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  1. Weiss and Koenigsberger, Ann. d. Phys., (4)  35, p. 21; 1911.
  2. Koenigsberger, Ann. d. Phys., (4)  47, p. 563; 1915.
    [Crossref]
  3. Cermak and Schmidt, Ann. d. Phys. (4)  36, p. 579; 1911.
  4. Siebel, Inaug. Diss., Kiel; 1914.
  5. Darling and Grace, Proc. Lond. Phys. Soc.,  30, p. 14; 1917.
    [Crossref]
  6. Pelabon, Ann. de Physique 13, p. 169; 1920.
  7. Bureau of Standards Circular No. 66, p. 6.
  8. Similarly, if battery b2is balanced against the standard cell with circuit B closed, then B should be balanced with circuit C open, i.e. with b2connected to R′. An illustration of the advantageous use of this second method is the employment of a White potentiometer designed to give strictly constant resistance in the galvanometer circuit with the battery circuits open, in which case key K and battery b1could be eliminated. If the resistance of circuit C could be made simultaneously independent of the dial settings with circuit B closed, then manipulation would be reduced to the simplicity of the ordinary potentiometer. The method has its greatest applicability for the measurement of extremely small emfs, when the interaction of the above effects would become negligible and manipulation would be equally simple.In adjusting circuit D to eliminate stray emfs, battery b2need not be replaced in circuit C by an equal resistance because of the negligible effect of leaving circuit C open during the operation.
  9. Described by Burgess, “Measurement of High Temperatures” 3d ed, p. 419.
  10. Richardson, The Electron Theory of Matter (1914), p. 461. It has been long recognized, as stated on page 462, that formulas of this type are very unsatisfactory.
  11. Northrup and Suydam, J. Frank. Inst.,  175, p. 159; 1913.

1920 (1)

Pelabon, Ann. de Physique 13, p. 169; 1920.

1917 (1)

Darling and Grace, Proc. Lond. Phys. Soc.,  30, p. 14; 1917.
[Crossref]

1915 (1)

Koenigsberger, Ann. d. Phys., (4)  47, p. 563; 1915.
[Crossref]

1913 (1)

Northrup and Suydam, J. Frank. Inst.,  175, p. 159; 1913.

1911 (2)

Cermak and Schmidt, Ann. d. Phys. (4)  36, p. 579; 1911.

Weiss and Koenigsberger, Ann. d. Phys., (4)  35, p. 21; 1911.

Burgess,

Described by Burgess, “Measurement of High Temperatures” 3d ed, p. 419.

Cermak,

Cermak and Schmidt, Ann. d. Phys. (4)  36, p. 579; 1911.

Darling,

Darling and Grace, Proc. Lond. Phys. Soc.,  30, p. 14; 1917.
[Crossref]

Grace,

Darling and Grace, Proc. Lond. Phys. Soc.,  30, p. 14; 1917.
[Crossref]

Koenigsberger,

Koenigsberger, Ann. d. Phys., (4)  47, p. 563; 1915.
[Crossref]

Weiss and Koenigsberger, Ann. d. Phys., (4)  35, p. 21; 1911.

Northrup,

Northrup and Suydam, J. Frank. Inst.,  175, p. 159; 1913.

Pelabon,

Pelabon, Ann. de Physique 13, p. 169; 1920.

Richardson,

Richardson, The Electron Theory of Matter (1914), p. 461. It has been long recognized, as stated on page 462, that formulas of this type are very unsatisfactory.

Schmidt,

Cermak and Schmidt, Ann. d. Phys. (4)  36, p. 579; 1911.

Siebel,

Siebel, Inaug. Diss., Kiel; 1914.

Suydam,

Northrup and Suydam, J. Frank. Inst.,  175, p. 159; 1913.

Weiss,

Weiss and Koenigsberger, Ann. d. Phys., (4)  35, p. 21; 1911.

Ann. d. Phys. (3)

Weiss and Koenigsberger, Ann. d. Phys., (4)  35, p. 21; 1911.

Koenigsberger, Ann. d. Phys., (4)  47, p. 563; 1915.
[Crossref]

Cermak and Schmidt, Ann. d. Phys. (4)  36, p. 579; 1911.

Ann. de Physique (1)

Pelabon, Ann. de Physique 13, p. 169; 1920.

J. Frank. Inst. (1)

Northrup and Suydam, J. Frank. Inst.,  175, p. 159; 1913.

Proc. Lond. Phys. Soc. (1)

Darling and Grace, Proc. Lond. Phys. Soc.,  30, p. 14; 1917.
[Crossref]

Other (5)

Bureau of Standards Circular No. 66, p. 6.

Similarly, if battery b2is balanced against the standard cell with circuit B closed, then B should be balanced with circuit C open, i.e. with b2connected to R′. An illustration of the advantageous use of this second method is the employment of a White potentiometer designed to give strictly constant resistance in the galvanometer circuit with the battery circuits open, in which case key K and battery b1could be eliminated. If the resistance of circuit C could be made simultaneously independent of the dial settings with circuit B closed, then manipulation would be reduced to the simplicity of the ordinary potentiometer. The method has its greatest applicability for the measurement of extremely small emfs, when the interaction of the above effects would become negligible and manipulation would be equally simple.In adjusting circuit D to eliminate stray emfs, battery b2need not be replaced in circuit C by an equal resistance because of the negligible effect of leaving circuit C open during the operation.

Described by Burgess, “Measurement of High Temperatures” 3d ed, p. 419.

Richardson, The Electron Theory of Matter (1914), p. 461. It has been long recognized, as stated on page 462, that formulas of this type are very unsatisfactory.

Siebel, Inaug. Diss., Kiel; 1914.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Arrangement of couples.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diagram of electrical circuit.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Emf-temperature diagram for PtRh vs Sn.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Autographic emf-temperature record for PtRh vs Sn.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Autographic emf-temperature record for PtRh vs Sn.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R x + R p = r 4 = r 1 r 3 r 2 = a constant
( d e d t ) Liquid ( d e d t ) Solid = 1.2 microvolts / deg C
d d θ ( e L e S ) = R l n N S N L
( d e d θ ) L ( d e d θ ) S = 66 microvolts / deg C
P = ( d e d θ ) θ = 0.6 millivolts