Abstract

A source for the continous production of neutral metastable atoms is described. A hollow cathode discharge tube was used to produce densities of 3.5 × 10<sup>13</sup> cm<sup>−3</sup> and column densities of 1.6×10<sup>15</sup> cm<sup>−2</sup> in the 4<i>s</i><sup>2 2</sup><i>D</i> metastable term of neutral copper. The accuracy of these density determinations (±30 to ±66%) is limited by the oscillator strengths required for the analysis. The usefulness of the source was demonstrated by measurements of relative oscillator strengths of some Cu I lines in the 2200-Å wavelength region. These data are compared with those obtained by other methods.

© 1979 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Csillag, M. Janossy, K. Rozsa, and T. Salamon, "Near Infrared CW Laser Oscillation in CuII," Phys. Lett. A 50, 13–14 (1974).
  2. W. K. Schuebel, "Laser action in AlII and HeI in a slot hollow cathode discharge," Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 516–519 (1977).
  3. J. R. McNeil, G. J. Collins, K. B. Persson, and D. L. Franzen, "CW laser oscillation in Cu II," Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 595–598 (1975).
  4. J. R. McNeil, G. J. Collins, K. B. Persson, and D. L. Franzen, "Ultraviolet laser action from Cull in the 2500-Å region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 207–209 (1976).
  5. B. E. Warner, D. C. Gerstenberger, R. D. Reid, J. R. McNeil, R. Solanski, K. B. Persson, and G. J. Collins, "1 W Operation of Singly Ionized Silver and Copper Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 568–570 (1978).
  6. N. Elander and H. Neuhaus, "Various Types of Hollow Cathodes and Absorption in Optical Spectroscopy," Physica Scripta 10, 130–132 (1974).
  7. W. C. Marlow, "Hakenmethode," Appl. Opt. 6, 1715–1724 (1967).
  8. M. C. E. Huber, Modern Optical Methods in Gas Dynamic Research, edited by D. S. Dosanjh, (Plenum, New York, 1971), pp. 85–112.
  9. F. P. Banfield, M. C. E. Huber, W. H. Parkinson, and E. F. Tubbs, "Instrumentation for Combined Dispersion and Absorption Measurements in the VUV," Appl. Opt. 12, 1279–1285 (1973).
  10. F. J. P. Clarke and W. R. S. Garton, "Grating spectrophotometer for the Schumann ultra-violet range," J. Sci. Instrum. 36, 403–409 (1959).
  11. M. C. E. Huber and W. H. Parkinson, "Fe Oscillator Strengths Determined from Anomalous Dispersion of Shock-Heated Gases," Astrophys. J. 172, 229–247 (1972).
  12. M. C. E. Huber and R. J. Sandeman, "Oscillator Strengths of Cr I Lines Lying between 200 and 541 nm from Hook-Method and Absorption Measurements in a Furnace," Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 357, 335–379 (1977).
  13. A. Bielski, "A Critical Survey of Atomic Transition Probabilities," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 15, 463–472 (1975).
  14. F. J. de Hoog, J. R. McNeil, G. J. Collins, and K. B. Persson, "Discharge studies of the Ne-Cu Laser," J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3701–3704 (1977).
  15. W. F. Meggers, C. H. Corliss, and B. F. Scribner, Tables of Spectral Line Intensities, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Monogr. 32 (U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1961).
  16. C. H. Corliss, Revision of the NBS Tables of Spectral Line Intensities Below 2450 Å, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Monogr. 32 Suppl., (U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1967).
  17. C. H. Corliss, "A Review of Oscillator Strengths for Lines of Cu I," J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) 74A, 781–790 (1970).
  18. P. L. Smith and M. Kuhne, "Oscillator strengths of neutral titanium from hook method measurements in a furnace. I," Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 362, 263–279.
  19. G. G. Lombardi, P. L. Smith, and W. H. Parkinson, "Measurement of the photoionization cross section of neutral iron," Phys. Rev. A 18, 2131–2134 (1978).
  20. G. D. Bell and E. F. Tubbs, "Revised Absolute ƒ-values for λ3247 of Neutral Copper and λ3720 of Neutral Iron," Astrophys. J. 159, 1093–1100 (1970).
  21. M. Kock and J. Richter, "Experimentelle Übergangswahrscheinlichkeiten und die solare Häufigkeit des Kupfers," Z. Astrophys. 69, 180–192 (1968).
  22. J. E. Vernazza, E. H. Avrett, and R. Loeser, "Structure of the Solar Chromosphere. II," Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 30, 1–60 (1976).
  23. R. G. Athay and B. W. Lites, "Fe I Ionization and Excitation Equilibrium in the Solar Atmosphere," Astrophys. J. 176, 809–831 (1972).
  24. M. Koch and M. Kuhne, "Hook measurements on a wall-stabilized arc," J. Phys. B. 10, 3421–3426 (1977).
  25. F. P. Banfield and M. C. E. Huber, "Oscillator Strengths of Ultraviolet Fe I Lines from Hook-Method Measurements in a Furnace,"Astrophys. J. 186, 335–346 (1973).

1978 (2)

B. E. Warner, D. C. Gerstenberger, R. D. Reid, J. R. McNeil, R. Solanski, K. B. Persson, and G. J. Collins, "1 W Operation of Singly Ionized Silver and Copper Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 568–570 (1978).

G. G. Lombardi, P. L. Smith, and W. H. Parkinson, "Measurement of the photoionization cross section of neutral iron," Phys. Rev. A 18, 2131–2134 (1978).

1977 (4)

M. C. E. Huber and R. J. Sandeman, "Oscillator Strengths of Cr I Lines Lying between 200 and 541 nm from Hook-Method and Absorption Measurements in a Furnace," Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 357, 335–379 (1977).

F. J. de Hoog, J. R. McNeil, G. J. Collins, and K. B. Persson, "Discharge studies of the Ne-Cu Laser," J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3701–3704 (1977).

W. K. Schuebel, "Laser action in AlII and HeI in a slot hollow cathode discharge," Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 516–519 (1977).

M. Koch and M. Kuhne, "Hook measurements on a wall-stabilized arc," J. Phys. B. 10, 3421–3426 (1977).

1976 (2)

J. R. McNeil, G. J. Collins, K. B. Persson, and D. L. Franzen, "Ultraviolet laser action from Cull in the 2500-Å region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 207–209 (1976).

J. E. Vernazza, E. H. Avrett, and R. Loeser, "Structure of the Solar Chromosphere. II," Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 30, 1–60 (1976).

1975 (2)

A. Bielski, "A Critical Survey of Atomic Transition Probabilities," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 15, 463–472 (1975).

J. R. McNeil, G. J. Collins, K. B. Persson, and D. L. Franzen, "CW laser oscillation in Cu II," Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 595–598 (1975).

1974 (2)

L. Csillag, M. Janossy, K. Rozsa, and T. Salamon, "Near Infrared CW Laser Oscillation in CuII," Phys. Lett. A 50, 13–14 (1974).

N. Elander and H. Neuhaus, "Various Types of Hollow Cathodes and Absorption in Optical Spectroscopy," Physica Scripta 10, 130–132 (1974).

1973 (2)

F. P. Banfield, M. C. E. Huber, W. H. Parkinson, and E. F. Tubbs, "Instrumentation for Combined Dispersion and Absorption Measurements in the VUV," Appl. Opt. 12, 1279–1285 (1973).

F. P. Banfield and M. C. E. Huber, "Oscillator Strengths of Ultraviolet Fe I Lines from Hook-Method Measurements in a Furnace,"Astrophys. J. 186, 335–346 (1973).

1972 (2)

M. C. E. Huber and W. H. Parkinson, "Fe Oscillator Strengths Determined from Anomalous Dispersion of Shock-Heated Gases," Astrophys. J. 172, 229–247 (1972).

R. G. Athay and B. W. Lites, "Fe I Ionization and Excitation Equilibrium in the Solar Atmosphere," Astrophys. J. 176, 809–831 (1972).

1970 (2)

G. D. Bell and E. F. Tubbs, "Revised Absolute ƒ-values for λ3247 of Neutral Copper and λ3720 of Neutral Iron," Astrophys. J. 159, 1093–1100 (1970).

C. H. Corliss, "A Review of Oscillator Strengths for Lines of Cu I," J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) 74A, 781–790 (1970).

1968 (1)

M. Kock and J. Richter, "Experimentelle Übergangswahrscheinlichkeiten und die solare Häufigkeit des Kupfers," Z. Astrophys. 69, 180–192 (1968).

1967 (1)

1959 (1)

F. J. P. Clarke and W. R. S. Garton, "Grating spectrophotometer for the Schumann ultra-violet range," J. Sci. Instrum. 36, 403–409 (1959).

Athay, R. G.

R. G. Athay and B. W. Lites, "Fe I Ionization and Excitation Equilibrium in the Solar Atmosphere," Astrophys. J. 176, 809–831 (1972).

Avrett, E. H.

J. E. Vernazza, E. H. Avrett, and R. Loeser, "Structure of the Solar Chromosphere. II," Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 30, 1–60 (1976).

Banfield, F. P.

F. P. Banfield and M. C. E. Huber, "Oscillator Strengths of Ultraviolet Fe I Lines from Hook-Method Measurements in a Furnace,"Astrophys. J. 186, 335–346 (1973).

F. P. Banfield, M. C. E. Huber, W. H. Parkinson, and E. F. Tubbs, "Instrumentation for Combined Dispersion and Absorption Measurements in the VUV," Appl. Opt. 12, 1279–1285 (1973).

Bell, G. D.

G. D. Bell and E. F. Tubbs, "Revised Absolute ƒ-values for λ3247 of Neutral Copper and λ3720 of Neutral Iron," Astrophys. J. 159, 1093–1100 (1970).

Bielski, A.

A. Bielski, "A Critical Survey of Atomic Transition Probabilities," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 15, 463–472 (1975).

Clarke, F. J. P.

F. J. P. Clarke and W. R. S. Garton, "Grating spectrophotometer for the Schumann ultra-violet range," J. Sci. Instrum. 36, 403–409 (1959).

Collins, G. J.

B. E. Warner, D. C. Gerstenberger, R. D. Reid, J. R. McNeil, R. Solanski, K. B. Persson, and G. J. Collins, "1 W Operation of Singly Ionized Silver and Copper Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 568–570 (1978).

F. J. de Hoog, J. R. McNeil, G. J. Collins, and K. B. Persson, "Discharge studies of the Ne-Cu Laser," J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3701–3704 (1977).

J. R. McNeil, G. J. Collins, K. B. Persson, and D. L. Franzen, "Ultraviolet laser action from Cull in the 2500-Å region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 207–209 (1976).

J. R. McNeil, G. J. Collins, K. B. Persson, and D. L. Franzen, "CW laser oscillation in Cu II," Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 595–598 (1975).

Corliss, C. H.

C. H. Corliss, "A Review of Oscillator Strengths for Lines of Cu I," J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) 74A, 781–790 (1970).

W. F. Meggers, C. H. Corliss, and B. F. Scribner, Tables of Spectral Line Intensities, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Monogr. 32 (U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1961).

C. H. Corliss, Revision of the NBS Tables of Spectral Line Intensities Below 2450 Å, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Monogr. 32 Suppl., (U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1967).

Csillag, L.

L. Csillag, M. Janossy, K. Rozsa, and T. Salamon, "Near Infrared CW Laser Oscillation in CuII," Phys. Lett. A 50, 13–14 (1974).

de Hoog, F. J.

F. J. de Hoog, J. R. McNeil, G. J. Collins, and K. B. Persson, "Discharge studies of the Ne-Cu Laser," J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3701–3704 (1977).

Elander, N.

N. Elander and H. Neuhaus, "Various Types of Hollow Cathodes and Absorption in Optical Spectroscopy," Physica Scripta 10, 130–132 (1974).

Franzen, D. L.

J. R. McNeil, G. J. Collins, K. B. Persson, and D. L. Franzen, "Ultraviolet laser action from Cull in the 2500-Å region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 207–209 (1976).

J. R. McNeil, G. J. Collins, K. B. Persson, and D. L. Franzen, "CW laser oscillation in Cu II," Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 595–598 (1975).

Garton, W. R. S.

F. J. P. Clarke and W. R. S. Garton, "Grating spectrophotometer for the Schumann ultra-violet range," J. Sci. Instrum. 36, 403–409 (1959).

Gerstenberger, D. C.

B. E. Warner, D. C. Gerstenberger, R. D. Reid, J. R. McNeil, R. Solanski, K. B. Persson, and G. J. Collins, "1 W Operation of Singly Ionized Silver and Copper Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 568–570 (1978).

Huber, M. C. E.

M. C. E. Huber and R. J. Sandeman, "Oscillator Strengths of Cr I Lines Lying between 200 and 541 nm from Hook-Method and Absorption Measurements in a Furnace," Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 357, 335–379 (1977).

F. P. Banfield, M. C. E. Huber, W. H. Parkinson, and E. F. Tubbs, "Instrumentation for Combined Dispersion and Absorption Measurements in the VUV," Appl. Opt. 12, 1279–1285 (1973).

F. P. Banfield and M. C. E. Huber, "Oscillator Strengths of Ultraviolet Fe I Lines from Hook-Method Measurements in a Furnace,"Astrophys. J. 186, 335–346 (1973).

M. C. E. Huber and W. H. Parkinson, "Fe Oscillator Strengths Determined from Anomalous Dispersion of Shock-Heated Gases," Astrophys. J. 172, 229–247 (1972).

M. C. E. Huber, Modern Optical Methods in Gas Dynamic Research, edited by D. S. Dosanjh, (Plenum, New York, 1971), pp. 85–112.

Janossy, M.

L. Csillag, M. Janossy, K. Rozsa, and T. Salamon, "Near Infrared CW Laser Oscillation in CuII," Phys. Lett. A 50, 13–14 (1974).

Koch, M.

M. Koch and M. Kuhne, "Hook measurements on a wall-stabilized arc," J. Phys. B. 10, 3421–3426 (1977).

Kock, M.

M. Kock and J. Richter, "Experimentelle Übergangswahrscheinlichkeiten und die solare Häufigkeit des Kupfers," Z. Astrophys. 69, 180–192 (1968).

Kuhne, M.

M. Koch and M. Kuhne, "Hook measurements on a wall-stabilized arc," J. Phys. B. 10, 3421–3426 (1977).

P. L. Smith and M. Kuhne, "Oscillator strengths of neutral titanium from hook method measurements in a furnace. I," Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 362, 263–279.

Lites, B. W.

R. G. Athay and B. W. Lites, "Fe I Ionization and Excitation Equilibrium in the Solar Atmosphere," Astrophys. J. 176, 809–831 (1972).

Loeser, R.

J. E. Vernazza, E. H. Avrett, and R. Loeser, "Structure of the Solar Chromosphere. II," Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 30, 1–60 (1976).

Lombardi, G. G.

G. G. Lombardi, P. L. Smith, and W. H. Parkinson, "Measurement of the photoionization cross section of neutral iron," Phys. Rev. A 18, 2131–2134 (1978).

Marlow, W. C.

McNeil, J. R.

B. E. Warner, D. C. Gerstenberger, R. D. Reid, J. R. McNeil, R. Solanski, K. B. Persson, and G. J. Collins, "1 W Operation of Singly Ionized Silver and Copper Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 568–570 (1978).

F. J. de Hoog, J. R. McNeil, G. J. Collins, and K. B. Persson, "Discharge studies of the Ne-Cu Laser," J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3701–3704 (1977).

J. R. McNeil, G. J. Collins, K. B. Persson, and D. L. Franzen, "Ultraviolet laser action from Cull in the 2500-Å region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 207–209 (1976).

J. R. McNeil, G. J. Collins, K. B. Persson, and D. L. Franzen, "CW laser oscillation in Cu II," Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 595–598 (1975).

Meggers, W. F.

W. F. Meggers, C. H. Corliss, and B. F. Scribner, Tables of Spectral Line Intensities, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Monogr. 32 (U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1961).

Neuhaus, H.

N. Elander and H. Neuhaus, "Various Types of Hollow Cathodes and Absorption in Optical Spectroscopy," Physica Scripta 10, 130–132 (1974).

Parkinson, W. H.

G. G. Lombardi, P. L. Smith, and W. H. Parkinson, "Measurement of the photoionization cross section of neutral iron," Phys. Rev. A 18, 2131–2134 (1978).

F. P. Banfield, M. C. E. Huber, W. H. Parkinson, and E. F. Tubbs, "Instrumentation for Combined Dispersion and Absorption Measurements in the VUV," Appl. Opt. 12, 1279–1285 (1973).

M. C. E. Huber and W. H. Parkinson, "Fe Oscillator Strengths Determined from Anomalous Dispersion of Shock-Heated Gases," Astrophys. J. 172, 229–247 (1972).

Persson, K. B.

B. E. Warner, D. C. Gerstenberger, R. D. Reid, J. R. McNeil, R. Solanski, K. B. Persson, and G. J. Collins, "1 W Operation of Singly Ionized Silver and Copper Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 568–570 (1978).

F. J. de Hoog, J. R. McNeil, G. J. Collins, and K. B. Persson, "Discharge studies of the Ne-Cu Laser," J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3701–3704 (1977).

J. R. McNeil, G. J. Collins, K. B. Persson, and D. L. Franzen, "Ultraviolet laser action from Cull in the 2500-Å region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 207–209 (1976).

J. R. McNeil, G. J. Collins, K. B. Persson, and D. L. Franzen, "CW laser oscillation in Cu II," Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 595–598 (1975).

Reid, R. D.

B. E. Warner, D. C. Gerstenberger, R. D. Reid, J. R. McNeil, R. Solanski, K. B. Persson, and G. J. Collins, "1 W Operation of Singly Ionized Silver and Copper Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 568–570 (1978).

Richter, J.

M. Kock and J. Richter, "Experimentelle Übergangswahrscheinlichkeiten und die solare Häufigkeit des Kupfers," Z. Astrophys. 69, 180–192 (1968).

Rozsa, K.

L. Csillag, M. Janossy, K. Rozsa, and T. Salamon, "Near Infrared CW Laser Oscillation in CuII," Phys. Lett. A 50, 13–14 (1974).

Salamon, T.

L. Csillag, M. Janossy, K. Rozsa, and T. Salamon, "Near Infrared CW Laser Oscillation in CuII," Phys. Lett. A 50, 13–14 (1974).

Sandeman, R. J.

M. C. E. Huber and R. J. Sandeman, "Oscillator Strengths of Cr I Lines Lying between 200 and 541 nm from Hook-Method and Absorption Measurements in a Furnace," Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 357, 335–379 (1977).

Schuebel, W. K.

W. K. Schuebel, "Laser action in AlII and HeI in a slot hollow cathode discharge," Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 516–519 (1977).

Scribner, B. F.

W. F. Meggers, C. H. Corliss, and B. F. Scribner, Tables of Spectral Line Intensities, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Monogr. 32 (U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1961).

Smith, P. L.

G. G. Lombardi, P. L. Smith, and W. H. Parkinson, "Measurement of the photoionization cross section of neutral iron," Phys. Rev. A 18, 2131–2134 (1978).

P. L. Smith and M. Kuhne, "Oscillator strengths of neutral titanium from hook method measurements in a furnace. I," Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 362, 263–279.

Solanski, R.

B. E. Warner, D. C. Gerstenberger, R. D. Reid, J. R. McNeil, R. Solanski, K. B. Persson, and G. J. Collins, "1 W Operation of Singly Ionized Silver and Copper Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 568–570 (1978).

Tubbs, E. F.

F. P. Banfield, M. C. E. Huber, W. H. Parkinson, and E. F. Tubbs, "Instrumentation for Combined Dispersion and Absorption Measurements in the VUV," Appl. Opt. 12, 1279–1285 (1973).

G. D. Bell and E. F. Tubbs, "Revised Absolute ƒ-values for λ3247 of Neutral Copper and λ3720 of Neutral Iron," Astrophys. J. 159, 1093–1100 (1970).

Vernazza, J. E.

J. E. Vernazza, E. H. Avrett, and R. Loeser, "Structure of the Solar Chromosphere. II," Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 30, 1–60 (1976).

Warner, B. E.

B. E. Warner, D. C. Gerstenberger, R. D. Reid, J. R. McNeil, R. Solanski, K. B. Persson, and G. J. Collins, "1 W Operation of Singly Ionized Silver and Copper Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 568–570 (1978).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

W. K. Schuebel, "Laser action in AlII and HeI in a slot hollow cathode discharge," Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 516–519 (1977).

J. R. McNeil, G. J. Collins, K. B. Persson, and D. L. Franzen, "CW laser oscillation in Cu II," Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 595–598 (1975).

J. R. McNeil, G. J. Collins, K. B. Persson, and D. L. Franzen, "Ultraviolet laser action from Cull in the 2500-Å region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 207–209 (1976).

Astrophys. J. (4)

M. C. E. Huber and W. H. Parkinson, "Fe Oscillator Strengths Determined from Anomalous Dispersion of Shock-Heated Gases," Astrophys. J. 172, 229–247 (1972).

G. D. Bell and E. F. Tubbs, "Revised Absolute ƒ-values for λ3247 of Neutral Copper and λ3720 of Neutral Iron," Astrophys. J. 159, 1093–1100 (1970).

R. G. Athay and B. W. Lites, "Fe I Ionization and Excitation Equilibrium in the Solar Atmosphere," Astrophys. J. 176, 809–831 (1972).

F. P. Banfield and M. C. E. Huber, "Oscillator Strengths of Ultraviolet Fe I Lines from Hook-Method Measurements in a Furnace,"Astrophys. J. 186, 335–346 (1973).

Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. (1)

J. E. Vernazza, E. H. Avrett, and R. Loeser, "Structure of the Solar Chromosphere. II," Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 30, 1–60 (1976).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. E. Warner, D. C. Gerstenberger, R. D. Reid, J. R. McNeil, R. Solanski, K. B. Persson, and G. J. Collins, "1 W Operation of Singly Ionized Silver and Copper Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 568–570 (1978).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

F. J. de Hoog, J. R. McNeil, G. J. Collins, and K. B. Persson, "Discharge studies of the Ne-Cu Laser," J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3701–3704 (1977).

J. Phys. B. (1)

M. Koch and M. Kuhne, "Hook measurements on a wall-stabilized arc," J. Phys. B. 10, 3421–3426 (1977).

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

A. Bielski, "A Critical Survey of Atomic Transition Probabilities," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 15, 463–472 (1975).

J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. (1)

C. H. Corliss, "A Review of Oscillator Strengths for Lines of Cu I," J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) 74A, 781–790 (1970).

J. Sci. Instrum. (1)

F. J. P. Clarke and W. R. S. Garton, "Grating spectrophotometer for the Schumann ultra-violet range," J. Sci. Instrum. 36, 403–409 (1959).

Phys. Lett. (1)

L. Csillag, M. Janossy, K. Rozsa, and T. Salamon, "Near Infrared CW Laser Oscillation in CuII," Phys. Lett. A 50, 13–14 (1974).

Phys. Rev. (1)

G. G. Lombardi, P. L. Smith, and W. H. Parkinson, "Measurement of the photoionization cross section of neutral iron," Phys. Rev. A 18, 2131–2134 (1978).

Physica Scripta (1)

N. Elander and H. Neuhaus, "Various Types of Hollow Cathodes and Absorption in Optical Spectroscopy," Physica Scripta 10, 130–132 (1974).

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. (2)

M. C. E. Huber and R. J. Sandeman, "Oscillator Strengths of Cr I Lines Lying between 200 and 541 nm from Hook-Method and Absorption Measurements in a Furnace," Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 357, 335–379 (1977).

P. L. Smith and M. Kuhne, "Oscillator strengths of neutral titanium from hook method measurements in a furnace. I," Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 362, 263–279.

Z. Astrophys. (1)

M. Kock and J. Richter, "Experimentelle Übergangswahrscheinlichkeiten und die solare Häufigkeit des Kupfers," Z. Astrophys. 69, 180–192 (1968).

Other (3)

W. F. Meggers, C. H. Corliss, and B. F. Scribner, Tables of Spectral Line Intensities, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Monogr. 32 (U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1961).

C. H. Corliss, Revision of the NBS Tables of Spectral Line Intensities Below 2450 Å, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Monogr. 32 Suppl., (U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1967).

M. C. E. Huber, Modern Optical Methods in Gas Dynamic Research, edited by D. S. Dosanjh, (Plenum, New York, 1971), pp. 85–112.

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