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  1. Bunsen and Roscoe. Pogg. Ann. 96. p. 96 to 373Pogg. Ann. 100. p. 43 to 481Pogg. Ann. 101. p. 255Pogg. Ann. 108. p. 193
  2. J. ScheinerApplication de la Photographie a la Determination des Grandeurs Stellaires. Bull. du Comite 1, p. 227: 1889. Ast. Machr. Nr. 2889.
  3. W. de W. AbneyPhot. Jour. 18 p. 302; 1893–4.
  4. K. SchwarzschildPhot. Corr.1899, p. 171. Astro. Phys. 11, p. 89, 1900. Beitrag. zur. Phot. Photen. d Gestirne.
    [Crossref]
  5. Eder. Handbuch,  2, Jahrbuch, p. 457; 1899.
  6. A. Schellen Inaug. Dissert Rostock, 1898.
  7. E. EnglischDas Schwarzungs-gesets. Published by W. Knapp, Halle. 1901.
  8. Sheppard and Mees, Phot. Jour. 43, p. 48; 1903. Phot. Jour. 54; p. 282, 1914.
  9. Kron, Eder’s Jahrbuch, p. 6; 1914.
  10. J. HalmRoy. Astronomical Soc. Monthly Notices, p. 472; June, 1922.
  11. P. S. Helmick, Phys. Rev. 11, p. 372; 1918. Phys. Rev. 17, p. 135; 1921. Opt. Soc. Amer. 5, p. 336; 1921.
    [Crossref]
  12. F. E. Ross, Jour. Opt. Soc.,  4, p. 255; 1920.
    [Crossref]
  13. L. A. Jones, J. O. S. A. & R. S. I. 7, p. 305; 1923.
    [Crossref]
  14. W. E. Forsythe, J. O. S. A. & R. S. I. 6, p. 476; 1922.
    [Crossref]
  15. L. A. Jones (loc. cit).
  16. F. F. Renwick, Phot. Jour. 40, p. 11; 1916.
  17. A. H. Nietz, Phot. Jour. 60, p. 280; 1920. The Theory of Development, Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N. Y.

1923 (1)

L. A. Jones, J. O. S. A. & R. S. I. 7, p. 305; 1923.
[Crossref]

1922 (2)

W. E. Forsythe, J. O. S. A. & R. S. I. 6, p. 476; 1922.
[Crossref]

J. HalmRoy. Astronomical Soc. Monthly Notices, p. 472; June, 1922.

1920 (2)

F. E. Ross, Jour. Opt. Soc.,  4, p. 255; 1920.
[Crossref]

A. H. Nietz, Phot. Jour. 60, p. 280; 1920. The Theory of Development, Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N. Y.

1918 (1)

P. S. Helmick, Phys. Rev. 11, p. 372; 1918. Phys. Rev. 17, p. 135; 1921. Opt. Soc. Amer. 5, p. 336; 1921.
[Crossref]

1916 (1)

F. F. Renwick, Phot. Jour. 40, p. 11; 1916.

1914 (1)

Kron, Eder’s Jahrbuch, p. 6; 1914.

1903 (1)

Sheppard and Mees, Phot. Jour. 43, p. 48; 1903. Phot. Jour. 54; p. 282, 1914.

1899 (2)

K. SchwarzschildPhot. Corr.1899, p. 171. Astro. Phys. 11, p. 89, 1900. Beitrag. zur. Phot. Photen. d Gestirne.
[Crossref]

Eder. Handbuch,  2, Jahrbuch, p. 457; 1899.

1889 (1)

J. ScheinerApplication de la Photographie a la Determination des Grandeurs Stellaires. Bull. du Comite 1, p. 227: 1889. Ast. Machr. Nr. 2889.

Abney, W. de W.

W. de W. AbneyPhot. Jour. 18 p. 302; 1893–4.

Bunsen,

Bunsen and Roscoe. Pogg. Ann. 96. p. 96 to 373Pogg. Ann. 100. p. 43 to 481Pogg. Ann. 101. p. 255Pogg. Ann. 108. p. 193

Eder,

Eder. Handbuch,  2, Jahrbuch, p. 457; 1899.

Englisch, E.

E. EnglischDas Schwarzungs-gesets. Published by W. Knapp, Halle. 1901.

Forsythe, W. E.

W. E. Forsythe, J. O. S. A. & R. S. I. 6, p. 476; 1922.
[Crossref]

Halm, J.

J. HalmRoy. Astronomical Soc. Monthly Notices, p. 472; June, 1922.

Helmick, P. S.

P. S. Helmick, Phys. Rev. 11, p. 372; 1918. Phys. Rev. 17, p. 135; 1921. Opt. Soc. Amer. 5, p. 336; 1921.
[Crossref]

Jones, L. A.

L. A. Jones, J. O. S. A. & R. S. I. 7, p. 305; 1923.
[Crossref]

L. A. Jones (loc. cit).

Kron,

Kron, Eder’s Jahrbuch, p. 6; 1914.

Mees,

Sheppard and Mees, Phot. Jour. 43, p. 48; 1903. Phot. Jour. 54; p. 282, 1914.

Nietz, A. H.

A. H. Nietz, Phot. Jour. 60, p. 280; 1920. The Theory of Development, Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N. Y.

Renwick, F. F.

F. F. Renwick, Phot. Jour. 40, p. 11; 1916.

Roscoe,

Bunsen and Roscoe. Pogg. Ann. 96. p. 96 to 373Pogg. Ann. 100. p. 43 to 481Pogg. Ann. 101. p. 255Pogg. Ann. 108. p. 193

Ross, F. E.

F. E. Ross, Jour. Opt. Soc.,  4, p. 255; 1920.
[Crossref]

Scheiner, J.

J. ScheinerApplication de la Photographie a la Determination des Grandeurs Stellaires. Bull. du Comite 1, p. 227: 1889. Ast. Machr. Nr. 2889.

Schellen, A.

A. Schellen Inaug. Dissert Rostock, 1898.

Schwarzschild, K.

K. SchwarzschildPhot. Corr.1899, p. 171. Astro. Phys. 11, p. 89, 1900. Beitrag. zur. Phot. Photen. d Gestirne.
[Crossref]

Sheppard,

Sheppard and Mees, Phot. Jour. 43, p. 48; 1903. Phot. Jour. 54; p. 282, 1914.

Bull. du Comite (1)

J. ScheinerApplication de la Photographie a la Determination des Grandeurs Stellaires. Bull. du Comite 1, p. 227: 1889. Ast. Machr. Nr. 2889.

Eder’s Jahrbuch (1)

Kron, Eder’s Jahrbuch, p. 6; 1914.

Handbuch (1)

Eder. Handbuch,  2, Jahrbuch, p. 457; 1899.

J. O. S. A. & R. S. I. (2)

L. A. Jones, J. O. S. A. & R. S. I. 7, p. 305; 1923.
[Crossref]

W. E. Forsythe, J. O. S. A. & R. S. I. 6, p. 476; 1922.
[Crossref]

Jour. Opt. Soc. (1)

F. E. Ross, Jour. Opt. Soc.,  4, p. 255; 1920.
[Crossref]

Phot. Corr. (1)

K. SchwarzschildPhot. Corr.1899, p. 171. Astro. Phys. 11, p. 89, 1900. Beitrag. zur. Phot. Photen. d Gestirne.
[Crossref]

Phot. Jour. (4)

W. de W. AbneyPhot. Jour. 18 p. 302; 1893–4.

F. F. Renwick, Phot. Jour. 40, p. 11; 1916.

A. H. Nietz, Phot. Jour. 60, p. 280; 1920. The Theory of Development, Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N. Y.

Sheppard and Mees, Phot. Jour. 43, p. 48; 1903. Phot. Jour. 54; p. 282, 1914.

Phys. Rev. (1)

P. S. Helmick, Phys. Rev. 11, p. 372; 1918. Phys. Rev. 17, p. 135; 1921. Opt. Soc. Amer. 5, p. 336; 1921.
[Crossref]

Pogg. Ann. (1)

Bunsen and Roscoe. Pogg. Ann. 96. p. 96 to 373Pogg. Ann. 100. p. 43 to 481Pogg. Ann. 101. p. 255Pogg. Ann. 108. p. 193

Roy. Astronomical Soc. Monthly Notices (1)

J. HalmRoy. Astronomical Soc. Monthly Notices, p. 472; June, 1922.

Other (3)

A. Schellen Inaug. Dissert Rostock, 1898.

E. EnglischDas Schwarzungs-gesets. Published by W. Knapp, Halle. 1901.

L. A. Jones (loc. cit).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical H and D Curve.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Characteristic curves for different intensities.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variation of gamma with intensity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Position of intersection point.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Method of correcting to mean gamma.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Variation of density with intensity. Each curve for a constant value of I·t.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Characteristic curves for different intensities.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Variation of gamma with intensity.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Method of correcting to mean gamma.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Variation of density with intensity. Each curve for a constant value of I·t.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Variation of gamma with intensity.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Variation of density with intensity. Each curve for a constant value of I·t.

Tables (16)

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Table 2 Lamp House No. 2

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Table 3 Seed 30Set No. 40

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Table 5 (Seed 23)Density (for the indicated step number on strips)

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Table 8 (Seed 23)Log t

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Table 9 (Seed 30)Density

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Table 10 (Seed 30)I·t

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Table 12 (Cine Positive)Density

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Table 13 (Cine Positive)Relation between Gamma and Intensity

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Table 14 (Cine Positive)

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Table 15 (Cine Positive)

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Table 16 (Seed 23)Gamma=.85 b=−.30

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Table 17 (Seed 30)Gamma=.83b=−.25

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Table 18 (Cine Positive)Gamma variable with Ib=−.34

Equations (3)

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E = t · I · 10 - a ( log I I 0 ) 2 + 1
I 1 · t 1 p = I 2 · t 2 p log I 1 + p · log t 1 = log I 2 + p · log t 2 p =             log I 1 - log I 2 log t 2 - log t 1
log E = log ( I · t ) log E = log I + log t log t = log E - log I log t 2 - log t 1 = log E 2 - log I 2 - log E 1 + log I 1 = ( log E 2 - log E 1 ) + ( log I - log I 2 ) p             = ( log I 1 - log I 2 ) ( log E 2 - log E 1 ) + ( log I 1 - log I 2 )