 12, 20–24 (1978).

Vision Res. (2)

A. Troelstra and N. M. J. Schweitzer, "An analysis of the b-wave in the human ERG," Vision Res. 3, 213–226 (1963).

P. Algvere and S. Westbeck, "Human ERG in response to double flashes of light during the course of light adaptation: a Fourier analysis of the oscillatory potentials," Vision Res. 12, 145–214 (1972).

Other (11)

A. J. Koblasz, "Nonlinear analysis of the human electroretinogram," Ph.D. thesis, California Institute of Technology, California,1977 (unpublished).

J. C. Armington, The Electroretinogram (Academic, New York, 1974).

A. E. Krill, Hereditary Retinal and Choroidal Diseases (Harper and Row, New York, 1972), Vol. I.

G. A. Fishman, The Electroretinogram and Electro-oculogram in Retinal and Choroidal Disease (American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolarylngology, Minneapolis, 1975).

J. L. Rae, M. J. Correia, Ni, M-D, and A. J. Koblasz, "Frequency domain characterization of the human electroretinogram using gaussian white noise," ARVO, p. 194 (1978).

S. E. Simonson, "ERG in diabetics," in The Clinical Value of Electroretinography, edited by J. Francois (ISCERG Symposium, Ghent, 1966). (Karger, New York, 1968), pp. 403–412.

J. Makhoul, "Linear prediction: A tutoral review," Proc. IEEE 63, 561–580 (1975).

We denote the sampled normalized signal by S(n) and assume that it can be estimated by a linear combination of its past values: S(n) = - pΣk=1akS(n - k). Using the z transform we get the following all-pole model: H(z) = 1/1 + pΣk=1akz-k. In order to find the required model of the signal one has to determine the set of p coef., |ak|. The estimated spectrum is accordingly equal to: P(w) = 1/│1 + pΣk=1ake-jkw│2. The signal is thus characterized by the set of p poles and the dominant frequencies are selected with respect to their absolute value which is a measure of the quality factor.

Y. M. Lee, Statistical Theory of Communication (Wiley, New York, 1961).

L. Stark, Neurological Control Systems - Studies in Bioengineering (Plenum, New York, 1968).

Since eye movements are conjugate, one could record from both eyes while simulating only one eye. Since the record from the stimulated eye would contain ERG plus artifacts while the record from the other, covered eye would contain only artifacts, one could eliminate the common element either by simple subtraction or by more sophisticated methods such as cross correlation or adaptive filtering.

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