Abstract

The distribution of the average electric energy density defines which part of an exposed photosensitive resist layer is affected by the light beam. The image, which is formed by using optical projection systems, cannot be described by the standard Fresnel-Kirchhoff theory if highly reflective substrates are used. The theory has to take full account of the vectorial character of the light that accomplishes the exposure of the resist. It is shown that, even when objectives with a high numerical aperture are used, the standing wave effects will strongly affect the image. Especially in the region very close to the metal-resist interface, large deviations from scalar diffraction theory have been observed. These conclusions are supported by experimental evidence. The relevance of the theory is discussed by considering the consequences for the realization of microelectronic circuits.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Middelhoek, "Projection masking, thin photoresist layers and interference effects," IBM J. Res. Dev. 14, 117–124 (1970).
  2. H. A. M. van den Berg, R. F. Humphreys, J. J. M. Ruigrok, and A. Venema, "Submicron IDT fabrication," Proc. Ultrason. Symp. 77CH, 767–769 (1977).
  3. H. I. Smith, N. Efremov, and P. L. Kelley, "Photolithographic contact printing of 4000 Å linewidth patterns," J. Electrochem. Soc. 21, 1503–1506 (1974).
  4. B. J. Lin, "Deep-UV conformable-contact photolithography for bubble circuits," IBM J. Res. Dev. 20, 213–221 (1976).
  5. A. N. Broers, "A review of high-resolution microfabrication techniques," Proc. 7th Essderc Brighton, 1977, pp. 155–177.
  6. H. I. Smith, "Fabrication techniques for surface-acoustic wave and thin-film optical devices," Proc. IEEE 62, 1361–1382 (1974).
  7. W. G. Heitman and P. M. van den Berg, "Diffraction of Electromagnetic Waves by a Semi-infinite Screen in a layered Medium," Can. J. Phys. 53, 1305–1317 (1975).
  8. Private communication between B. J. Lin and P. M. van den Berg.
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  22. R. F. Millard, "The diffraction of an electromagnetic wave by a circular aperture," Monograph, 196R, 1–9 (1956).
  23. H. A. M. van den Berg and J. B. van Staden, "Antireflection coatings on metal layers for photolithographic purposes," J. Appl. Phys. 50, 1212–1214 (1979).

1979 (1)

H. A. M. van den Berg and J. B. van Staden, "Antireflection coatings on metal layers for photolithographic purposes," J. Appl. Phys. 50, 1212–1214 (1979).

1978 (1)

H. A. M. van den Berg and J. J. M. Ruigrok, "Theory and practice of image formation by the photoprojection method of submicron patterns," Appl. Phys. 16, 279–287 (1978).

1977 (2)

H. A. M. van den Berg, R. F. Humphreys, J. J. M. Ruigrok, and A. Venema, "Submicron IDT fabrication," Proc. Ultrason. Symp. 77CH, 767–769 (1977).

A. N. Broers, "A review of high-resolution microfabrication techniques," Proc. 7th Essderc Brighton, 1977, pp. 155–177.

1976 (1)

B. J. Lin, "Deep-UV conformable-contact photolithography for bubble circuits," IBM J. Res. Dev. 20, 213–221 (1976).

1975 (2)

W. G. Heitman and P. M. van den Berg, "Diffraction of Electromagnetic Waves by a Semi-infinite Screen in a layered Medium," Can. J. Phys. 53, 1305–1317 (1975).

D. W. Widmann, "Quantitative evaluation of photoresist patterns in the 1-µm range," Appl. Opt. 14, 931–934 (1975).

1974 (3)

A. R. Neureuther and F. H. Dill, "Photoresist modeling and device fabrication applications," Proc. Opt. Acoust. Microelectron. 23, 233–249 (1974).

H. I. Smith, "Fabrication techniques for surface-acoustic wave and thin-film optical devices," Proc. IEEE 62, 1361–1382 (1974).

H. I. Smith, N. Efremov, and P. L. Kelley, "Photolithographic contact printing of 4000 Å linewidth patterns," J. Electrochem. Soc. 21, 1503–1506 (1974).

1970 (1)

S. Middelhoek, "Projection masking, thin photoresist layers and interference effects," IBM J. Res. Dev. 14, 117–124 (1970).

1969 (1)

1967 (3)

1966 (2)

P. S. Considine, "Effects of coherence on imaging systems," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1001–1009 (1966).

J. H. Schuëtze and K. E. Hennings, "Micron and submicron patterns for semiconductor devices and integrated circuits," S.C.P. and Solid State Technol. 9, 31–39 (1966).

1959 (2)

E. Wolf, "Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems.I. An integral representation of the image field," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 253, 349–357 (1959).

B. Richards and E. Wolf, "Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems. II. Structures of the image field in an aplanatic system," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 253, 358–379 (1959).

1956 (1)

R. F. Millard, "The diffraction of an electromagnetic wave by a circular aperture," Monograph, 196R, 1–9 (1956).

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1975).

Bouvin, A.

Broers, A. N.

A. N. Broers, "A review of high-resolution microfabrication techniques," Proc. 7th Essderc Brighton, 1977, pp. 155–177.

Clang, R.

L. J. Maissal and R. Clang, Handbook of Thin Film Technology (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1970), p. 736.

Clay, J. R.

Considine, P. S.

Dill, F. H.

A. R. Neureuther and F. H. Dill, "Photoresist modeling and device fabrication applications," Proc. Opt. Acoust. Microelectron. 23, 233–249 (1974).

Dow, J.

Efremov, N.

H. I. Smith, N. Efremov, and P. L. Kelley, "Photolithographic contact printing of 4000 Å linewidth patterns," J. Electrochem. Soc. 21, 1503–1506 (1974).

Frank, R. I.

R. I. Frank and W. L. Moberg, "Optical properties of reactively evaporated chromium oxide films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 4, 133–134 (1967).

Heitman, W. G.

W. G. Heitman and P. M. van den Berg, "Diffraction of Electromagnetic Waves by a Semi-infinite Screen in a layered Medium," Can. J. Phys. 53, 1305–1317 (1975).

Hennings, K. E.

J. H. Schuëtze and K. E. Hennings, "Micron and submicron patterns for semiconductor devices and integrated circuits," S.C.P. and Solid State Technol. 9, 31–39 (1966).

Humphreys, R. F.

H. A. M. van den Berg, R. F. Humphreys, J. J. M. Ruigrok, and A. Venema, "Submicron IDT fabrication," Proc. Ultrason. Symp. 77CH, 767–769 (1977).

Kelley, P. L.

H. I. Smith, N. Efremov, and P. L. Kelley, "Photolithographic contact printing of 4000 Å linewidth patterns," J. Electrochem. Soc. 21, 1503–1506 (1974).

Lin, B. J.

B. J. Lin, "Deep-UV conformable-contact photolithography for bubble circuits," IBM J. Res. Dev. 20, 213–221 (1976).

Private communication between B. J. Lin and P. M. van den Berg.

Maissal, L. J.

L. J. Maissal and R. Clang, Handbook of Thin Film Technology (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1970), p. 736.

Middelhoek, S.

S. Middelhoek, "Projection masking, thin photoresist layers and interference effects," IBM J. Res. Dev. 14, 117–124 (1970).

Millard, R. F.

R. F. Millard, "The diffraction of an electromagnetic wave by a circular aperture," Monograph, 196R, 1–9 (1956).

Moberg, W. L.

R. I. Frank and W. L. Moberg, "Optical properties of reactively evaporated chromium oxide films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 4, 133–134 (1967).

Neureuther, A. R.

A. R. Neureuther and F. H. Dill, "Photoresist modeling and device fabrication applications," Proc. Opt. Acoust. Microelectron. 23, 233–249 (1974).

Richards, B.

B. Richards and E. Wolf, "Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems. II. Structures of the image field in an aplanatic system," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 253, 358–379 (1959).

Rowe, S. H.

Ruigrok, J. J. M.

H. A. M. van den Berg and J. J. M. Ruigrok, "Theory and practice of image formation by the photoprojection method of submicron patterns," Appl. Phys. 16, 279–287 (1978).

H. A. M. van den Berg, R. F. Humphreys, J. J. M. Ruigrok, and A. Venema, "Submicron IDT fabrication," Proc. Ultrason. Symp. 77CH, 767–769 (1977).

Schuëtze, J. H.

J. H. Schuëtze and K. E. Hennings, "Micron and submicron patterns for semiconductor devices and integrated circuits," S.C.P. and Solid State Technol. 9, 31–39 (1966).

Smith, H. I.

H. I. Smith, "Fabrication techniques for surface-acoustic wave and thin-film optical devices," Proc. IEEE 62, 1361–1382 (1974).

H. I. Smith, N. Efremov, and P. L. Kelley, "Photolithographic contact printing of 4000 Å linewidth patterns," J. Electrochem. Soc. 21, 1503–1506 (1974).

Swing, R. E.

van den Berg, H. A. M.

H. A. M. van den Berg and J. B. van Staden, "Antireflection coatings on metal layers for photolithographic purposes," J. Appl. Phys. 50, 1212–1214 (1979).

H. A. M. van den Berg and J. J. M. Ruigrok, "Theory and practice of image formation by the photoprojection method of submicron patterns," Appl. Phys. 16, 279–287 (1978).

H. A. M. van den Berg, R. F. Humphreys, J. J. M. Ruigrok, and A. Venema, "Submicron IDT fabrication," Proc. Ultrason. Symp. 77CH, 767–769 (1977).

van den Berg, P. M.

W. G. Heitman and P. M. van den Berg, "Diffraction of Electromagnetic Waves by a Semi-infinite Screen in a layered Medium," Can. J. Phys. 53, 1305–1317 (1975).

Private communication between B. J. Lin and P. M. van den Berg.

van Staden, J. B.

H. A. M. van den Berg and J. B. van Staden, "Antireflection coatings on metal layers for photolithographic purposes," J. Appl. Phys. 50, 1212–1214 (1979).

Venema, A.

H. A. M. van den Berg, R. F. Humphreys, J. J. M. Ruigrok, and A. Venema, "Submicron IDT fabrication," Proc. Ultrason. Symp. 77CH, 767–769 (1977).

Widmann, D. W.

Wolf, E.

A. Bouvin, J. Dow, and E. Wolf, "Energy flow in the neighborhood of the focus of a coherent beam," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1171–1175 (1967).

E. Wolf, "Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems.I. An integral representation of the image field," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 253, 349–357 (1959).

B. Richards and E. Wolf, "Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems. II. Structures of the image field in an aplanatic system," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 253, 358–379 (1959).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1975).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. (1)

H. A. M. van den Berg and J. J. M. Ruigrok, "Theory and practice of image formation by the photoprojection method of submicron patterns," Appl. Phys. 16, 279–287 (1978).

Can. J. Phys. (1)

W. G. Heitman and P. M. van den Berg, "Diffraction of Electromagnetic Waves by a Semi-infinite Screen in a layered Medium," Can. J. Phys. 53, 1305–1317 (1975).

IBM J. Res. Dev. (2)

S. Middelhoek, "Projection masking, thin photoresist layers and interference effects," IBM J. Res. Dev. 14, 117–124 (1970).

B. J. Lin, "Deep-UV conformable-contact photolithography for bubble circuits," IBM J. Res. Dev. 20, 213–221 (1976).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. A. M. van den Berg and J. B. van Staden, "Antireflection coatings on metal layers for photolithographic purposes," J. Appl. Phys. 50, 1212–1214 (1979).

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

H. I. Smith, N. Efremov, and P. L. Kelley, "Photolithographic contact printing of 4000 Å linewidth patterns," J. Electrochem. Soc. 21, 1503–1506 (1974).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (4)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (1)

R. I. Frank and W. L. Moberg, "Optical properties of reactively evaporated chromium oxide films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 4, 133–134 (1967).

Monograph (1)

R. F. Millard, "The diffraction of an electromagnetic wave by a circular aperture," Monograph, 196R, 1–9 (1956).

Proc. Opt. Acoust. Microelectron. (1)

A. R. Neureuther and F. H. Dill, "Photoresist modeling and device fabrication applications," Proc. Opt. Acoust. Microelectron. 23, 233–249 (1974).

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A (2)

E. Wolf, "Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems.I. An integral representation of the image field," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 253, 349–357 (1959).

B. Richards and E. Wolf, "Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems. II. Structures of the image field in an aplanatic system," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 253, 358–379 (1959).

Proc. Ultrason. Symp. (1)

H. A. M. van den Berg, R. F. Humphreys, J. J. M. Ruigrok, and A. Venema, "Submicron IDT fabrication," Proc. Ultrason. Symp. 77CH, 767–769 (1977).

S.C.P. and Solid State Technol. (1)

J. H. Schuëtze and K. E. Hennings, "Micron and submicron patterns for semiconductor devices and integrated circuits," S.C.P. and Solid State Technol. 9, 31–39 (1966).

Other (5)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1975).

A. N. Broers, "A review of high-resolution microfabrication techniques," Proc. 7th Essderc Brighton, 1977, pp. 155–177.

H. I. Smith, "Fabrication techniques for surface-acoustic wave and thin-film optical devices," Proc. IEEE 62, 1361–1382 (1974).

Private communication between B. J. Lin and P. M. van den Berg.

L. J. Maissal and R. Clang, Handbook of Thin Film Technology (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1970), p. 736.

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