Abstract

Displaying the point of gaze to the observer in addition to a point target provides a secondary visual feedback (2VFB). Eccentric fixation is achieved using a biased 2VFB to yield an experimentally imposed "eccentric fovea." The target is suddenly moved to a new position and the task is to regain it, in the "eccentric fovea." It is found that the pattern of eye-movement response consistently starts with saccadric foveal exploration of the target, but its latency has twice the duration of a regular voluntary saccade. Practice, however, makes for the shortened latency tending asymptotically to the regular saccadic duration.

© 1979 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Dodge and T. Cline, "The angle velocity of eye movements," Psychol. Rev. 8, 125–157 (1901).
  2. G. Westheimer, "Mechanism of saccadic eye movements," Arch. Ophthalmol. 52, 710–724 (1954).
  3. G. Westheimer, "Eye movement responses to horizontally moving visual stimulus," Arch. Ophthalmol. 52, 932–941 (1954).
  4. L. Stark, G. Vossius, and L. R. Young, "Predictive control of eye tracking movements," IRE Trans. Human Factors Electron. HFE-3, 52–57 (1962).
  5. L. L. Wheeless, G. H. Cohen, and R. M. Boynton, "Luminance as a parameter of the eye movement control systems," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 394–400 (1967).
  6. A. E. Bartz, "Eye-movement latency, duration, and response time as a function of angular displacement," J. Exp. Psy.chol. 64,318–324 (1962).
  7. R. B. Hackman, "An experimental study of variability in ocular latency," J. Exp. Psychol. 27, 548–558 (1940).
  8. W. R. Miles, "The reaction time of the eye," Psychol. Monog. 47, (whole No. 212), 268–293 (1963).
  9. R. W. Buloh, V. Honrubia, and A. Sills, "Eye tracking and optokinetic nystogmus: results of quantitative testing in patients with welldefined nervous system lesions," Annals Oto. Rhinol Laryngol. 86, 108–114 (1977).
  10. K. J. Ciuffreda, R. V. Kenyon, and L. Stark, "Increased saccadic latencies in amblyopia eyes provide further evidence for processing delays over the central retina," (private communication, 1978).
  11. Y. Y. Zeevi, E. Peli, and L. Stark, "A study of eccentric fixation with secondary visual feedback," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 669–675 (1979).
  12. L. R. Young and L. Stark, "A discrete model for eye tracking movement," IEEE Trans. Mil. Electron. MIL-7, 113–115 (1963).
  13. A. T. Bahill, M. R. Clark, and L. Stark, "Dynamic overshoot in saccadic eye movements is caused by neurological control signal reversals," Exp. Neurol. 48, 107–122 (1975).
  14. P. E. Hallett, "Primary and secondary saccades to goals defined by instructions," Vision Res. 18, 1279–1296 (1978).
  15. Statistical trend analysis (see Ref. 16) using F test of the combined delay data (for the three subjects) indicates the existence of a trend—confidence level of 99%. The best fit linear trend is of −11.2 ± 2.1 ms/session.
  16. A. L. Edwards, Trend analysis, in Experimental Design in Psychological Research (Rinehart, New York, 1960).
  17. p. Morasso, G. Sandin, V. Tagliasco, and R. Renato Zaccaria, "Control strategies in the eye-head coordination system," IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. SMC-7, 639–651 (1977).
  18. H. Von Helmholtz, Handbuch der Physiologischen Optik. Translation from German edition, edited by J. P. C. Southall (Dover, New York, 1962).
  19. C. A. Johnson and H. W. Leibovitz, "Practice Effects for Visual Resolution in the Periphery" (private communication, 1978).

1979 (1)

1978 (1)

P. E. Hallett, "Primary and secondary saccades to goals defined by instructions," Vision Res. 18, 1279–1296 (1978).

1977 (2)

p. Morasso, G. Sandin, V. Tagliasco, and R. Renato Zaccaria, "Control strategies in the eye-head coordination system," IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. SMC-7, 639–651 (1977).

R. W. Buloh, V. Honrubia, and A. Sills, "Eye tracking and optokinetic nystogmus: results of quantitative testing in patients with welldefined nervous system lesions," Annals Oto. Rhinol Laryngol. 86, 108–114 (1977).

1975 (1)

A. T. Bahill, M. R. Clark, and L. Stark, "Dynamic overshoot in saccadic eye movements is caused by neurological control signal reversals," Exp. Neurol. 48, 107–122 (1975).

1967 (1)

1963 (2)

L. R. Young and L. Stark, "A discrete model for eye tracking movement," IEEE Trans. Mil. Electron. MIL-7, 113–115 (1963).

W. R. Miles, "The reaction time of the eye," Psychol. Monog. 47, (whole No. 212), 268–293 (1963).

1962 (2)

L. Stark, G. Vossius, and L. R. Young, "Predictive control of eye tracking movements," IRE Trans. Human Factors Electron. HFE-3, 52–57 (1962).

A. E. Bartz, "Eye-movement latency, duration, and response time as a function of angular displacement," J. Exp. Psy.chol. 64,318–324 (1962).

1954 (2)

G. Westheimer, "Mechanism of saccadic eye movements," Arch. Ophthalmol. 52, 710–724 (1954).

G. Westheimer, "Eye movement responses to horizontally moving visual stimulus," Arch. Ophthalmol. 52, 932–941 (1954).

1940 (1)

R. B. Hackman, "An experimental study of variability in ocular latency," J. Exp. Psychol. 27, 548–558 (1940).

1901 (1)

R. Dodge and T. Cline, "The angle velocity of eye movements," Psychol. Rev. 8, 125–157 (1901).

Bahill, A. T.

A. T. Bahill, M. R. Clark, and L. Stark, "Dynamic overshoot in saccadic eye movements is caused by neurological control signal reversals," Exp. Neurol. 48, 107–122 (1975).

Bartz, A. E.

A. E. Bartz, "Eye-movement latency, duration, and response time as a function of angular displacement," J. Exp. Psy.chol. 64,318–324 (1962).

Boynton, R. M.

Buloh, R. W.

R. W. Buloh, V. Honrubia, and A. Sills, "Eye tracking and optokinetic nystogmus: results of quantitative testing in patients with welldefined nervous system lesions," Annals Oto. Rhinol Laryngol. 86, 108–114 (1977).

Ciuffreda, K. J.

K. J. Ciuffreda, R. V. Kenyon, and L. Stark, "Increased saccadic latencies in amblyopia eyes provide further evidence for processing delays over the central retina," (private communication, 1978).

Clark, M. R.

A. T. Bahill, M. R. Clark, and L. Stark, "Dynamic overshoot in saccadic eye movements is caused by neurological control signal reversals," Exp. Neurol. 48, 107–122 (1975).

Cline, T.

R. Dodge and T. Cline, "The angle velocity of eye movements," Psychol. Rev. 8, 125–157 (1901).

Cohen, G. H.

Dodge, R.

R. Dodge and T. Cline, "The angle velocity of eye movements," Psychol. Rev. 8, 125–157 (1901).

Edwards, A. L.

A. L. Edwards, Trend analysis, in Experimental Design in Psychological Research (Rinehart, New York, 1960).

Hackman, R. B.

R. B. Hackman, "An experimental study of variability in ocular latency," J. Exp. Psychol. 27, 548–558 (1940).

Hallett, P. E.

P. E. Hallett, "Primary and secondary saccades to goals defined by instructions," Vision Res. 18, 1279–1296 (1978).

Honrubia, V.

R. W. Buloh, V. Honrubia, and A. Sills, "Eye tracking and optokinetic nystogmus: results of quantitative testing in patients with welldefined nervous system lesions," Annals Oto. Rhinol Laryngol. 86, 108–114 (1977).

Johnson, C. A.

C. A. Johnson and H. W. Leibovitz, "Practice Effects for Visual Resolution in the Periphery" (private communication, 1978).

Kenyon, R. V.

K. J. Ciuffreda, R. V. Kenyon, and L. Stark, "Increased saccadic latencies in amblyopia eyes provide further evidence for processing delays over the central retina," (private communication, 1978).

Leibovitz, H. W.

C. A. Johnson and H. W. Leibovitz, "Practice Effects for Visual Resolution in the Periphery" (private communication, 1978).

Miles, W. R.

W. R. Miles, "The reaction time of the eye," Psychol. Monog. 47, (whole No. 212), 268–293 (1963).

Morasso, p.

p. Morasso, G. Sandin, V. Tagliasco, and R. Renato Zaccaria, "Control strategies in the eye-head coordination system," IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. SMC-7, 639–651 (1977).

Peli, E.

Sandin, G.

p. Morasso, G. Sandin, V. Tagliasco, and R. Renato Zaccaria, "Control strategies in the eye-head coordination system," IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. SMC-7, 639–651 (1977).

Sills, A.

R. W. Buloh, V. Honrubia, and A. Sills, "Eye tracking and optokinetic nystogmus: results of quantitative testing in patients with welldefined nervous system lesions," Annals Oto. Rhinol Laryngol. 86, 108–114 (1977).

Stark, L.

Y. Y. Zeevi, E. Peli, and L. Stark, "A study of eccentric fixation with secondary visual feedback," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 669–675 (1979).

A. T. Bahill, M. R. Clark, and L. Stark, "Dynamic overshoot in saccadic eye movements is caused by neurological control signal reversals," Exp. Neurol. 48, 107–122 (1975).

L. R. Young and L. Stark, "A discrete model for eye tracking movement," IEEE Trans. Mil. Electron. MIL-7, 113–115 (1963).

L. Stark, G. Vossius, and L. R. Young, "Predictive control of eye tracking movements," IRE Trans. Human Factors Electron. HFE-3, 52–57 (1962).

K. J. Ciuffreda, R. V. Kenyon, and L. Stark, "Increased saccadic latencies in amblyopia eyes provide further evidence for processing delays over the central retina," (private communication, 1978).

Tagliasco, V.

p. Morasso, G. Sandin, V. Tagliasco, and R. Renato Zaccaria, "Control strategies in the eye-head coordination system," IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. SMC-7, 639–651 (1977).

Von Helmholtz, H.

H. Von Helmholtz, Handbuch der Physiologischen Optik. Translation from German edition, edited by J. P. C. Southall (Dover, New York, 1962).

Vossius, G.

L. Stark, G. Vossius, and L. R. Young, "Predictive control of eye tracking movements," IRE Trans. Human Factors Electron. HFE-3, 52–57 (1962).

Westheimer, G.

G. Westheimer, "Mechanism of saccadic eye movements," Arch. Ophthalmol. 52, 710–724 (1954).

G. Westheimer, "Eye movement responses to horizontally moving visual stimulus," Arch. Ophthalmol. 52, 932–941 (1954).

Wheeless, L. L.

Young, L. R.

L. R. Young and L. Stark, "A discrete model for eye tracking movement," IEEE Trans. Mil. Electron. MIL-7, 113–115 (1963).

L. Stark, G. Vossius, and L. R. Young, "Predictive control of eye tracking movements," IRE Trans. Human Factors Electron. HFE-3, 52–57 (1962).

Zaccaria, R. Renato

p. Morasso, G. Sandin, V. Tagliasco, and R. Renato Zaccaria, "Control strategies in the eye-head coordination system," IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. SMC-7, 639–651 (1977).

Zeevi, Y. Y.

Annals Oto. Rhinol Laryngol. (1)

R. W. Buloh, V. Honrubia, and A. Sills, "Eye tracking and optokinetic nystogmus: results of quantitative testing in patients with welldefined nervous system lesions," Annals Oto. Rhinol Laryngol. 86, 108–114 (1977).

Arch. Ophthalmol. (2)

G. Westheimer, "Mechanism of saccadic eye movements," Arch. Ophthalmol. 52, 710–724 (1954).

G. Westheimer, "Eye movement responses to horizontally moving visual stimulus," Arch. Ophthalmol. 52, 932–941 (1954).

Exp. Neurol. (1)

A. T. Bahill, M. R. Clark, and L. Stark, "Dynamic overshoot in saccadic eye movements is caused by neurological control signal reversals," Exp. Neurol. 48, 107–122 (1975).

IEEE Trans. Mil. Electron. (1)

L. R. Young and L. Stark, "A discrete model for eye tracking movement," IEEE Trans. Mil. Electron. MIL-7, 113–115 (1963).

IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. (1)

p. Morasso, G. Sandin, V. Tagliasco, and R. Renato Zaccaria, "Control strategies in the eye-head coordination system," IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. SMC-7, 639–651 (1977).

IRE Trans. Human Factors Electron. (1)

L. Stark, G. Vossius, and L. R. Young, "Predictive control of eye tracking movements," IRE Trans. Human Factors Electron. HFE-3, 52–57 (1962).

J. Exp. Psy.chol. (1)

A. E. Bartz, "Eye-movement latency, duration, and response time as a function of angular displacement," J. Exp. Psy.chol. 64,318–324 (1962).

J. Exp. Psychol. (1)

R. B. Hackman, "An experimental study of variability in ocular latency," J. Exp. Psychol. 27, 548–558 (1940).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Psychol. Monog. (1)

W. R. Miles, "The reaction time of the eye," Psychol. Monog. 47, (whole No. 212), 268–293 (1963).

Psychol. Rev. (1)

R. Dodge and T. Cline, "The angle velocity of eye movements," Psychol. Rev. 8, 125–157 (1901).

Vision Res. (1)

P. E. Hallett, "Primary and secondary saccades to goals defined by instructions," Vision Res. 18, 1279–1296 (1978).

Other (5)

Statistical trend analysis (see Ref. 16) using F test of the combined delay data (for the three subjects) indicates the existence of a trend—confidence level of 99%. The best fit linear trend is of −11.2 ± 2.1 ms/session.

A. L. Edwards, Trend analysis, in Experimental Design in Psychological Research (Rinehart, New York, 1960).

H. Von Helmholtz, Handbuch der Physiologischen Optik. Translation from German edition, edited by J. P. C. Southall (Dover, New York, 1962).

C. A. Johnson and H. W. Leibovitz, "Practice Effects for Visual Resolution in the Periphery" (private communication, 1978).

K. J. Ciuffreda, R. V. Kenyon, and L. Stark, "Increased saccadic latencies in amblyopia eyes provide further evidence for processing delays over the central retina," (private communication, 1978).

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